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The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin,[1] which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.[2]

Zengid dynasty
زنكيون
1127–1250
Zengid Dynasty at its greatest extent
Zengid Dynasty at its greatest extent
Status Vassal of the Seljuk Empire
Capital Aleppo
Common languages Oghuz Turkic
Arabic
Religion Sunni Islam
Shia Islam
Government Emirate
Emir  
• 1127–1146
Imad ad-Din Zengi (first)
• 1241–1250
Mahmud Al-Malik Al-Zahir (last reported)
History  
• Established
1127
• Disestablished
1250
Currency Dinar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Great Seljuq Empire
County of Edessa
Ilkhanate
Ayyubids

Contents

HistoryEdit

The dynasty was founded by Imad ad-Din Zengi, who became the Seljuk Atabeg (governor) of Mosul in 1127.[3] He quickly became the chief Turkish potentate in Northern Syria and Iraq, taking Aleppo from the squabbling Artuqids in 1128 and capturing the County of Edessa from the Crusaders in 1144. This latter feat made Zengi a hero in the Muslim world, but he was assassinated by a slave two years later, in 1146.[4]

On Zengi's death, his territories were divided, with Mosul and his lands in Iraq going to his eldest son Saif ad-Din Ghazi I, and Aleppo and Edessa falling to his second son, Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo. Nur ad-Din proved to be as competent as his father. In 1149 he defeated Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch, at the battle of Inab, and the next year conquered the remnants of the County of Edessa west of the Euphrates.[5] In 1154 he capped off these successes by his capture of Damascus from the Burid dynasty that ruled it.[6]

Now ruling from Damascus, Nur ad-Din's success continued. Another Prince of Antioch, Raynald of Châtillon was captured, and the territories of the Principality of Antioch were greatly reduced. In the 1160s, Nur ad-Din's attention was mostly held by a competition with the King of Jerusalem, Amalric of Jerusalem, for control of the Fatimid Caliphate. Ultimately, Nur ed-Din's Kurdish general Shirkuh was successful in conquering Fatimid Egypt in 1169, but Shirkuh's nephew and successor as Governor of Egypt, Saladin, eventually rejected Nur ad-Din's control.[7]

Nur ad-Din was preparing to invade Egypt to bring Saladin under control when he unexpectedly died in 1174. His son and successor As-Salih Ismail al-Malik was only a child, and was forced to flee to Aleppo, which he ruled until 1181, when he was murdered and replaced by his relation, the Atabeg of Mosul. Saladin conquered Aleppo two years later, ending Zengid rule in Syria.

Zengid princes continued to rule in Northern Iraq well into the 13th century, ruling Mosul until 1234; their rule did not come finally to an end until 1250.

Zengid rulersEdit

Zengid Atabegs and Emirs of MosulEdit

Zengid Emirs of AleppoEdit

Zengid Emirs of DamascusEdit

Zengid Emirs of Sinjar (in Northern Iraq)Edit

Zengid Emirs of Jazira (in Northern Iraq)Edit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 191.
  2. ^ Kirk H. Sowell, The Arab world: An Illustrated History, (Hippocrene Books, Inc., 2002), 102.
  3. ^ David Ayalon, Eunuchs, Caliphs and Sultans: A Study in Power Relationships, (Hebrew University Magnes Press, 1999), 166.
  4. ^ Islam and the Crusades 1096-1699, Robert Irwin, The Oxford History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Oxford University Press, 1999), 227.
  5. ^ Zsolt Hunyadi and József Laszlovszky, The Crusades and the Military Orders, (Central European University, 2001), 28.
  6. ^ Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land, (Simon & Schuster, 2012), 1153.
  7. ^ William Barron Stevenson, The Crusaders in the East, (Cambridge University Press, 1907), 194.