Ertuğrul or Ertuğrul Gazi (Ottoman Turkish: ارطغرل, romanized: Erṭoġrıl; Turkmen: Ärtogrul Gazy; died c. 1280/1281)[8] was a 13th-century bey, who was the father of Osman I.[9] Little is known about Ertuğrul's life. According to Ottoman tradition, he was the son of Suleyman Shah, the leader of the Kayı tribe (a claim which has come under criticism from many historians)[b] of the Oghuz Turks (known as Turkomans by then).[11] These Turkomans fled from western Central Asia to Anatolia to escape the Mongol conquests, but he may instead have been the son of Gündüz Alp.[6][12] According to this legend, after the death of his father, Ertuğrul and his followers entered the service of the Sultanate of Rum, for which he was rewarded with dominion over the town of Söğüt on the frontier with the Byzantine Empire.[8] This set off the chain of events that would ultimately lead to the founding of the Ottoman Empire.

Ertuğrul depicted in 16th-century Ottoman miniature book Sübhatü’l-ahbâr by Derviş Mehmed
Uch Bey of the Sultanate of Rum
PredecessorOffice established
SuccessorOsman I
Diedc. 1280[a]
Söğüt, Sultanate of Rum
Tomb of Ertuğrul Gazi, Söğüt, Bilecik Province
SpouseHalime Hatun (disputed)
Ertuğrul bin Suleyman Shah (ارطغرل بن سلیمان شاہ)
Ertuğrul bin Gündüz Alp (ارطغرل بن گندوزآلپ)
FatherSuleyman Shah or Gündüz Alp[6][7]
MotherHayme Ana[6]

Biography Edit

Nothing is known with certainty about Ertuğrul's life, other than that he was the father of Osman; historians are thus forced to rely upon stories written about him by the Ottomans more than a century later, which are of questionable accuracy.[13][14]

According to the sources written c. 100–150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state, Ertuğrul's lineage is traced to Noah, through Oghuz Khagan.[7] Ottoman historian and ambassador to the Qara Qoyunlu, Şükrullah states that Ertuğrul's lineage goes to Gökalp, a son of Oghuz Khagan. The author states that the information was shown during a court of Jahan Shah, from a book written in Mongolian script.[15]

An undated coin, from the time of Osman, with the text "Minted by Osman son of Ertuğrul", suggests that Ertuğrul was a historical figure.[9]: 31  Another coin reads "Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gündüz Alp",[6][7] though Ertuğrul is traditionally considered the son of Suleyman Shah.[12]

Minted coin by Osman I, indicating the existence of Ertuğrul. The coin reads as follows: Struck by Osman, son of Ertuğrul. May his kingdom perpetuate[16]

In Enveri's Düsturname (1465) and Karamani Mehmet Pasha's chronicle (before 1481), Gündüz Alp is Ertugrul's father. After Aşıkpaşazade's chronicle Tevārīḫ-i Āl-i ʿOsmān (15th century), the Suleyman Shah version became the official one.[17]

Father of Ertuğrul in Osman I's genealogy according to different Ottoman historians

According to many Turkish sources, Ertuğrul had three brothers named; Sungur-tekin, Gündoğdu and Dündar.[3] After the death of their father, Ertuğrul with his mother Hayme Hatun, Dündar and his followers from the Kayı Tribe migrated west into Anatolia and entered the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, leaving his two brothers who took their clans towards the east.[18][19][20] In this way, the Kayı Tribe was divided into two parts. According to these later traditions, Ertuğrul was chief of his Kayı Tribe.[8]

As a result of his assistance to the Seljuks against the Byzantines, Ertuğrul was granted lands in Karaca Dağ, a mountainous area between Diyarbakır and Urfa, by Kayqubad I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum. One account indicates that the Seljuk leader's rationale for granting Ertuğrul land was for Ertuğrul to repel any hostile incursion from the Byzantines or other adversary.[21] Later, he received the village of Söğüt which he conquered together with the surrounding lands. That village, where he later died, became the Ottoman capital under his son, Osman I.[7] Osman's mother has been referred to as Halime Hatun in later myths,[citation needed] and there is a grave outside the Ertuğrul Gâzi Tomb which bears the name, but it is disputed.[22][23]

According to many sources, he had two other sons in addition to Osman I: Saru-Batu (Savci) Bey[24][7] and Gündüz Bey.[2][17][25] Like his son, Osman, and their descendants, Ertuğrul is often referred to as a Ghazi, a heroic champion fighter for the cause of Islam.[26]

Grave of Ertuğrul, Söğüt

Legacy Edit

A tomb and mosque dedicated to Ertuğrul is said to have been built by Osman I at Söğüt, but due to several rebuildings nothing certain can be said about the origin of these structures. The current mausoleum was built by sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842–1918) in the late 19th century. The town of Söğüt celebrates an annual festival to the memory of the early Osmans.[9]: 37 [27]

In 1826, Ertuğrul Cavalry Regiment of the Ottoman Army was named in his honor.[28] The Ottoman frigate Ertuğrul, launched in 1863, was named after him. Abdul Hamid II also had a yacht with the same name.[29] The Ertuğrul Tekke Mosque (late 19th century) in Istanbul, Turkey and the Ertuğrul Gazi Mosque in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (completed in 1998), are also named in his honor. The mosque in Turkmenistan was established by the Turkish government as a symbol of the link between Turkey and Turkmenistan.[30][31]

Ertuğrul is one of several statues that surround the Independence Monument in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The statues depict people praised in the Ruhnama, a spiritual guide written by Turkmenistan president Saparmurat Niyazov.[32] The Ertuğrul statue has also been depicted on a 2001 commemorative coin.[33]

Two statues of Ertuğrul on horseback were placed by a private cooperative housing society in Lahore, Pakistan, in 2020. They were inspired by Diriliş: Ertuğrul, a 2014 TV series.[34][35] A bust of Ertuğrul was erected in Ordu, Turkey, in 2020, but was removed by local authorities after it was pointed out that it resembled the Ertuğrul-actor from the same TV series.[36][37]

In fiction Edit

Ertugrul has been portrayed in the Turkish television series Kuruluş/Osmancık [tr] (1988), adapted from a novel by the same name,[38] Diriliş: Ertuğrul (2014–2019)[39] and the sequel Kuruluş: Osman (2019).[40]

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ 15th century Ottoman historian Neşri mentions that Ertugrul died at the age of 93.[1]
  2. ^ These historians argue either that the Kayı genealogy was fabricated in the fifteenth century, or that there is otherwise insufficient evidence to believe in it.[10]

References Edit

  1. ^ Halil İnalcık (1988–2016). "OSMAN I عثمان (ö. 724/1324) Osmanlı Devleti'nin ve hânedanının kurucusu (1302–1324).". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam (44+2 vols.) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies.
  2. ^ a b c Rosenwein, Barbara H. (2018). Reading the Middle Ages, Volume II: From c.900 to c.1500, Third Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 455. ISBN 978-1-4426-3680-4. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Âşıkpaşazâde, History of Âşıkpaşazâde; & İnalcık, Halil (2007). "Osmanlı Beyliği'nin Kurucusu Osman Beg". Belleten (in Turkish). Ankara. 7: 483, 488–490.
  4. ^ "Ertuğrul" (PDF). 16 December 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  5. ^ "OSMANLI BEYLİĞİ\'NiN KURUCUSU OSMAN BEG - HALİL İNALCIK.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Akgunduz, Ahmed; Ozturk, Said (2011). Ottoman History – Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-90-90-26108-9.
  7. ^ a b c d e Başar, Fahameddin (1995). "Ertuğrul Gazi". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 11 (Elbi̇stan – Eymi̇r) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. pp. 314–315. ISBN 978-975-389-438-8.
  8. ^ a b c Shaw, Stanford J.; Shaw, Ezel Kural (29 October 1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. Retrieved 14 June 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ a b c Finkel, Caroline (2012). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300–1923. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9781848547858. Retrieved 12 July 2019. ....suggests that Ertuğrul was a historical personage
  10. ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it
    • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that...
    • Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement.
  11. ^ Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ... the ancestor of the dynasty was Suleyman Shah, the leader of the Kayi tribe of Turkomans, who ruled the small area of Mahan in northeastern Iran in the late twelfth century. He is said to have fled from the Mongol invasion in the early thirteenth century along with thousands of other Turkomans...
  12. ^ a b Kermeli, Eugenia (2009). "Osman I". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. 444. ISBN 9781438110257. Reliable information regarding Osman is scarce. His birth date is unknown and his symbolic significance as the father of the dynasty has encouraged the development of mythic tales regarding the ruler's life and origins
  13. ^ Lindner, Rudi P. (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780933070127. No source provides a firm and factual recounting of the deeds of Osman's father.
    • Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 60, 122.
  14. ^ The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. 2009. p. 118. ISBN 9780521620932. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  15. ^ AYLA DEMİROĞLU (1988–2016). "BEHCETÜ't-TEVÂRÎH بهجة التواريخ Fâtih devri tarihçilerinden Şükrullah'ın (ö. 864/1459-60) Vezîriâzam Mahmud Paşa adına yazdığı Farsça umumi tarih.". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam (44+2 vols.) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies.
  16. ^ "Akce – Osman Gazi".
  17. ^ a b Lindner, Rudi Paul (2007). Explorations in Ottoman Prehistory. University of Michigan Press. pp. 20–29. ISBN 978-0-472-09507-0. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  18. ^ Heywood, Colin; Imber, Colin (1994). Sammlung (Snippet View). Isis Press, Original from University of Michigan. p. 160. ISBN 978-97-54-28063-0. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  19. ^ Demirbağ, Fehmi. IYI: Ertuğrul Ve İyilik Takımı (in Turkish). Akis Kitap. p. 35. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  20. ^ Cengiz, Oğuzhan (2015). ERTUĞRUL GAZİ KURULUŞ (in Turkish). Bilgeoğuz Yayinlari. p. 170. ISBN 978-60-59-96018-2. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  21. ^ Ali Anooshahr, The Ghazi Sultans and the Frontiers of Islam, pg. 157
  22. ^ Güler, Turgut. Mahzun Hududlar Çağlayan Sular (in Turkish). Ötüken Neşriyat A.Ş. ISBN 978-605-155-702-1. Retrieved 12 March 2020. In the tomb's garden, there is a grave belonging to Ertuğrul's wife, Halime Hâtûn. However, here there must be some information mistakes. The name of the esteemed woman who was the wife of Ertuğrul Gâzi and mother of Osman Gâzi is "Hayme Ana", and her grave is in the Çarşamba village of Kütahya's Domaniç district. Sultan Abdülhamid II, who had the Ertuğrul Gâzi Tomb repaired, also had the Hayme Ana Tomb as good as rebuilt in the same years. Therefore, the grave in Söğüt said to be of Halime Hâtûn, must belong to another deceased.
  23. ^ Lowry, Heath W. (1 February 2012). Nature of the Early Ottoman State, The. SUNY Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780791487266. Retrieved 26 December 2017 – via Google Books.
  24. ^ Abdülkadir Özcan, Prof. Dr; Alaattin Aköz, Prof. Dr; Fahameddin Başar, Prof. Dr; Feridun Emecen, Prof. Dr; Halil i̇Nalcık, Prof. Dr; Mehmet i̇Nbaşı, Prof. Dr; Özen Tok, Prof. Dr; Remzi Kılıç, Prof. Dr; Şefaettin Severcan, Prof. Dr; Muhittin Kapanşahin, Doç. Dr; Bekir Gökpınar, Dr; Demireğen, Ahmet Kerim (2018). İslam Tarihi ve Medeniyeti - 12: Osmanlılar-1 (in Turkish). Istanbul: Siyer Yayinlari. ISBN 978-605-2375-38-9. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  25. ^ Manav, Bekir (2017). Ertuğrul Gazi (in Turkish). Istanbul: Besteller Yayınları. p. 88. ISBN 978-605-2394-23-6. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  26. ^ Southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, 1354–1804, By Peter F. Sugar , pg.14
  27. ^ Deringil, Selim (2004). The Well-protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire 1876–1909. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 31-32. ISBN 978-1-86064-472-6. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  28. ^ Zonaro, Fausto (19 August 2020). "Ertugrul Cavalry Regiment of the Mansure Army". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  29. ^ Langensiepen, Bernd; Güleryüz, Ahmet (1995). The Ottoman steam navy, 1828–1923. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 124, 143, 198. ISBN 0-85177-610-8. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  30. ^ Rizvi, Kishwar (2015). The Transnational Mosque: Architecture and Historical Memory in the Contemporary Middle East. University of North Carolina Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-4696-2117-3. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  31. ^ Ginio, Eyal; Podeh, Elie (2013). The Ottoman Middle East: Studies in Honor of Amnon Cohen. BRILL. p. 225. ISBN 978-90-04-26296-6. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  32. ^ Brummell, Paul (2005). Turkmenistan. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-84162-144-9.
  33. ^ "500 Manat Artogrul Gazy".
  34. ^ Butt, Kiran (25 June 2020). "Pakistan: Locals erect statue of Ertugrul Gazi". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  35. ^ "Popular Turkish TV drama inspires statues in Pakistan". Reuters. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  36. ^ "Historical figure's bust removed after resemblance to an actor". Hürriyet Daily News. 8 June 2020.
  37. ^ "Ertugrul's statue bearing resemblance to Engin Altan removed in Turkey". The News International. No. 10 June 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  38. ^ KUTAY, UĞUR (10 February 2020). "Osmancık'tan ve Osman'a". BirGün (in Turkish). Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  39. ^ Haider, Sadaf (15 October 2019). "What is Dirilis Ertugrul and why does Imran Khan want Pakistanis to watch it?". Dawn. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  40. ^ "Kurtlar Vadisi'nden Kuruluş Osman'a oyuncu mu transfer edilecek? Gündemde göze çarpan iddia..." Haber7com (in Turkish). Retrieved 10 September 2020.

Bibliography Edit

  • Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1.
  • Lindner, Rudi P. (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-933070-12-8.
  • Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7.