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Kenilworth (/ˈkɛnɪlwərθ/ KEN-il-wərth) is a town and civil parish in Warwickshire, England, about 6 miles (10 km) south-west of the centre of Coventry, 5 miles (8 km) north of Warwick and 90 miles (140 km) north-west of London. The town is on Finham Brook, a tributary of the River Sowe, which joins the River Avon about 2 miles (3 km) north-east of the town centre. The 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 22,413.[1] Kenilworth is noted for the extensive ruins of Kenilworth Castle. Other sights include the ruins of Kenilworth Abbey in Abbey Fields park, St Nicholas' Parish Church and the town's clock tower.

Kenilworth
Kenilworth ClockTower SSE.jpg
Clock tower at the junction of The Square, Smalley Place and Abbey End
Kenilworth is located in Warwickshire
Kenilworth
Kenilworth
Location within Warwickshire
Population22,413 (2011 Census)[1]
OS grid referenceSP2971
Civil parish
  • Kenilworth
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townKenilworth
Postcode districtCV8
Dialling code01926
PoliceWarwickshire
FireWarwickshire
AmbulanceWest Midlands
EU ParliamentWest Midlands
UK Parliament
Websitehttps://www.kenilworthweb.co.uk/
List of places
UK
England
Warwickshire
52°20′28″N 1°33′58″W / 52.341°N 1.566°W / 52.341; -1.566Coordinates: 52°20′28″N 1°33′58″W / 52.341°N 1.566°W / 52.341; -1.566

HistoryEdit

 
Kenilworth Castle

A settlement existed at Kenilworth by the time of the 1086 Domesday Book, which records it as Chinewrde, meaning "farm of a woman named Cynehild".

Geoffrey de Clinton (died 1134) initiated the building of an Augustinian priory in 1122,[2] which coincided with his initiation of Kenilworth Castle.[3] The priory was raised to the rank of an abbey in 1450[2] and suppressed with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 1530s. Thereafter, the abbey grounds next to the castle were made common land in exchange for what Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester used to enlarge the castle. Only a few walls and a storage barn of the original abbey survive.

Just off Coventry Road in Kenilworth is a field called Parliament Piece. This may be where Henry III held a Parliament in August 1266, while his troops besieged Kenilworth Castle, where the late Simon de Montfort's followers, led by Henry de Hastings, were still holding out against the king's forces. This Parliament led to the Dictum of Kenilworth: a settlement that offered the rebels a way of recovering the lands that the Crown had seized from them. One copy of the Dictum is endorsed in castris apud Kenilworth — "in the camp (or castle) at Kenilworth".[citation needed] Members of the public have free access to Parliament Piece, which is owned by the Open Spaces Society and leased to Warwick District Council.

Geoffrey de Clinton had a deer park created near Kenilworth.[2] In 1488 Ralph, abbot of Kenilworth Abbey had 40 acres (16 ha) of land near Redfern, north-west of the town, emparked as Duck Park,[2] which despite its name was a deer park. By about 1540 there were eight deer parks near Kenilworth.[2] Another near Rudfen was a 30-acre (12 ha) park that was called Little Park in 1581. It was owned by Robert Briscoe in 1649 and was still called Briscoe's Park in 1785.[2] One of the eight deer parks, The Chase, can still be traced. The eastern part of its park pale is about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the castle, while the northern part forms the boundary between Chase Wood and the farm road and bridleway between Little Chase Farm and Warrior's Lodge Farm.

In about 1414 Henry V had le plesans en marais[4] — "The Pleasaunce in the Marsh"[2] — built about 0.5 miles (800 m) west of the castle.[5] This was a timber-framed banqueting house surrounded by a moated earthwork about 600 feet (180 m) by 500 feet (150 m), which 15th-century kings used instead of the Castle's state apartments.[5] In the 16th century, Henry VIII had the banqueting house demolished[5] and the materials reused for timber-framed buildings inside the castle.[2] The mere was drained in 1649, but "The Pleasaunce" earthworks survive as a Scheduled Monument.[4]

 
The parish church of St Nicholas, where Elizabeth I worshipped in 1575 and James I visited in 1616

Elizabeth I visited Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester at Kenilworth Castle several times, the last in 1575. Dudley entertained the Queen with pageants and banquets costing some £1,000 per day that surpassed anything seen in England before.[6][7] These included fireworks.[8]

Warwick District Council owns and manages land across the Coventry Road at Tainter's Hill. This public open space was designated "for the poor of the parish" under an inclosure act in 1756 and is registered as common land. In 1778 Kenilworth windmill was built. Later turned into the town's water tower, it is now a private home, shorn of its sails.

In 1844 the London and Birmingham Railway opened the Coventry to Leamington Line, including Kenilworth railway station. The L&NWR had a new station built in 1883 and a new link line between Kenilworth and Berkswell in 1884 to bypass Coventry. This closed to all traffic on 3 March 1969.[9] British Rail withdrew passenger services from the Coventry to Leamington Line and closed Kenilworth Station in January 1965 in line with The Reshaping of British Railways report. In May 1977, British Rail reinstated passenger services, but did not reopen Kenilworth station, which became derelict and was eventually demolished. In 2011 Warwick Council granted John Laing plc planning permission to build a new station,[10] which was to open in 2013.[11][12] However, this was postponed by four years to December 2017.[13] In 2018, a track from Coventry was opened. There is also a track from Leamington. The train has a single carriage.

The railway in the 19th century brought industrialists from Birmingham and Coventry, to develop the residential area around the town's railway station.[citation needed] In the 19th century the town had some fine large mansions with landscaped gardens; these were demolished after the First World War and Second World War for housing developments. The names of them survive in the names of some roads and areas. For example, Towers Close was built on the grounds of Rouncil Towers. Some large trees from their grounds survive, including giant sequoias from the Moorlands and Rouncil Towers.

 
Parish church of St John the Evangelist

The town's growth occasioned the addition of a second Church of England parish church, St John's, which is on Warwick Road in Knights Meadow. It was designed by Ewan Christian and built in 1851–1852 as a Gothic Revival building with a south-west bell tower and broach spire.[14]

After 1883, the 1844 station in Warwick Road was partly rebuilt at the far end of Station Road behind the King's Arms and Castle Hotel. Both station and hotel were demolished in 1983, but some railway stonework remains. The old King's Arms exterior was copied and reopened in 2007 as a chain restaurant. It has distinctive pillars on its Warwick Road frontage. Sir Walter Scott stayed in the hotel when working on his novel Kenilworth.[15]

In 1884 the Parish Church of St Nicholas set up a mission room above the Co-Op in Park Road.[16] It attracted a congregation of 150 and in 1885 moved to new premises.[16] In 1905 it moved again to a "tin tabernacle" iron building newly erected in Albion Street and consecrated as Saint Barnabas Mission Church,[16] a daughter church of St Nicholas.

The railway boosted Kenilworth's market gardening.[citation needed] There were reputedly 40 nurseries growing market-garden produce in Kenilworth, but all have now been redeveloped for housing. The last was Guest's Nursery, which was developed as 23 houses in 2002. The Victorian era saw much expansion of the town to the west of Abbey Fields and on land around Warwick Road. Most buildings along Warwick Road date from this period and later, but a few earlier cottages survive.[citation needed]

The former mansion in Forrest Road, built around 1901, still stands. It is believed that a William Forrest bought the surrounding land, except that of the terrace to the north of Abbey End, and built the house either for himself or for his family. The house was split into three separate residential lots in the 1970s, the main part forming Hillcrest, the west wing with the main grand staircase and gardens Max Gate, and the billiard room the bungalow South Brent. The old landscaped gardens to the east and west of the property have been built over for housing, but the south and north gardens still belong to the house. Some features have been lost during the transition internally, but externally the house still has its grand bay windows, tiled walls, high chimney stacks and other features, which can be seen in the new flats, Mulberry Court on Abbey End. Warwick Road is now the main commercial centre of the town.[citation needed]

Most older buildings in Kenilworth are found in Castle Green, New Row and High Street, which has long-established shops. The age of the buildings makes it appear that this is the original settlement, but in fact it is simply the oldest part still in existence. The original settlement along present-day Warwick Road has been redeveloped continually since the 12th century and retains few original buildings. Many houses around Castle Green are built of stone salvaged in the 17th century, when the castle walls were slighted after the English Civil War.[citation needed]

In May 1961, the Kenilworth Society was formed over concerns about a group of 17th-century listed cottages adjacent to Finham Brook in Bridge Street.[17] It sets out to promote awareness of Kenilworth's character and encourage its preservation.

Kenilworth was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide outbreak on that day.[18]

Modern KenilworthEdit

 
Warwick Road on the B4103, the main road through Kenilworth, near the parish church of St John the Evangelist

Modern Kenilworth is a dormitory town for commuters to Coventry and also Birmingham and Leamington Spa. Despite its proximity to the University of Warwick at Gibbet Hill in Coventry, it has only a small university population of mostly postgraduates and staff.

In 2008, Waitrose opened a supermarket in Kenilworth,[19] and hardware chain Robert Dyas opened a new-format store in November 2011. There are plans to renovate the existing public library. The town's old youth centre was demolished in 2007 to make way for a supermarket, and a new one was built. The Cross, a pub-restaurant, received a Michelin star in 2014.[20]

In the centre of Kenilworth stands a Kugel ball water feature, called the Millennium Globe.[21]

Since 2010, Kenilworth has belonged to Kenilworth and Southam constituency.

Districts within the town include Abbey End, Castle End, Castle Green, Crackley, Knight's Meadow, Ladyes Hill, St Johns, Whitemoor and Windy Arbour.

TransportEdit

The A46 bypass opened in June 1974.[22] Both Birmingham International Airport and the M6, M42 and M40 motorways are within 10 miles (16 km) of the town.

 
The new Kenilworth station, reopened in 2018.

There is a regular bus service to Coventry and Leamington Spa railway stations; Warwick Parkway is 11–14 minutes' drive away. In June 2013 the government announced it would grant £5 million for the reopening of Kenilworth Station, about half the proposed total cost.[23] The station, opened on 30 April 2018, has direct links to Coventry and Leamington Spa.[24]

In 2019, West Midlands Trains connected Kenilworth directly to Nuneaton via Coventry for the first time in 54 years, merging the two shuttle services on weekdays and Saturdays into one service. The original change in Coventry remains on Sunday, with an hourly service in each direction.[25]

SportsEdit

Kenilworth Town FC, in Gypsy Lane south of the town, played in the Midland Combination until June 2011, when it resigned,[26] preferring to spend money on ground improvements rather than fielding a team. It re-entered the English football pyramid in the 2013–2014 season and was placed in the Midland Football League Division 3, the 12th highest tier in the English league system.

Kenilworth Wardens FC[27] is based at Kenilworth Wardens,[28] a Community Amateur Sports Club in Glasshouse Lane to the east of the town.

Kenilworth RFC[29] is the town's rugby union club. It fields three senior sides and hosts a large minis, juniors and colts section. The ground is also located in Glasshouse Lane.

Kenilworth Tennis, Squash and Croquet Club,[30] in Crackley Lane, has nine tennis courts, five squash and racketball courts and two croquet lawns.

Kenilworth has two cricket clubs. Kenilworth Wardens[31] in Glasshouse Lane fields five senior teams and a juniors section starting from seven years old. Kenilworth Cricket Club[32] fields three senior teams and plays at the Warwick Road ground.

Kenilworth Runners[33] meets at the Wardens. It caters for runners of all ages and abilities.

Octavian Droobers is the local orienteering club, using maps of Abbey Fields and Kenilworth Common on which to stage events.

Kenilworth Wheelers,[34] meets all the year round on Saturday and Sunday morning for a road ride. During the summer months, regular evening training rides cater for all abilities from novice to racer.

Abbey Fields Swimming Pool is in Abbey Fields. It has a 25 m x 10 m indoor pool and an outdoor pool open from May to September. It is home to Kenilworth Swimming Club and Kenilworth Masters Swimming Club.[35]

Kenilworth Golf Club[36] features a mature 18-hole parkland course, plus a small six-hole par 3 course.

Castle Farm Recreation Centre has a four-court badminton hall suitable for basketball, volleyball, netball, table tennis, short mat bowls and children's parties. It is available for use by the public and by sports clubs that make block bookings throughout the year.

Two Castles RunEdit

The Two Castles Run began in 1983 as a fun run between Warwick Castle and Kenilworth Castle.[37] It has grown into an English Athletics-licensed[38] run with 3,000 entrants in 2010. In 2010 and 2011 it held the Warwickshire Amateur Athletic Association 10 Kilometre Championship. In 2012 all 4,000 places were sold within 25 hours. The race is organised each June by Kenilworth Rotary Club[39] in conjunction with the Leamington Cycling and Athletic Club[40][41]

ArtsEdit

TheatresEdit

The Talisman Theatre, founded as Talisman Players in 1942, moved to its current 156-seat premises in Barrow Road in 1969.[42] It won eight NODA awards between 2004 and 2014.[43]

The Priory Theatre, founded in 1932 as the Kenilworth Players,[44] uses the former Unitarian/Christadelphian chapel, a Gothic Revival building[2] dating from 1816, which was converted into a 119-seat theatre building in 1945–1946.[44] It was gutted by fire in 1976, but restored and reopened in September 1978.[44]

Kenilworth Arts FestivalEdit

The first Kenilworth Festival was held in 1935. After a 70-year interval, it was revived locally in 2005. Between 2005 and 2015, events were held almost every year, with varying success.[45] The company became a social enterprise in 2010.[46] In 2015/16, a new team oversaw a change in direction, with a new name, branding and mission statement, as Kenilworth Arts Festival, its focus being to "celebrate and support high quality, original work within the contemporary arts."

The inaugural Kenilworth Arts Festival, in September 2016, featured singer-songwriters Rachel Sermanni and Luke Jackson, jazz pianist Jason Rebello, BAFTA fellow Andrew Davies, classical duo the Ayoub Sisters, nature-writer Rob Cowen, and poets David Morley, Sarah Howe, Jo Bell and Luke Kennard. The second edition of the festival took place in September 2017, with well-known participants including singer-songwriter John Smith, pianist Gwilym Simcock, nature writer Alys Fowler and novelists Kit de Waal and Sarah Moss.

In 2018, Kenilworth Arts Festival expanded to 10 days, running from 20–29 September. The festival featured over 30 events, with headliners including American musicians S. Carey and Jesca Hoop; pianist Zoe Rahman; nature writer John Lewis-Stempel and novelists Kamila Shamsie, Donal Ryan, Kit de Waal, Fiona Mozley and Kiran Millwood Hargrave. The festival secured funding from Arts Council England.

Kenilworth Arts Festival is due to take place on 19–28 September 2019.

Notable peopleEdit

In order of birth:

Twin townsEdit

Kenilworth is twinned with:

Kenilworth has friendship links with:

ReferencesEdit

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SourcesEdit

External linksEdit