Bingöl (Zazaki: Çolig,[3] Kurdish: Çewlik,[4] Armenian: Ճապաղջուր, romanizedChapaghjur) is a city in Eastern Turkey and the capital of Bingöl Province.

Bingöl
Bingolcitycenter.jpg
Bingöl is located in Turkey
Bingöl
Bingöl
Coordinates: 38°53′10″N 40°30′6″E / 38.88611°N 40.50167°E / 38.88611; 40.50167Coordinates: 38°53′10″N 40°30′6″E / 38.88611°N 40.50167°E / 38.88611; 40.50167
CountryTurkey
ProvinceBingöl
Government
 • MayorErdal Arıkan (AKP)
Area
 • District1,789.86 km2 (691.07 sq mi)
Elevation
1,120 m (3,690 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
98,424
 • District
142,455
 • District density80/km2 (210/sq mi)
Websitewww.bingol.gov.tr
Haserek Ski Facilities

HistoryEdit

Bingöl is located in what was historically the region of Sophene (first an independent kingdom and later an Armenian and Roman province).[5] The settlement is mentioned by its Armenian name, Chapaghjur (meaning "spread out water" in Armenian), by the 11th-century Armenian historian Stepanos Asoghik, who mentions it while describing the 995 Balu earthquake.[5] Chapaghjur is sometimes identified with the Roman fortress-town of Citharizum (Ktʻaṛich in Armenian).[5]

 
Bingöl Airport

In the Middle Ages, Bingöl was known as Romanoupolis (Greek: Ῥωμανούπολις) after the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, who incorporated it permanently into the Byzantine Empire in 942. It initially formed a subdivision of the thema of Mesopotamia, but it was later (ca. 970) elevated into a separate theme.[6]

Bingöl was ruled by the Suwaydid dynasty, a cadet branch of the Barmakids, from the 13th century until mid-Ottoman rule, autonomously from the Ottomans.[7] Bingöl and the surrounding district had a large Armenian population prior to the Armenian genocide.[5] Until the middle of the 20th century, the city was known as Çapakçur/Çabakçur, derived from its Armenian name.[8][9] The place was then renamed Bingöl, meaning "thousand lakes" in Turkish.

Kurdish-Turkish conflictEdit

Bingöl has been the site of several violent incidents of the Kurdish-Turkish conflict. On 23 October 2016, a car bombing targeting an armored police vehicle perpetrated by PKK militias killed 2 police officers and injured 19 others.[10] On 8 June 2018, a group of PKK militias attacked a military station and killed 1 Turkish soldier while injuring 3 others.[11]

GeographyEdit

Bingöl is 144 kilometres (89 mi) east of Elâzığ and is situated in the high region of Eastern Anatolia. Bingöl is a mountainous area with heights reaching 3000 m, Bingöl city is at about 1120 m above sea level.[12] The Gayt River (Gayt Çayı), a right-bank tributary of the Eastern Euphrates (Murat River), runs through the city.

EarthquakesEdit

On 1 May 2003 the whole area suffered from a magnitude 6.4 earthquake, leaving 176 dead and 520 injured.[13] On 8 March 2010, the area suffered another earthquake, of magnitude 5.9, with its epicenter in Elâzığ Province, 45 km (28 mi) west of Bingöl. On 14 June 2020, a relatively small earthquake occurred in the region, killing a village guard and injuring 21 others.[14]

PopulationEdit

Year Total Urban Rural
1965[15] 43.883 11.727 32.156
1970[16] 53.808 17.220 36.588
1975[17] 64.810 22.047 42.763
1980[18] 75.520 28.146 47.374
1985[19] 86.988 34.024 52.964
1990[20] 95.445 41.590 53.855
2000[21] 116.411 68.876 47.535
2007[22] 129.885 86.511 43.374
2008[23] 131.666 86.113 45.553
2009[24] 134.854 89.224 45.630
2011[25] 140.753 95.669 45.084
2012[26] 142.455 98.424 44.031
2013[27] 143.624 99.260 44.364
2014[28] 147.087 103.441 43.646
2015[29] 150.626 108.267 42.359
2016[30] 153.011 77.725 75.286

TransportEdit

Bingöl Airport opened on 12 July 2013. It has a passenger capacity of 500'000 a year.

EducationEdit

Bingöl University opened on 29 May 2007.[31] The University continues its activities with 9 faculties, 6 vocational schools and 5 institutes.

ClimateEdit

Bingöl has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa, or Trewartha climate classification: Dca), with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. The driest months are July and August and the wettest is February and December.

Climate data for Bingöl (1991–2020, extremes 1961–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
16.2
(61.2)
22.3
(72.1)
30.3
(86.5)
33.4
(92.1)
38.0
(100.4)
42.0
(107.6)
41.3
(106.3)
37.8
(100.0)
32.1
(89.8)
25.5
(77.9)
22.8
(73.0)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
4.1
(39.4)
10.2
(50.4)
16.9
(62.4)
23.1
(73.6)
29.8
(85.6)
34.7
(94.5)
35.1
(95.2)
29.9
(85.8)
22.0
(71.6)
12.7
(54.9)
5.2
(41.4)
18.8
(65.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
4.7
(40.5)
10.9
(51.6)
16.2
(61.2)
22.2
(72.0)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
21.3
(70.3)
14.5
(58.1)
6.8
(44.2)
0.7
(33.3)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.4
(32.7)
5.8
(42.4)
10.2
(50.4)
15.0
(59.0)
19.3
(66.7)
19.1
(66.4)
13.9
(57.0)
8.6
(47.5)
2.2
(36.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
6.8
(44.2)
Record low °C (°F) −23.2
(−9.8)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−9.2
(15.4)
1.0
(33.8)
3.5
(38.3)
8.8
(47.8)
7.8
(46.0)
4.2
(39.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
−15.0
(5.0)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−25.1
(−13.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 138.7
(5.46)
128.9
(5.07)
134.4
(5.29)
110.5
(4.35)
82.5
(3.25)
21.3
(0.84)
6.6
(0.26)
5.1
(0.20)
15.4
(0.61)
65.3
(2.57)
93.1
(3.67)
133.3
(5.25)
935.1
(36.81)
Average precipitation days 10.47 10.37 13.43 15.17 14.50 5.70 1.93 1.57 3.33 8.33 8.47 11.30 104.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105.4 124.3 148.8 165.0 213.9 270.0 285.2 275.9 240.0 189.1 135.0 102.3 2,254.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.4 4.4 4.8 5.5 6.9 9.0 9.2 8.9 8.0 6.1 4.5 3.3 6.2
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[32]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  3. ^ Abdurrahman Yılmaz (2015). "Zazaca - Türkçe sözlük : Genç - Bingöl yöresi" (PDF) (in Zazaki and Turkish): 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2020. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 55. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Hakobyan, Tadevos Kh.; Melik-Bakhshyan, Stepan T.; Barseghyan, Hovhannes Kh. (1991). Հայաստանի և հարակից շրջանների տեղանունների բառարան [Dictionary of toponymy of Armenia and adjacent territories] (in Armenian). Vol. 3. Yerevan: Yerevan State University Publishing House. p. 603.
  6. ^ Oikonomides, Nicolas (1972). Les Listes de Préséance Byzantines des IXe et Xe Siècles (in French). Paris, France: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. p. 359.
  7. ^ M. Mahfuz, Söylemez (2010). According To The Tahrir Register Dated 1550 Liva Of Çapakçur (PDF). Bingöl. p. 17. ISBN 978-975-6788-82-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2020.
  8. ^ Italian City-states and Catholic Missions in Mongolian World of the 13th and 14th Centuries, ANTHROPOLOGIA INTEGRA Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, p.9; academia.edu
  9. ^ Bingöl Tarihi, frmartuklu.org
  10. ^ "Bingöl'de zırhlı polis aracına saldırı: 2 polis şehit, 5'i polis 19 yaralı". www.sozcu.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  11. ^ DHA. "Bingöl'de PKK pususu: 1 asker şehit, 3 asker yaralı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  12. ^ Aydan, Ö. (July 2003). "THE BİNGÖL EARTHQUAKE OF MAY 1, 2003" (PDF). Tokai University, Department of Marine Civil Engineering. p. 4.
  13. ^ Aydan, Ö. (July 2003). "THE BİNGÖL EARTHQUAKE OF MAY 1, 2003" (PDF). Tokai University, Department of Marine Civil Engineering. p. 1.
  14. ^ "Bingöl'de deprem: Bir güvenlik görevlisi hayatını kaybetti". euronews (in Turkish). 15 June 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  15. ^ "1965 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  16. ^ "1970 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  17. ^ "1975 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  18. ^ "1980 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  19. ^ "1985 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  20. ^ "1990 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  21. ^ "2000 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  22. ^ "2007 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  23. ^ "2008 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  24. ^ "2009 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  25. ^ "2011 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  26. ^ "2012 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  27. ^ "2013 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  28. ^ "2014 genel nüfus sayımı verileri". Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  29. ^ "2015 genel nüfus sayımı verileri" (Doğrudan bir kaynak olmayıp ilgili veriye ulaşmak için sorgulama yapılmalıdır). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  30. ^ "2016 genel nüfus sayımı verileri" (Doğrudan bir kaynak olmayıp ilgili veriye ulaşmak için sorgulama yapılmalıdır). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  31. ^ Bingöl University Archived 11 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 27 June 2021.