House of Nassau

The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe. It is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The lords of Nassau were originally titled "Count of Nassau", then elevated to the princely class as "Princely Counts". Early on they divided into two main branches: the elder (Walramian) branch, that gave rise to the German king Adolf, and the younger (Ottonian) branch, that gave rise to the Princes of Orange and the monarchs of the Netherlands.

House of Nassau
Arms of Nassau.svg
Armorial of the House of Nassau
Azure billetty or, a lion rampant of the last armed and langued gules
CountryGermany, Netherlands, Belgium, France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Nassau, Orange
Founded1093; 930 years ago (1093)
FounderDudo of Laurenburg
Current headHenri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (in cognatic line)
Estate(s)Nassau Castle
Dissolution1985 (in agnatic line)
Cadet branchesHouse of Nassau-Weilburg
House of Orange-Nassau
House of Nassau-Corroy

At the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, the Walramian branch had inherited or acquired all the Nassau ancestral lands and proclaimed themselves, with the permission of the Congress of Vienna, the "Dukes of Nassau", forming the independent state of Nassau with its capital at Wiesbaden; this territory today mainly lies in the German Federal State of Hesse, and partially in the neighbouring State of Rhineland-Palatinate. The Duchy was annexed in 1866 after the Austrian-Prussian War as an ally of Austria by Prussia. It was subsequently incorporated into the newly created Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau.

Today, the term Nassau is used in Germany as a name for a geographical, historical and cultural region, but no longer has any political meaning. All Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchs since 1815 have been senior members of the House of Nassau. However, in 1890 in the Netherlands and in 1912 in Luxembourg, the male lines of heirs to the two thrones became extinct, so that since then, they have descended in the female line from the House of Nassau.

According to German tradition, the family name is passed on only in the male line of succession. The House would therefore, from this German perspective, have been extinct since 1985.[1][2] However, both Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchial traditions, constitutional rules and legislation in that matter differ from the German tradition, and thus neither country considers the House extinct. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg uses "Duke of Nassau" as his secondary title and a title of pretense to the dignity of Chief of the House of Nassau (being the most senior member of the eldest branch of the House), but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau which is now part of the Federal Republic of Germany.


The area that came to be the county of Nassau was part of the Duchy of Franconia. When Franconia fragmented in the early 13th century with the fall of the Hohenstaufen, Nassau emerged as an independent state as part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Count Dudo-Henry of Laurenburg (ca. 1060 – ca. 1123) (German: Dudo von Laurenburg; Latin: Tuto de Lurinburg) is considered the founder of the House of Nassau.[3][4] Dudo was a son of Rupert (German: Ruprecht), the Archbishop of Mainz's Vogt in Siegerland.[5] Dudo was himself lord or Vogt of Lipporn and Miehlen and owned large parts of the lands of Lipporn/Laurenburg. There are more persons known who, as owners of the lands of Lipporn/Laurenburg (and thus the predecessors of Dudo), probably also were his ancestors. The first is a certain Drutwin mentioned in 881 as a landowner in Prüm, and who is the oldest known possible ancestor of the House of Nassau.[3]

Dudo is mentioned as Tuto de Lurinburg between 1093 and 1117. Dudo built the castle of Laurenburg on the Lahn a few kilometers upriver from Nassau around 1090 as the seat of his lordship.[6] He is first mentioned in a document in the purported founding-charter of Maria Laach Abbey in 1093 (although many historians consider the document to be fabricated). In 1159, Nassau Castle became the ruling seat, and the house is now named after this castle. In a charter dated 1134 (after his death) he is mentioned as Count of Laurenburg.[3]

Laurenburg Castle

In 1117, Dudo donated land to Schaffhausen Abbey for construction of a monastery in Lipporn. Around 1117, Dudo, Count of Laurenburg founded at Lipporn a Benedictine priory dedicated and named for Saint Florin of Koblenz, and dependent on the Benedictine All Saints Abbey in Schaffhausen. About 1126, his son, Rupert I, Count of Laurenburg, the Vogt of Lipporn, established it as a separate and independent abbey.[7] The Romanesque buildings were constructed between 1126 and 1145, presumably with a three-nave basilica. The Abbey included both a monastery for monks and a small, separate one for nuns.[8]

In 1122, Dudo received the castle of Idstein in the Taunus as a fief under the Archbishopric of Mainz. This was part of the inheritance of Count Udalrich of Idstein-Eppstein. He also received the Vogtship of the richly endowed Benedictine Bleidenstadt Abbey (in present-day Taunusstein).[9]

Nassau Castle became the seat of dynasty in 1159.

The Counts of Laurenburg and Nassau expanded their authority under the brothers Robert (Ruprecht) I (1123–1154) and Arnold I of Laurenburg (1123–1148). Robert was the first person to call himself Count of Nassau, but the title was not confirmed until 1159, five years after Robert's death. Robert's son Walram I (1154–1198) was the first person to be legally titled Count of Nassau.

The chronology of the Counts of Laurenburg is not certain and the link between Robert I and Walram I is especially controversial. Also, some sources consider Gerhard, listed as co-Count of Laurenburg in 1148, to be the son of Robert I's brother, Arnold I.[10] However, Erich Brandenburg in his Die Nachkommen Karls des Großen states that it is most likely that Gerhard was Robert I's son, because Gerard was the name of Beatrix of Limburg's maternal grandfather.[11]

Counts of Laurenburg (ca. 1093–1159) and Nassau (1159-1255)Edit

Course of the Lahn River through Nassau and Hesse.
County of Nassau (grey) within the Holy Roman Empire in 1400 A.D.

In 1255, Henry II's sons, Walram II and Otto I, split the Nassau possessions. The descendants of Walram became known as the Walram Line, which became important in the Countship of Nassau and Luxembourg. The descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, which would inherit parts of Nassau, France and the Netherlands. Both lines would often themselves be divided over the next few centuries. In 1783, the heads of various branches of the House of Nassau sealed the Nassau Family Pact (Erbverein) to regulate future succession in their states, and to establish a dynastic hierarchy whereby the Prince of Orange-Nassau-Dietz was recognised as President of the House of Nassau.[12]

The Walramian Line (1255–1985)Edit

Arms with crest and motto
Walramian Nassau Arms with crowned lion
Crowned Lion Arms and crest of the Walram line now seen in the Coat of arms of Luxembourg: "d'azur, semé de billettes d'or, au lion couronné du second, armé, lampassé de gueules.'"[13]

The Walramian Line concentrated their efforts primarily on their German lands. The exception was Adolf, King of the Romans (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) who was the count of Nassau from about 1276 and the elected king of Germany from 1292 until his deposition by the prince-electors in 1298. He was never crowned by the pope, which would have secured him the imperial title. He was the first physically and mentally healthy ruler of the Holy Roman Empire ever to be deposed without a papal excommunication. Adolf died shortly afterwards in the Battle of Göllheim fighting against his successor Albert of Habsburg. He was the second in the succession of so-called count-kings of several rivalling comital houses striving after the Roman-German royal dignity after the expiration the Hohenstaufen. The Nassaus, however, were not on the imperial throne long enough to establish themselves in larger landholdings to increase their hereditary power such as the Luxemburgers did in Bohemia or the Habsburgs did in Austria.

After Gerlach's death, the possessions of the Walram line were divided into Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein.

Nassau-Weilburg (1344–1816)Edit

Flag of Nassau-Weilburg

Count Walram II began the Countship of Nassau in Weilburg (Nassau-Weilburg), which existed to 1816. The Walram line also received the lordship of Merenberg in 1328 and Saarbrücken (by marriage) in 1353. The sovereigns of this house afterwards ruled the Duchy of Nassau from its establishment in 1806 as part of the Confederation of the Rhine (jointly with Nassau-Usingen until 1816). The last reigning Duke, Adolph, became Duke of Nassau in August 1839, following the death of his father William. The Duchy was annexed to Prussia in 1866 after Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War.

From 1815 to 1839, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was ruled by the kings of the Netherlands as a province of the Netherlands. Following the Treaty of London (1839), the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg became independent but remained in personal union with the Netherlands. Following the death of his sons, the Dutch king William III had no male heirs to succeed him. In the Netherlands, females were allowed to succeed to the throne. Luxembourg, however, followed Salic law which barred females from succession. Thus, upon King William III's death, the crown of the Netherlands passed to his only daughter, Wilhelmina, while that of Luxembourg passed to Adolph in accordance with the Nassau Family Pact. Adolph died in 1905 and was succeeded by his son, William IV.

and from 1890 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The branch of Nassau-Weilburg ultimately became rulers of Luxembourg.

Counts of Nassau-Weilburg (1344–1688), Princely counts of Nassau-Weilburg (1688–1816) and Dukes of Nassau (1816–1866)Edit

Duchy of Nassau in 1812 as part of the Confederation of the Rhine.
Duchy of Nassau in 1848.

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (from the House of Nassau-Weilburg) - 1890–1912 and succession through a female onwardsEdit

Religious Lines in the Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau after 1815

Counts of MerenbergEdit

Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is a hereditary title of nobility that was bestowed in 1868 by the reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, George Victor, upon the morganatic wife and male-line descendants of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau (1832–1905), younger brother of Adolf, last Duke of Nassau/Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Nicholas married Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836–1913), former wife of Russian general Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt.

In 1907 Grand Duke Adolph declared the family non-dynastic/morganatic. Had they not been excluded from the succession, they would have inherited the headship of the house in 1912. Georg Nickolaus would have thus become the reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

In 1907, William IV, obtained passage of a law in Luxembourg confirming the exclusion of the Merenbergs from succession to the grand ducal throne. Georg Nikolaus's protests against the Luxembourg Diet's confirmation of the succession rights of William IV's daughter, Princess Marie-Adélaïde, were expected to be taken up by the Netherlands and by the Great Powers which had guaranteed Luxembourg's neutrality in 1867.[14] Nonetheless, Marie-Adélaïde did succeed her father, to become Luxembourg's first female monarch, in 1912. She, in turn, abdicated in favour of her sister Charlotte, whose descendants have reigned over Luxembourg since then. Georg Nikolaus died in 1948. His son Georg Michael Alexander was the last legitimate descendant of the House of Nassau. He died in 1965

Counts of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein (1344–1728)Edit

From the documentary mention in 1102 until 1721, Idstein was, with interruptions, residence of the Counts of Nassau-Idstein and other Nassau lines. One of the Counts was, as said above, Adolf of Germany, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1292 to 1298.

The Nassau Counts' holdings were subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. This yielded an older Nassau-Idstein line from 1480 to 1509, later merging once again with Nassau-Wiesbaden and Nassau-Weilburg and, from 1629 to 1721, a newer Nassau-Idstein line.

In 1721, Idstein passed to Nassau-Ottweiler, and in 1728 to Nassau-Usingen, thereby losing its status as a residence town, although it became the seat of the Nassau Archives and of an Oberamt.

In the 1170s, the Count of Nassau, Walram I, received the area around Wiesbaden as a fiefdom. In 1232 Wiesbaden became a Reichsstadt, an imperial city, of the Holy Roman Empire. Wiesbaden returned to the control of the House of Nassau in 1270 under Count Walram II, Count of Nassau. However, Wiesbaden and the castle at Sonnenberg were again destroyed in 1283 in conflict with Eppstein.

Walram's son and successor Adolf was, as said above, king of Germany from 1292 until 1298. In 1329, under Adolf's son Gerlach I of Nassau-Weilburg the House of Nassau and thereby, Wiesbaden, received the right of coinage from Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian.

In 1355, the County of Nassau-Weilburg was divided among the sons of Gerlach. The County of Nassau's holdings would be subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. Wiesbaden became the seat of the County of Nassau-Wiesbaden under Count Adolf I (1307–1370), eldest son of Gerlach. It eventually fell back to Nassau-Weilburg in 1605.

Counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken (1429–1797)Edit

Philipp I ruled both Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Weilburg and in 1393 inherited through his wife Johanna of Hohenlohe the lordships Kirchheimbolanden and Stauf. He also received half of Nassau-Ottweiler in 1393 and other territories later during his reign. After his death in 1429 the territories around Saarbrücken and along the Lahn were kept united until 1442, when they were again divided among his sons into the lines Nassau-Saarbrücken (west of the Rhine) and Nassau-Weilburg (east of the Rhine), the so-called Younger line of Nassau-Weilburg.

In 1507 Count John Ludwig I significantly enlarged his territory. After his death in 1544 the county was split into three parts, the three lines (Ottweiler, Saarbrücken proper and Kirchheim) were all extinct in 1574 and all of Nassau-Saarbrücken was united with Nassau-Weilburg until 1629. This new division however was not executed until the Thirty Years' War was over and in 1651 three counties were established: Nassau-Idstein, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Saarbrücken.

The county of Saarbrücken in the Rheinland in light yellow.

Only eight years later, Nassau-Saarbrücken was again divided into:

In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen finally inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken, it was (re-)unified with Nassau-Weilburg and raised to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806. The first Duke of Nassau was Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen who died in 1816. Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg inherits the Duchy of Nassau. But, territories of Nassau Saarbrücken was occupied by France in 1793 and was annexed as Sarre department in 1797. Finally County of Nassau-Saarbrücken was part of Prussia in 1814.

After Henry Louis's death, Nassau-Saarbrücken fell to Charles William, Prince of Nassau-Usingen until Adolph came of age in 1805.

Princes of Nassau-Usingen (1659–1816)Edit

The origin of the county lies in the medieval county of Weilnau that was acquired by the counts of Nassau-Weilburg in 1602. That county was divided in 1629 into the lines of Nassau-Weilburg, Nassau-Idstein and Nassau-Saarbrücken that was divided only 30 years later in 1659. The emerging counties were Nassau-Saarbrücken, Nassau-Ottweiler and Nassau-Usingen. At the beginning of the 18th century, three of the Nassau lines died out and Nassau-Usingen became their successor (1721 Nassau-Idstein, 1723 Nassau-Ottweiler und 1728 Nassau-Saarbrücken). In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1816, Nassau-Usingen merged with Nassau-Weilburg to form the Duchy of Nassau. See "Dukes of Nassau" above.

Following Frederick Augustus' death, the princely title was adopted (in pretense) by his half brother through an unequal marriage, Karl Philip. As head of the House in 1907, Wilhelm IV declared the Count of Merenberg non-dynastic; by extension, this would indicate that (according to Luxembourgish laws regarding the House of Nassau) this branch would assume the Salic headship of the house in 1965, following the death of the last male Count of Merenberg.[15]

The Ottonian LineEdit

Arms with crest
Ottonian Nassau Arms
Arms and crest of the Ottonian line (since the 13th century) now part of the Coat of arms of the Netherlands: "d'azur semé de billettes d'or, au lion du même, armé et lampassé de gueules, brochant sur le tout".[13]
the County of Nassau (green) in 1547
Electoral Hesse and the Nassau lands in the earl 19th century showing the multiple divisions based on family lines.

The partition of the county of Nassau between Otto, and his older brother Walram (above), resulted in a permanent division between the 2 branches of the family. The Walramian branch tended to concentrate on their German lands, while the Ottonians, as we will see below, established themselves in the Netherlands and became great magnates, leaders of the Dutch Revolt, the stadtholders of the Dutch Republican government, and eventual kings of the Netherlands. This, however, was not before many divisions and reunitings. The first was between sons of Otto, with the main power base being centered around the caste of Dillenburg:

  • 1255–1290: Otto I, Count of Nassau in Siegen, Dillenburg, Beilstein, and Ginsberg
  • 1290–1303: Joint rule by Henry, John and Emicho I, sons of Otto I

In 1303, Otto's sons divided the possessions of the Ottonian line. Henry received Nassau-Siegen, John received Nassau-Dillenburg and Emicho I received Nassau-Hadamar. After John's death. Nassau-Dillenburg fell to Henry.

Counts of Nassau-DillenburgEdit

The Ottonian portion of the county of Nassau was divided and sub-divided, as shown in the genealogical charts below, several times, so that each son of the previous count would have a portion. Eventually, these lines would all die out in favor of the main branch of the family, which had established themselves in The Netherlands.

Counts of Nassau-BeilsteinEdit

The counts of Nassau in Beilstein were involved mostly in local/regional German affairs in their area of the Rhine.

In 1343, Nassau-Beilstein was split off from Nassau-Dillenburg. After John III's death, Nassau-Beilstein fell back to Nassau-Dillenburg. It was split off again in 1607 (see below) for George, who inherited the rest of Nassau-Dillenburg in 1620.

Beilstein Castle

First Counts and Princes of Nassau-HadamarEdit

First House of Nassau-SiegenEdit

The branch of Nassau-Siegen was a collateral line of the House of Nassau, and ruled in Siegen. The first Count of Nassau-Siegen was Henry I, Count of Nassau-Siegen (d. 1343), the elder son of Otto I, Count of Nassau. His son Otto II, Count of Nassau-Siegen ruled also in Dillenburg. In 1328, John, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg died unmarried and childless, and Dillenburg fell to Henry I of Nassau-Siegen. For counts of Nassau-Siegen in between 1343 and 1606, see "Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg" above.

Netherland Nassaus/Orange-NassauEdit

Breda Castle in the 1550s

The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the elder branch of the Ottonian Line. The connection was via Engelbert I, who offered his services to the Duke of Burgundy, married in 1403 Johanna van Polanen, the heiress of the barony of Breda, the lordship of den Lek and other lands in the duchy of Brabant at the mouth of the Rhine delta and the Scheldt river. As the Scheldt was the main trade artery in the Burgundian/Habsburg Netherlands during the time, the Netherand Nassaus benefitted from the commerce. These lands formed the core of the Nassau's Dutch possessions.

Vianden Castle, Luxembourg, fortress of the Counts of Vianden
William I. "the Silent" (1544–1584), founder of the Netherlands, statue at Wiesbaden

The importance of the Nassaus grew throughout the 15th and 16th century. Henry III of Nassau-Breda was appointed stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht by Emperor Charles V in the beginning of the 16th century. Henry married Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René of Chalon inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange. At René's death in 1544, he left all his lands to his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg, including the sovereign principality of Orange. This "William I of Orange", in English better known as William the Silent, became the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau and the leader of the Dutch Revolt that lead to the formation of the Dutch Republic as a separate sovereign nation.[16]: 10 

Within the government of the Dutch Republic, The Prince of Orange was also not just another noble among equals in the Netherlands. First, he was the traditional leader of the nation in war and in rebellion against Spain. He was uniquely able to transcend the local issues of the cities, towns and provinces. He was also a sovereign ruler in his own right (see Prince of Orange article). This gave him a great deal of prestige, even in a republic. He was the center of a real court like the Stuarts and Bourbons, French speaking, and extravagant to a scale. It was natural for foreign ambassadors and dignitaries to present themselves to him and consult with him as well as to the States General to which they were officially credited. The marriage policy of the princes, allying themselves twice with the Royal Stuarts, also gave them acceptance into the royal caste of rulers.[17]: 76–77, 80 

The house of Orange-Nassau was relatively unlucky in establishing a hereditary dynasty in an age that favoured hereditary rule. The Stuarts and the Bourbons came to power at the same time as the Oranges, the Vasas and Oldenburgs were able to establish a hereditary kingship in Sweden and Denmark, and the Hohenzollerns were able to set themselves on a course to the rule of Germany. The House of Orange was no less gifted than those houses, in fact, some might argue more so, as their ranks included some the foremost statesmen and captains of the time. Although the institutions of the United Provinces became more republican and entrenched as time went on, William the Silent had been offered the countship of Holland and Zealand, and only his assassination prevented his accession to those offices. This fact did not go unforgotten by his successors.[16]: 28–31, 64, 71, 93, 139–141 

Painting by Willem van Honthorst (1662), showing four generations of Princes of Orange: William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II, and William III.

Besides showing the relationships among the family, the tree above then also points out an extraordinary run of bad luck. In the 211 years from the death of William the Silent to the conquest by France, there was only one time that a son directly succeeded his father as Prince of Orange, Stadholder and Captain-General without a minority (William II). When the Oranges were in power, they also tended to settle for the actualities of power, rather than the appearances, which increasingly tended to upset the ruling regents of the towns and cities. On being offered the dukedom of Gelderland by the States of that province, William III let the offer lapse as liable to raise too much opposition in the other provinces.[17]: 75–83 

The main house of Orange-Nassau also spawned several illegitimate branches. These branches contributed to the political and economic history of England and the Netherlands. Justinus van Nassau was the only extramarital child of William of Orange. He was a Dutch army commander known for unsuccessfully defending Breda against the Spanish, and the depiction of his surrender on the famous picture by Diego Velázquez, The Surrender of Breda. Louis of Nassau, Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd was a younger illegitimate son of Prince Maurice and Margaretha van Mechelen. His descendants were later created Counts of Nassau-LaLecq. One of his sons was the famous general Henry de Nassau, Lord of Overkirk, King William III's Master of the Horse, and one of the most trusted generals of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. His descendants became the Earls of Grantham in England. Frederick van Nassau, Lord of Zuylestein, an illegitimate son of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, gave rise to the Earls of Rochford in England. The 4th earl of Rochford was a famous English diplomat and a statesman.

With the death of William III, the legitimate direct male line of William the Silent became extinct and thereby the first House of Orange-Nassau. John William Friso, the senior agnatic descendant of William the Silent's brother and a cognatic descendant of Frederick Henry, grandfather of William III, inherited the princely title and all the possessions in the low countries and Germany, but not the Principality of Orange itself. Orange had been invaded and captured by King Louis XIV in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch War, and again in August 1682, but William did not concede his claim to rule, and recovered the principality via the peace treaties. Louis again invaded and captured the principality in 1702. He enfeoffed François Louis, Prince of Conti, a Bourbon relative of the Châlon dynasty, with the Principality of Orange, so that there were three claimants to the title. The Principality was finally ceded to France under the Treaty of Utrecht that ended the wars with King Louis XIV. Frederick I of Prussia ceded the Principality to France (without surrendering the princely title), though John William Friso of Nassau-Dietz, the other claimant to the principality, did not concur. Only with the treaty of partition in 1732 did John William Friso's successor William IV, Prince of Orange, renounce all his claims to the territory, but again (like Frederick I) he did not renounce his claim to the title. In the same treaty an agreement was made between both claimants, stipulating that both houses be allowed to use the title.[18] John William Friso, who also was the Prince of Nassau-Dietz, founded thereby the second House of Orange-Nassau (the suffix name "Dietz" was dropped of the combined name Orange-Nassau-Dietz).

The Revolutionary and Napoleonic era was a tumultuous episode of the history of both the Ottonian and Walramian branches of the House of Nassau. France's dominance of the international order severely strained the House of Nassau's traditional strategy of international conflict resolution, which was to maintain links with all serious power-brokers through a dynastic network in the hope of playing one off against the other. Despite that both branches of the House of Nassau reinvigorated the dynastic network in the years of liberation, 1812–1814, the post-Napoleonic European order saw both branches set on different historical paths.[19]

After the post-Napoleonic reorganization of Europe, the head of House of Orange-Nassau became "King/Queen of the Netherlands".

Princes of OrangeEdit

Royal Coat of Arms of the Netherlands

Kings and Queens of the Netherlands (from the House of Orange-Nassau-Dietz)Edit

  • 1815–1840: William I, also Duke and Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1840–1849: William II, also Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1849–1890: William III, also Grand Duke of Luxemburg and Duke of Limburg
  • 1890–1948: Wilhelmina

Following defunct German laws that no longer have relevance due to the end of German nobility, the House of Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) has been extinct since the death of Wilhelmina (1962). Dutch laws and the Dutch nation do not consider it extinct.

Younger Lines of the Ottonian House of Nassau, 16th, 17th, and 18th CenturiesEdit

Lands of Nassau in 1789
Lands of Nassau in 1796

When William the Silent inherited the lands of the Netherland Nassaus and the Principality of Orange, the German lands in the county of Nassau went to his younger brother, Jan VI, as shown below, and were subdivided amongst his surviving sons in 1606. A good many of these maintained ties with the Dutch Republic and served as stadholders and officers in the Dutch States Army.

Counts of Nassau-Dillenburg, continuationEdit

The counts of Nassau in Dillenburg were the continuation of the main line of the Ottonian counts of Nassau, although only the 2nd oldest after The Netherlands Nassaus/house of Orange-Nassau. John VI is called the "elder", but this is not in relation to his older brother William the Silent, but in relation to his son, John VII "the Middle" and his grandson, John VIII "the younger". In the male line, the kings of The Netherlands spring from John VI until Queen Wilhelmina abdicated in 1948. John VI played a leading role during the Dutch Revolt: he was the principle author of the Union of Utrecht, which was the constitution of the Dutch Republic. He also served as stadholder of Utrect and Gelderland when they were reconquered from the Spanish. His eldest son, William Louis "Us Heit" (West Frisian for "our father") was Stadholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe, a General in the Dutch States Army and the chief lieutenant of his cousin Prince Maurice of Nassau, in their innovations in military strategy and organization, victories in the field, and governing of the Dutch Republic.

Second House of Nassau-DietzEdit

The counts (later princes in 1650) of Nassau-Dietz continued their service to the Dutch Republic. After the death of William Louis (see Second House of Nassau-Dillenburg) they were usually elected Stadholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe. They also served as senior Generals in the Dutch States Army.

Princes of the House of Nassau-Dietz from the Stadhouderlijk Hof of Paleis in Leeuwaarden, H.Prince of Nassau, Henry Casimir, Prince of Nassau, George, Prince of Nassau, and Willem Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz

In his will, William III appointed John William Friso as his heir in The Netherlands (his lordships being his property to dispose of by law) as well as his heir to the principality of Orange, the principality being a sovereign state, and so his right to appoint his successor. This was contested by the House of Hohenzollern, Kings of Prussia, and not finally settled until the mid 18th century. In any case, the succession was in the title only, as Louis XIV of France had conquered the actual territory.

Second House of Nassau-HadamarEdit

Hadamar Castle

In 1620, the younger line of Nassau-Hadamar was split off from Nassau-Dillenburg, as shown below. John Louis, the first count, was a diplomat, who tried to protect his county from the ravages of the Thirty Years War. In 1647, for his efforts in bringing about peace between Spain and the Netherlands, King Philip IV of Spain appointed him a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece. In addition, as a special thanks for his role in establishing the Peace of Westphalia, he was elevated to the rank of prince in 1650 by Emperor Ferdinand III. He did convert to Catholicism, so that Hadamar was Catholic after that.

Second House of Nassau-SiegenEdit

In 1606 the younger line of Nassau-Siegen was split off from the House of Nassau-Dillenburg for John VII "the Middle". As Dillenburg eventually was inherited by a younger son of John VI (see below), the line of Nassau-Siegen became the elder line of the Ottonian House of Nassau. After John VII of Nassau-Siegen died in 1628, the land was divided:

  • His eldest son, John VIII "the Younger", had converted to Catholicism and joined the Spanish Army. This caused a rivalry between him and his brother John Maurice below. The result was that Siegen was split. John VIII received the part of the county south of the river Sieg and the original castle in Siegen (which after 1695 was called the "Upper Castle"). John VIII was the founder of the Catholic line of Nassau-Siegen.
Sieg River through Nassau
  • John Maurice, who remained Protestant, was a soldier. He received the part of the county north of the Sieg. He was the founder of the Protestant line of Nassau-Siegen and he converted the former Franciscan monastery into a new residence, called the "Lower Castle", which was reconstructed after having burnt down at large parts in 1695. John Maurice spent most of his time away from Siegen, since he was governor of Dutch Brazil and later of the Prussian province of Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg. In 1668, he was appointed first field-marshal of the Dutch States Army, and in 1673, he was charged by the Stadtholder William III to command the forces in Friesland and Groningen, and to defend the eastern frontier of the provinces, again against Van Galen. In 1675, his health compelled him to give up active military service, and he spent his last years in his beloved Cleves, where he died in December 1679. Between 1638 and 1674, his brother George Frederick ruled the Protestant part of the country.
John Maurice of Nassau

In 1652, John Francis Desideratus of the Catholic line was elevated to Imperial Prince. Count Henry of the Protestant line married Mary Magdalene of Limburg-Stirum, who brought the Lordship of Wisch in the County of Zutphen into the marriage. In 1652, John Maurice of the Protestant line was also elevated to Imperial Prince.

In 1734, the Protestant line died out with the death of Frederick William II. Protestant Nassau-Siegen was annexed by Christian of Nassau-Dillenburg and William IV of Nassau-Diez. When William Hyacinth, the last ruler of the Catholic line, died in 1743, Nassau-Siegen had died out in the male line, and the territory fell to Prince William IV of the Orange-Nassau-Dietz line, who thereby reunited all the lands of the Ottonian line of the House of Nassau.

Siegen, Upper Castle
Gozdzki - de Nassau Palace in Warsaw that belonged to wealthy Karolina Gozdzka (1747–1807) and her husband Charles Henry de Nassau-Siegen (1745–1808).[20]
House of Nassau in(zu) Siegen
Elder (Catholic) Line Younger (Protestant) Line Dates
John VII 1606–1623
John VIII 1623–1638
William 1624–1642
John Maurice 1632–1636
John Francis Desideratus 1638–1699
John Maurice 1642–1679
William Maurice 1679–1691
Frederick William Adolf 1691–1722
William Hyacinth 1699–1743
Frederick William II 1722–1734
annexed by Nassau-Dillenburg and Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) 1734
inherited by Orange-Nassau(-Dietz) 1743

Family treeEdit

Family tree of the House of Nassau

The following family tree is compiled from Wikipedia and the reference cited in the note[21]

Dudo of Laurenburg
(c. 1060c. 1123)
Count of Laurenburg
Rupert (Ruprecht) I
of Nassau
(c. 1090c. 1154)
co-Count of Laurenburg
1st Count of Nassau
Arnold I
Count of Laurenburg
(d.c. 1148)
Rupert (Ruprecht) II
Count of Laurenburg
(1154–1158)(d.c. 1159)
Walram I
(French: Valéran)
(c. 1146–1198)
was the first
(legally titled)
Count of Nassau
Henry (Heinrich) I
co-Count of Nassau
(1160 – August 1167)
Rupert (Ruprecht) III
the Bellicose
co-Count of Nassau
Henry (Heinrich) II
the Rich
Count of Nassau
Rupert (Ruprecht) IV
Count of Nassau
Teutonic Knight  
(d.aft. 3 December 1240)
Canon of Mainz Cathedral
Walram II
of Nassau
(c. 1220 – 1276)
Present-day rulers of Luxembourg
Rupert (Ruprecht) V
d.before 1247
Teutonic Knight
Otto I of Nassau
(reigned c. 1247 – 1290)
Present-day rulers of the Netherlands
(c. 1230 – 1309)
Bishop-Elect of Utrecht
(c. 1255–1298)
King of Germany
Henry I
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Emicho I
(d.7 June 1334)
Count of Nassau-Hadamar
extinct 1394
Count Nassau-Dillenburg
Gerlach I
Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden
Walram III
Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden
Otto II
(c. 1305–1350/1351)
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Henry I
Count of Nassau-Beilstein
ext. 1561
Count of Nassau in
ext 1605
John I
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
the Bellicose
(c. 1340–1390)
Count of Nassau-Sonnenberg
John I
(c. 1339–1416)
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Philip I
Count of Nassau in Weilburg, Saarbrücken, etc.
Adolf I
Count of Nassau-Siegen
John II
"The Elder"
(d. 1443)
Engelbert I
(c. 1370/80–1442)
Count of Nassau-Siegen, Baron of Breda
founder of the Netherlands Nassaus
John III
"The Younger"
d. 1430
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Philip II
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
John II
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
ext. 1574
John IV
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Henry II
Count of Nassau-Siegen
John III
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Engelbert II
the Valorious
Count of Nassau and Vianden, Baron of Breda(fr), Lek, Diest, Roosendaal en Nispen and Wouw
John V
Count of Nassau-Siegen
House of Nassau-Weilburg and the Grand Ducal Family of LuxembourgHouse of Orange-Nassau

House of Orange and NassauEdit

A summary family tree of the House of Orange-Nassau[22]

From the joining of the house of Nassau-Breda/Dillenburg and the House of Châlon-Arlay-Orange to the end of the Dutch Republic is shown below. The family spawned many famous statesmen and generals, including two of the acknowledged "first captains of their age", Maurice of Nassau and the Marshal de Turenne.

John V
Count of Nassau-Siegen
Stadholder of Gelderland
John IV
Prince of Orange, 1475–1502
the Rich
Count of Nassau-Siegen 1487- 1559
Henry III
Count of Nassau-Breda
of Châlon
of Châlon
of Châlon
Prince of Orange
William I
"the Silent"
Prince of Orange 1544
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht
John VI
"the Elder"
Stadholder of Gelderland
of Châlon
Prince of Orange
Philip William
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, etc.
Frederick Henry
Prince of Orange
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & etc.
Louise Juliana
married Frederick IV Elector Palatine from whom the British royal family descends
married Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne
Duke of Bouillon
Justinus van Nassau
Admiral & General
Governor of Breda 1601–1625
William Louis
"Us Heit"
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
Ernst Casimir
Count of Nassau-Dietz
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen, and Drenthe
John VII
"the Middle"
Count of Nassau-Siegen
of Nassau
Lord of de Lek
Louis of Nassau
Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd
Charles I
King of England
Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia
Frederick V
Elector Palatine
King of Bohemia
Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne
Vicomte de Turenne & Marshal-General of France
James II
King of England
Princess Royal
William II
Prince of Orange & Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, r.1647
Louise Henriette
married Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
Frederick Nassau de Zuylestein
general of the army
Albertine Agnes
William Frederick
Count —later Prince— of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
Henry Casimir I
Count of Nassau-Dietz
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
John Maurice
"the Brazilian"
Prince of Nassau-Siegen
Governor of Dutch Brazil
Field Marshal of the Dutch Army
Mary II
Queen of England
William III
Prince of Orange 1650
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc, 1672
King of England, 1689
ceded claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713 but kept right to use the title in its German form.
Kings of Prussia and later German Emperors
currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien"
Earls of Rochford in EnglandHenry Casimir II
Prince of Nassau-Dietz
Stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe
John William Friso
appointed heir by William III
Prince of Orange
Stadholder of Frieslandr.1696
Princess Royal of England
William IV
Prince of Orange
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc. 1747
Wilhelmina of PrussiaWilliam V
Prince of Orange
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, etc.
Charles Christian
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Princess Louise
of Orange-Nassau
married Karl, Hereditary Prince of Braunschweig(-Wolfenbuttel)
Prince Frederick
of Orange-Nassau
William VI
Fürst of Nassau-Orange-Fulda
Fürst of Nassau-Orange
Prince of Orange
William I
King of the Netherlands
Frederick William
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Royal Family of the NetherlandsWilliam
Duke of Nassau
Duke of Nassau
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

Illegitimate LinesEdit

Family tree Nassau-den LekEdit
Family tree of the House of Nassau-den Lek
William I
"the Silent"
Prince of Orange 1544, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht
Margaretha van Mechelen
(c. 1580 – 1662)
of Nassau
Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
1618, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, etc.
William of Nassau
"Chevalier de Nassau"
Lord of de Lek
Louis of Nassau
(1602– 1665)
Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd
Isabella van Hornes
Willem Jonker van Nassau
Maurits Lodewijk van Nassau
Lord of den Lecq
William Adrian of Nassau
Lord of Odijk
Elisabeth of Nassau
married Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington
married Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory
(c. 1638 – 1688)
married Aelbert van Ruytenburgh
Henry of Nassau
(1640– 1708)
Lord of Ouwerkerk
Count of Nassau, 1679
Master of the Horse to William III of England
William of Nassau
Barbara of Nassau
Alida of Nassau
John of Nassau
Maurits Lodewijk of Nassau
Lord of den Lek
Lodewijk Adriaan of Nassau
Lord of Odijk
Elisabeth Wilhelmina of Nassau
married her cousin Maurits Lodewijk II van Nassau-LaLecq
Charlotte of Nassau
married her cousin Willem Maurits van Nassau-Ouwerkerk
Isabella of Nassau
married Charles Granville, Earl of Bath
Lodewijk van Nassau
Lucia van Nassau
Henry of Nassau
Earl of Grantham
Cornelis van Nassau
Lord of Woudenberg
Willem Maurits van Nassau
Lord of Ouwerkerk
married his cousin Charlotte of Nassau
Frans van Nassau
Lucia Anna van Nassau
married Nanfan Coote, Earl of Bellomont
Willem Hendrik van Nassau
Lord of Ouderkerk
Anna Isabella van Nassau
married Mattheus Hoeufft Jr.
Hendrik Carel van Nassau
Lord of Beverweerd and Odijk
Lodewijk Theodoor van Nassau
Jan Nicolaas Floris van Nassau
Lord of Ouderkerk
Alida Cornelia van Nassau
Willem Adriaan II van Nassau
Graaf van Nassau, Lord of Odijk, vrijheer van Bergen (1708)
Henry of Nassau
Viscount Boston
Thomas of Nassau
Viscount Boston
Frances of Nassau
married Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) William Elliot of Wells
Emilia Mary of Nassau
Henrietta de Nassau
married William Clavering-Cowper, Earl Cowper
William Henry
Francoise Henriette
Catherina Elisabeth Wilhelmina van Nassau
Lodewijk Theodoor II van Nassau
Lord of de Lek, Lord of Ouderkerk (1762–1773)
Jan Floris van Nassau
Lord of de Lek, Lord of Ouderkerk
Louise Suzanna van Nassau
married Frederik Christoffel, Graaf van Degenfeld-Schönburg (1721–1781)
Willem Lodewijk van Nassau
Vrijheer van Bergen
Wigbold Adriaan van Nassau
Lord of Odijk, etc. and Vrijheer van Bergen
Jan Floris Hendrik Carel van Nassau
Count of Nassau-la Lecq

Family Tree Nassau-ZuylesteinEdit
Family tree of the House of Nassau-Zuylestein
William I
"the Silent"
Prince of Orange 1544
Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht
Margaretha Catharina Bruyns
Frederick Henry
Prince of Orange, 1625,
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, & etc.
Mary Killigrew
daughter of Sir William Killigrew
Frederick of Nassau
Lord of Zuylestein
Hendrik van Nassau
(c. 1650–?1673)
Heer van Leersum
William van Nassau
Earl of Rochford
Anna Nassau de Zuylestein
(c. 1681–?1701)
William Nassau de Zuylestein
Earl of Rochford
Frederik Nassau de Zuylestein
heer van Zuylestein, Leersum en Waayenstein 1709–1738,
Earl of Rochford,1710
Maurits van Nassau-Zuylestein
Colonel, English Army
Maria van Nassau-Zuylestein
married baron Godard Adriaan van Reede (16xx–?1730)
heer van Herreveld and Earl of Athlone, son of Godard van Reede heer van Ginckel (1644–1703)
Elizabeth van Nassau-Zuylestein
(1688–?c. 1720)
married Frederik Christiaan van Reede, baron van Reede, Earl of Athlone
Frederik Hendrik (Henry) van Nassau-Zuylestein
William Nassau de Zuylestein
Earl of Rochford
British courtier, diplomat and statesman
illeg. desc.
Richard Savage Nassau de Zuylestein
Member of Parliament, 1747–1754, 1774–1780
Frederick Nassau[23][24]
Master of St. Osyth Priory
William Henry Nassau
Earl of Rochford
George Richard Savage Nassau
Lucy Nassau
William Frederick Nassau[23][24]
Master of St. Osyth Priory
Ann Nassau[23][24]
John Augustus Nassau[23][24]
Elizabeth Catherina Nassau[23][24]
Mistress of St. Osyth Priory
married John Roberts Kirby
Eliza Nassau[23][24]
Rochford Augustus Nassau[23][24]
Letta Mary Nassau[23][24]
Frederik "Frank" Rochford Nassau[23][24]
Herbert Arthur Nassau[23][24]
Harold Charles Nassau[23][24]
Nellie Nassau[23][24]
Ethel Violet Nassau[23][24]
married Frederick Savage
Doris Elsie Nassau[23][24]
married Stanley Philip Painter
Frederik (Freddie) Herbert Nassau[23][24]
one daughter
Herbert John Nassau[23][24]
2 daughters
Family Tree Nassau-GrimhuizenEdit
Family tree of the House of Nassau-Grimhuizen
William I "the Silent"
(1533–1584), Prince of Orange 1544, Stadholder of Holland, Zealand & Utrecht
Eva Elincx
Justinus van Nassau
Admiral & General, Governor of Breda 1601–1625

Anne, Baronesse de Mérode
jonker van Nassau, heer van Grimhuizen
Louise Henriëtte van Nassau
(1604 – bet 1637/45)
married Henry Philip Herbert lt. col. in Dutch Army,
1 son, Philips Henry Herbert (1634–1657)
Philips van Nassau
(1605 – between 1672/1676)
jonker van Nassau, heer van Grimhuizen, Hoekelom en Wijchen
Justinus II van Nassau
Jonker van Nassau heer van Grimhuizen
Justina van Nassau
married George van Cats (1632 – na 1676) heer van Cats, Coulster en Schagen
Anna Justina van Nassau
married Willem Adriaan II van Horne graaf van Horne, baron van Kessel en heer van Batenburg
Philips van Nassau
died young
Anna Margaretha van Nassau
married (1) Diederik Schenk van Nydeggen heer van Blijenbeek, Afferden en Grubbenvorst
married (2) Johan Gerard van Oostrum heer van Moersbergen, Cattenbroek en Zeist, col in Dutch Army, 2 daughters.

House of Nassau-DillenburgEdit

Family tree of the House of Nassau-Dillenburg

Compiled from Wikipedia and:[25][26]

Johann VI "the Old/de Oude"
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, 1559,
Stadholder of Gelderland
Willem Lodewijk of Nassau "Us Heit"
Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, 1606
stadholder of Friesland and Groningen(1584–1620)
married his cousin Anna van Nassau(1563–1588) d. of William the Silent
John VII
"the Middle/de Middelste" of Nassau-Siegen
Count of Nassau-(in) Siegen
"the Old/de Oude" of Nassau-Dillenburg
Count of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
Philip of Nassau
Dutch States Army officer
Ernest Casimir I
Count of Nassau-(in) Dietz
stadholder of Friesland
Louis Gunther of Nassau
Dutch States Army officer
John Louis of Nassau-Hadamar
Count later Prince (1650) of Nassau-(in) Hadamar
Anne Joanne
married John Wolfert van Brederode, Field marshal Dutch States Army
John Ernst of Nassau
Venetian General
John VIII or II
"the Younger/de Jongste" of Nassau-Siegen
Count of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
r.1623–1632, 1638 South (catholic) Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
William of Nassau
Count of Nassau-(in)Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen
de facto Count and later Prince (1664) of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
r.1632 (all Siegen), 1638 North (protestant) Siegen
Field marshal Dutch States Army commander 1664–1668
Governor of Dutch Brazil
George Frederick of Nassau-Siegen
married Mauritia Eleonora of Portugal, daughter of Emilia of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent and daughter-in-law of António, Prior of Crato
Dutch States Army officer
William Otto
Sophie Margarete of Nassau
married 1656 Count Georg Ernst of Limburg Stirum
Henry of Nassau-Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
John Ernest
John Philip of Nassau-Dillenburg
George II
"the Younger/de Jonge" of Nassau-Dillenburg
Louis Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg
Count later Prince (1654) of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg jointly with Albert from 1623–1626, alone from 1626
Albert of Nassau-Dillenburg
ruled Nassau-Dillenburg with Louis Henry,1623–1626
Maurice Henry of Nassau-Hadamar
Prince of Nassau-(in) Hadamar
John Francis Desideratus of Nassau-Siegen
Count and Prince (1652) of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
Spanish General and Stadholder
Maurice Frederick of Nassau-Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
killed in battle of Kallo
William Maurice of Nassau-Siegen
Count and later Prince (1664) of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
Frederick Henry of Nassau-Siegen of Nassau-Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
George Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg
Hereditary Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg
Adolph of Nassau-Dillenburg
Prince of Nassau-(in) Schaumburg
Francis Alexander of Nassau-Hadamar
Francis Fortunatus of Nassau
William Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen
Prince of Nassau-(in)(South) Siegen
claimed Principality of Orange
principality inherited by Nassau-Deitz (William IV, Prince of Orange), who reunited all of Ottonian Nassau
twin with William Hyacinth
Alexis Anton Christian Ferdinand of Nassau-Siegen
titulair aartsbisschop van Trapezopolis
Francis Hugo Ferdinand Gereon of Nassau-Siegen
Vice-Regent of Nassau-Siegen (1727)
Emmanuel Ignatius of Nassau-Siegen
Baron de Renaix (1699), Prince-Regent of Nassau-Siegen, (1727), Fieldmarshal of the Spanish Army, Knight of the Order of Malta (1697), Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1715), Knight of the Order of St. Hubertus (1720)
Frederick William Adolf of Nassau-Siegen
Prince of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
Dutch States Army officer
Charles Louis Henry of Nassau-Siegen
Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
inherited Nassau part of Shaumburg
Francis Joseph
Maximilian William Adolph of Nassau-Siegen
Frederick William II of Nassau-Siegen
Prince of Nassau-(in) (North/protestant) Siegen
no heirs, principality inherited by William Hyacinth, Prince of Nassau-Siegen
William II of Nassau-Dillenburg
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
inherited part of Hadamar 1711
Christian of Nassau-Dillenburg
Prince of Nassau-(in) Dillenburg
married Isabella of Nassau-Dietz, d of Henry Casimir II, Prince of Nassau-Dietz
Dillenburg divided between William IV, Prince of Orange (Nassau-Dietz) and William Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen
Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen
Russian Admiral
Henry Augustus William of Nassau-Dillenburg

House of Nassau-WeilburgEdit

Family tree of the House of Nassau-Weilburg

Compiled from Wikipedia and these references.[27][28]

For ancestors of the House of Nassau-Weilburg, see House of Nassau#Family Tree

John III
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Louis I
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Philip III
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
Philip IV
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Saarbrucken
Louis II
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Ottweiler
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Weilburg
John Casimir
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
in Gleiberg
William Louis
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
Count of Nassau-Idstein
Counts of Nassau-Idstein
Ernest Casimir
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
John Louis
Count of Nassau-Ottweiler
ext. 1728
Gustav Adolph
Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken
ext. 1723
Count & Prince of Nassau-Usingen
ext. 1816
Count of Nassau-Weilburg
John Ernst
Count & Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Charles August
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Charles Ernst
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau
Charles Christian
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Frederick William
Prince of Nassau-Weilburg
Duke of Nassau
Duke of Nassau 1839–1866
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

The Grand-Ducal Family of LuxembourgEdit

Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
Duke of Nassau r.1839–1866
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Princess of Anhalt-Dessau
William IV
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Marie Anne
Infanta of Portugal
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Prince of Bourbon-Parma
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Princess of Belgium
Prince of Luxembourg
Archduchess of Austria
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Maria Teresa MestreJean
Prince of Luxembourg
Princess of Liechtenstein
Prince of Luxembourg
Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Prince of Luxembourg
Prince of Luxembourg
Princess of Luxembourg
Prince of Luxembourg

Coats of Arms of BranchesEdit

The gallery below show the coats of arms used by the main members of the house of Nassau-Weilburg/Grand Dukes of Luxembourg and the house of Orange-Nassau. The basic family coat of arms of the gold lion rampant and the billets on blue (azure) is in all of them. Their growing complexity and use of crowns shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the family. A much more complete armorial is given at the Armorial of the House of Nassau, and another one at Wapen van Nassau, Tak van Otto at the Dutch Wikipedia.

Arms of the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg
Arms of Adolf of Nassau, King of Germany/King of the Romans) (1292-1298) Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1890-1898) Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1898-2000) Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2000–present) Personal Arms of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2000–present)
Arms of the Princes of Orange
Arms of René of Chalon and Nassau as Prince of Orange 1530–1544 Arms of the Prince of Orange 1544–1582, 1584–1618 Arms of the Prince of Orange 1582–1584, 1625–1702 Alternate arms of the Prince of Orange Arms of William III as King of England, Scotland and Ireland, 1688–1702
Arms of the Kings of the Netherlands
Arms of the King of the Netherlands 1815-1907 Arms of the Queens and King of the Netherlands 1907–present Arms of the Prince of Orange/Crown Prince of the Netherlands, 1980-2013 Arms of the Princess of Orange/Crown Princess of the Netherlands, 2013–present

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated in 1964, but she died in 1985
  2. ^ Clotilde Countess of Nassau-Merenberg is the last patrilineal descendant of the House of Nassau though she descends from a family considered to be non-dynastic
  3. ^ a b c Hesselfelt (1965).
  4. ^ Van de Venne & Stols (1937).
  5. ^ Lück (1981), p. 16–17.
  6. ^ Dek (1970).
  7. ^ Elisabeth of Schönau: The Complete Works, (Anne L. Clark, trans.) Paulist Press, 2000, p. 287, n.162ISBN 9780809139590
  8. ^ Steele, F.M., "St. Elizabeth von Schönau and her Visions", American Catholic Quarterly Review, (James Andrew Corcoran, Patrick John Ryan, Edmond Francis Prendergast, eds.) Hardy and Mahony., 1911, p. 393  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Reuling.
  10. ^ Family tree of the early House of Nassau, retrieved on 2009-01-22.
  11. ^ Table 11, Page 23 and note on page 151, quoted at Genealogy of the Middle Ages, retrieved on 2009-01-23
  12. ^ "The House of Nassau between France and Independence, 1795–1814: Lesser Powers, Strategies of Conflict Resolution, Dynastic Networks".
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