Baiju Noyan or Baichu (Mongolian: ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠨ, Persian: بایجو نویان, Chinese: 拜住; pinyin: Bàizhù; in European sources: Bayothnoy; fl. died c. 1258) was a Mongol commander in Persia, Anatolia and Georgia. He was appointed by Ögedei Khan to succeed Chormagan. He was the last direct imperial governor of the Mongol Near East; after his death Hulagu's descendants inherited domains he once commanded.

Bayçu Noyan
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠨ
AscelinOfCremone.jpg
Ascelin of Lombardia receiving a letter from Pope Innocent IV (left), and remitting it to the Mongol general Baiju (right).
Viceroy of Mongol Empire in Near East
In office
1241–1247
Appointed byÖgedei
Preceded byChormaqan
Succeeded byEljigidei
In office
1251–1255
Appointed byMöngke
Preceded byEljigidei
Succeeded byHulagu
Personal details
Diedc. 1258
Military service
Battles/wars

BackgroundEdit

Baiju belonged to Besut tribe of Mongols and was a relative of Jebe. His father was a mingghan commander under Genghis Khan and he inherited this contingent upon his death.[1]

CareerEdit

Baiju was a second-in-command of Chormaqan and took part in an attack on Jalal ad-Din near Isfahan in 1228. After Chormaqan's paralysis in 1241, Baiju took over his troops and became a tümen commander by appointment of Ögedei Khan.[2] After Ögedei's death, Baiju started to take orders from Batu, former's nephew. Baiju immediately moved against the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, weakening its power at the Battle of Köse Dağ on 26 June 1243. After this battle, the Sultanate became a vassal state of the Mongol Empire and was forced to release David VII Ulu. Baiju demanded the submission of Principality of Antioch too in 1244.[3] He made a raid on Abbasid Caliphate in 1245.[4] He also led Mongol tumens to raid Syria in 1246.

He received ambassadors from Pope Innocent IV in 1247. Embassy was headed by Ascelin of Lombardy and found him at Sisian, on 24 May 1247. Embassy's disrespect and Ascelin's refusal to triple genuflection angered Baiju, he insulted the pope and demanded his submission as well.[5] Ascelin left for Rome on 24 July 1247. Meanwhile he was replaced by new khagan Güyük with Eljigidei. His next two attempts to invade the Abbasid Caliphate in Iraq met less success in 1249–50. He again rose to prominence as Eljigidei and his entire family were purged by Batu for his opposition to election of Möngke Khan in 1251.

Under Baiju in the 1240s and 1250s, the Mongols retained their power in what is roughly modern-day Iran, and tolerated the independence of the Sultanate, Georgia, and petty states in Iran as clients, interfering with dynastic succession and extracting tribute militarily as necessary. However, the Abbasids in Baghdad and the Assassins in the Elbruz mountains maintained their independence until the coming of Hülegü, Möngke's brother, in 1255. Baiju was supposedly reproached by Hulegu for failing to extend Mongol power further, and, indeed, was replaced by him as supreme commander as early as 1255, but served under him ably in further campaigns: against the Sultanate of Rum (to extract tribute and replace the sultan Kaykavus II) in 1256, in the assault on Baghdad in 1258, and in the advance on Syria towards Egypt[citation needed] in September 1259.

It is unclear what happened to Baiju after that: when the Mongol force was heavily depleted by the departure of Hülegü in 1260, the force that remained was commanded by Kitbuqa. According to various sources Baiju was executed by Hülegü after the capture of Baghdad due to his hesitation to join Hulagu during the campaign and his secret correspondence with Caliph Al-Musta'sim.[6]

Portrayal in mediaEdit

  • 2015–2016 — Portrayed by Barış Bağcı in Turkish historical drama series Diriliş: Ertuğrul where he was referred to as Noyan, although Noyan was traditionally implemented as a Mongol military title.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ May 2016, p. 67
  2. ^ Hope 2016, p. 96
  3. ^ "BĀYJŪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  4. ^ May 2016, p. 68
  5. ^ Roux 1985, pp. 97–98
  6. ^ "Erken Dönem Memlük Tarihçilerinin Bağdat'ın Moğollar Tarafından İstilasıyla Alakalı Rivayet ve Yorumları, İslam Medeniyetinde Bağdat Uluslararası Sempozyumu, 7/9 Kasım 2008, İstanbul, Fatih Yahya AYAZ" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2015.

ReferencesEdit

  • Mohammed Amirul Islam Illustrated History of the Middle Ages, 1250–1520
  • Claude Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey
  • Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes
  • May, Timothy (2016), The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781610693400
  • Hope, Michael (2016), Power, Politics, and Tradition in the Mongol Empire and the Īlkhānate of Iran, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780198768593
  • Roux, Jean-Paul (1985), Les explorateurs au Moyen-Age, Fayard, ISBN 2-01-279339-8