The 1250s decade ran from January 1, 1250, to December 31, 1259.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

Events

1250

By placeEdit

WorldEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit
AfricaEdit
OceaniaEdit

By topicEdit

MarketsEdit
  • The Flemish town of Douai emits the first recorded redeemable annuities in medieval Europe, confirming a trend of consolidation of local public debt started in 1218, in Rheims.[5]
  • The Sienese bankers belonging to the firm known as the Gran Tavola, under the steering of the Bonsignori Brothers, become the main financiers of the Papacy.[6]

1251

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

1252

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

1253

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

LiteratureEdit
ReligionEdit

1254

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
CommerceEdit
  • The Rhenish League, confederation of trading cities, is established in the Rhineland, Western Germany. The league (or Städtebund) comprises 59 cities.
LiteratureEdit
MarketsEdit
  • As part of an offensive against usury in north-western Europe, Innocent IV relieves the city of Beauvais from its obligations to its creditors.[57]
ReligionEdit

1255

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit

By topicEdit

Art and CultureEdit
City and TownsEdit
MarketEdit

1256

By placeEdit

Mongol EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
British IslesEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit
  • October – The Japanese Kenchō era ends and the Kōgen era begins during the reign of the 13-year-old Emperor Go-Fukakusa.

By topicEdit

Natural DisasterEdit
ReligionEdit

1257

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
British IslesEdit
  • Battle of Cadfan: An English expeditionary army under Stephen Bauzan is ambushed and defeated by Welsh forces. The English are decimated by devastating guerilla attacks and the Welsh are capture the English supply train. Stephen Bauzan is killed along with some 1,000–3,000 of his men. The remaining English flee the battle, Prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd is said to have been present at the battle, collecting spoils from the fallen English army. According to sources, it is one of the greatest victories of a Welsh army in the field against a much more powerful English force.[68]
  • King Henry III orders the production of a twenty pence, English coin of pure gold. Unfortunately, the bullion value of the coins is about 20% higher than the nominal face value, leading to poor circulation, as coins are melted down by individuals for their gold content.
  • Henry III relents to the demands of his son Edward (the Lord Edward) for assistance to fight the Welsh (see 1256). He joins him on a campaign to retake the territories lost to the Welsh forces led by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd.
  • Battle of Creadran Cille: Norman invading forces under Maurice FitzGerald are driven out by Gofraid O'Donnell in northern Connacht. Later, FitzGerald is killed in personal combat by O'Donnell, on May 20.[69]
LevantEdit
Mongol EmpireEdit
AsiaEdit
  • March – The Japanese Kōgen era ends and the Shōka era begins during the reign of the 14-year-old Emperor Go-Fukakusa (until 1259).

By topicEdit

City and TownsEdit
EducationEdit
LiteratureEdit
  • Matthew Paris, English monk and chronicler, personally interviews Henry III for an entire week while compiling his major work of English history, Chronica Majora.
Natural DisasterEdit

1258

By placeEdit

Mongol EmpireEdit
  • February 10Siege of Baghdad: Mongol forces (some 150,000 men) led by Hulagu Khan besiege and conquer Baghdad after a siege of 13 days. During the first week of February, the eastern walls begin to collapse, and the Mongols swarm into the city, on February 10. Caliph Al-Musta'sim surrenders himself to Hulagu – together with all the Abbasid chief officers and officials. They are ordered to lay down their arms and are massacred. Hulagu imprisons Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death. Meanwhile, massacres continue throughout the whole city. In 40 days about 80,000 citizens are murdered. The only survivors are the ones who are hiding in cellars which are not discovered, and a number of attractive girls and boys who are kept to be slaves, and the Christian community, which takes refuge in the churches who are left undisturbed, by the special orders of Hulagu's wife, Doquz Khatun.[76]
  • February 15 – Hulagu Khan enters Baghdad, where many quarters of the city are ruined by fire. The Great Library (or House of Wisdom) is destroyed, numerous precious book collections are thrown into the Tigris River. Before the siege, about 400,000 manuscripts are rescued by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian polymath and theologian, who takes them to Maragheh (located in East Azerbaijan Province). With the sack of Baghdad ends the Abbasid Golden Age, many professors, physician, scientist, clerics, artist and lectures are massacred.
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
LevantEdit
  • June 25Battle of Acre: The Genoese sends an armada (some 50 galleys) to relieve the blockade at Acre and asks the assistance of Philip of Montfort, lord of Tyre, and the Knights Hospitaller for a combined attack from the land side. The Genoese fleet's arrival takes the Venetians by surprise but the superior experience and seamanship result in a crushing Venetian victory, with half the Genoese ships lost. Later, the Genoese garrison is forced to abandon Acre.[80][81]
AsiaEdit
  • Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Mongol forces (some 30,000 men) under Uriyangkhadai, son of Subutai, invade Vietnam. After many battles, the Vietnam army is routed and defeated. The senior leaders are able to escape on pre-prepared boats, while the remnants are destroyed on the banks of the Red River. The Mongols occupy the capital city, Thăng Long (modern-day Hanoi), and massacred the city's inhabitants, by the end of January.[82]

By topicEdit

GlobalEdit
MarketsEdit
  • In Genoa, the Republic starts imposing forced loans, known as luoghi, to its taxpayers; they are a common resource of medieval public finance.[84]
ReligionEdit

1259

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

1250

1251

1252

1253

1254

1255

1256

1257

1258

1259

DeathsEdit

1250

1251

1252

1253

1254

1255

1256

1257

1258

1259

ReferencesEdit

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