Eastern Anatolia Region

The Eastern Anatolia Region (Turkish: Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey. The most populous province in the region is Van Province. Other populous provinces are Malatya, Erzurum and Elazığ.

Eastern Anatolia Region
Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi
Location of Eastern Anatolia Region
 • Total165,436 km2 (63,875 sq mi)
 • Total6,513,106
 • Density39/km2 (100/sq mi)

It is bordered by the Black Sea Region and Georgia in the north, the Central Anatolia Region in the west, the Mediterranean Region in the southwest, the Southeastern Anatolia Region and Iraq in the south, and Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran in the east.

Mount Ararat

The region encompasses most of Western Armenia and had a large population of indigenous Armenians until the Armenian genocide. The Anatolia peninsula historically never encompassed what is now called "Eastern Anatolia" which was, instead, referred to as the Armenian highlands. It was renamed by the newly founded Turkish Republic in the 1920s.[1] This has been seen as an attempt by Turkey to erase the Armenian history of the region.[2][3]

It has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, and lowest population density of the seven Turkish regions.

Etymology edit

Following the Armenian genocide and establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the territory known as the Armenian Highlands (or Western Armenia) were renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the Turkish government.[4][5][3]

The English-language name Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) derives from the Greek Ἀνατολή (Anatolḗ) meaning "the East" and designating (from a Greek point of view) eastern regions in general.[6][7] Traditionally, Anatolia was considered to be a peninsula the eastern boundary of which was a line from the Black Sea to the Gulf of Alexandretta, which is to the west of what is now the Eastern Anatolia Region.[8][9] As a geographical term, this definition continues to be used.[10]

Historically, the region was referred to as the Armenian highlands or Western Armenia. In 1923, the newly founded Republic of Turkey renamed the territory "Eastern Anatolia" as part of a wider policy of removing all non-Turkish names of places following the Armenian genocide.[4][5][3][11] Beginning in 1880, the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official documents of the Ottoman Empire, in an attempt to play down the role of Armenians in the region.[3][12][11] The government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia with such terms as "Kurdistan" or "Anatolia". The Sublime Porte believed there would be no Armenian question if there was no Armenia. The process of "nationalization" of toponyms was continued and gained momentum under the Kemalists after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.[4][5][3][11]

The region encompasses most of Western Armenia (Armenian: Արեւմտյան Հայաստան) and had a large population of indigenous Armenians until the Armenian genocide. The Anatolia peninsula never encompassed what is now called "Eastern Anatolia", which has been seen as an attempt by Turkey to erase the Armenian history of the region.[3][11]

Subdivision edit

Eastern Anatolia Region has four subdivisions:

  • Upper Euphrates division (Turkish: Yukarı Fırat Bölümü)
  • Erzurum-Kars division (Turkish: Erzurum-Kars Bölümü)
  • Upper Murat-Van division (Turkish: Yukarı Murat-Van Bölümü)
  • Hakkari division (Turkish: Hakkari Bölümü)

Provinces edit

Provinces that are entirely in the Eastern Anatolia Region:

Provinces that are mostly in the Eastern Anatolia Region:

Location and borders edit

The Eastern Anatolia Region is located in the easternmost part of Turkey. It is bounded by Turkey's Central Anatolia Region to the west; Turkey's Black Sea Region to the north; Turkey's Southeast Anatolia Region and Iraq to the south; and Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia to the east, where Eastern Anatolia overlaps and converges with the South Caucasus region and Lesser Caucasus mountain plateau.

The area of the region is 164,330 km2 (63,450 sq mi), which comprises 20.9% of the total area of Turkey.

Panoramic view of Ani in Kars

Population edit

The total population of the region is 5,966,101 (2019 estimate), down from 6,100,000 at the 2000 census. The population density (40 inhabitants per square kilometre (100/sq mi)) is lower than the average for Turkey (98/km2 (250/sq mi)).[citation needed] The region has the second most rural population in Turkey after the Black Sea region. Migration, especially to Marmara Region, is high. Migration to other regions and abroad is higher than the natural population increase. Until the Armenian genocide, the region also had a large population of indigenous Armenians, when it was also known as Western Armenia, and in addition had significant minorities of Georgians, Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks.[13][14][15]

Geography edit

The average altitude is 2,200 m (7,200 ft). Major geographic features include plains, plateaus and massifs. There is some volcanic activity today.

Lakes and rivers edit

Lake Akdoğan
  • Located in the Eastern Anatolia Region Aras and Kura rivers flooded the shed outside the territory of Turkey to the Caspian Sea. Euphrates, the Tigris and the Zab river waters are poured back onto the Persian Gulf Turkey outside.
  • The regime of the streams of the region is irregular. This is because; the irregularity of the precipitation regime and the fall of winter precipitation in the form of snow. As the snow falls on the ground for a long time without melting, the flow rates of the rivers decrease. The snow melting in spring and summer causes streams to increase their flow rates and flow enthusiastically. On the other hand, the rivers of the region have high hydroelectric energy potential. The reason for this is that it has high elevations and slopes.
  • Lakes were formed on the fault lines throughout the region. Turkey's largest lake, Lake Van along with Lake Çıldır, Lake Nazik, Lake Erçek, Lake Hazar, Lake Balık, Lake Haçlı and Lake Akdoğan are located within the region.

Massifs and mountains edit

Plateaus and plains edit

Lakes edit

Rivers edit

Climate and nature edit

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Turkish State Meteorology[17]
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Since most of the region is far from the sea, and has high altitude, it has a harsh continental climate with long winters and short summers. During the winter, it is very cold and snowy, during summer the weather is cool in the highlands and warm in the lowlands.

The region's annual temperature difference is the highest in Turkey. Some areas in the region have different microclimates. As an example, Iğdır (near Mount Ararat) has a milder climate.

The region contains 11% percent of the total forested area of Turkey, and it is rich in native plants and animals. Oak and yellow pine trees form the majority of the forests.

The region has high potential for hydroelectric power.[18]

Gallery edit

Endnotes edit

  1. ^ Helft, Susan (2020). "The Past, Present and Future of the Canon of Ancient Anatolian Art". In Gansell, Amy Rebecca; Shafer, Ann (eds.). Testing the Canon of Ancient Near Eastern Art and Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-19-067316-1.
  2. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1997). "Etiology and Sequelae of the Armenian Genocide". In Andreopoulos, George J. (ed.). Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8122-1616-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Cheterian, Vicken (2015). Open Wounds: Armenians, Turks and a Century of Genocide. Oxford and New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-84904-458-5. As a result of policies such as these, the expression Armenian Plateau, which had been used for centuries to denote the mountainous highlands around Lake Van and Lake Sevan, was eliminated and replaced by the expression 'eastern Anatolia'.
  4. ^ a b c Sahakyan, Lusine (2010). Turkification of the Toponyms in the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey. Montreal: Arod Books. ISBN 978-0-9699879-7-0.
  5. ^ a b c Hovannisian, Richard (2007). The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4128-3592-3.
  6. ^ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "A Greek-English Lexicon". Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Anatolia | Origin and meaning of the name Anatolia by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  8. ^ Stephen Mitchell (1995). Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. The Celts in Anatolia and the impact of Roman rule. Clarendon Press, 266 pp. ISBN 978-0-19-815029-9 [1] Archived 29 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Philipp Niewohner (2017). The Archaeology of Byzantine Anatolia: From the End of Late Antiquity until the Coming of the Turks. Oxford University Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-19-061047-0. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  10. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J.; Staff, Merriam-Webster; 편집부 (2001). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2001.
  11. ^ a b c d Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies. Vol. 14–16. Los Angeles. 2005. p. 55. Most of historical Armenia presently constitutes a part of Turkey (renamed "Eastern Anatolia"), which conducts a policy of minimizing the role of the Armenians in history{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Galichian, Rouben (2004). Historic Maps of Armenia: The Cartographic Heritage. London and New York City: I.B. Tauris. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-86064-979-0.
  13. ^ Holslag, Anthonie (2018). The Transgenerational Consequences of the Armenian Genocide: Near the Foot of Mount Ararat. Springer. p. 26. ISBN 978-3-319-69260-9.
  14. ^ Hovanissian, Anush (2016). "Turkey: a Cultural Genocide". In Chorbajian, Levon; Shirinian, George (eds.). Studies in Comparative Genocide. Springer. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-349-27348-5.
  15. ^ Bloxham, Donald (2003). "The Armenian Genocide of 1915-1916: Cumulative Radicalization and the Development of a Destruction Policy". Past & Present (181): 148. JSTOR 3600788. Though no ethnicity comprised an absolute majority of the inhabitants of eastern Anatolia, Armenians formed a plurality, alongside Kurds.
  16. ^ "İRAP, Il afet risk azaltma planı" (PDF) (in Turkish). Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency. 2021. p. 18.
  17. ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
  18. ^ C, Aykut (2020-05-01). "Hidroelektrik Üretimi En Fazla Hangi Bölgede?". dpumekatronik.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-10-08.

External links edit