Siirt (Arabic: سِعِرْد, romanizedSiʿird; Armenian: Սղերդ, romanizedS'gherd;[citation needed] Syriac: ܣܥܪܬ, romanizedSiirt;[2] Kurdish: Sêrt[3]) is a city in the Siirt District of Siirt Province in Turkey.[4] It had a population of 160,340 in 2021.[1]

Siirt
View of Siirt
View of Siirt
Siirt is located in Turkey
Siirt
Siirt
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 37°55′30″N 41°56′45″E / 37.92500°N 41.94583°E / 37.92500; 41.94583Coordinates: 37°55′30″N 41°56′45″E / 37.92500°N 41.94583°E / 37.92500; 41.94583
CountryTurkey
ProvinceSiirt
DistrictSiirt
Government
 • Elected MayorBerivan Helen Işık (deposed) (HDP)
Population
 (2021)[1]
160,340
Time zoneTRT (UTC+3)
Websitewww.siirt.bel.tr
City centre

NeighborhoodsEdit

The city is divided into the neighborhoods of Afetevlerı, Alan, Algul, Bahçelievler, Barış, Batı, Conkbayır, Çal, Doğan, Dumlupınar, Halenze, İnönü, Karakol, Kooperatif, Sakarya, Tınaztepe, Ulus, Ülkü, Veysel Karani and Yeni.[1]

HistoryEdit

Previously known as Saird, in pre-Islamic times Siirt was a diocese of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Sirte, Σίρτη in Byzantine Greek). In the medieval times, Arzen was the main city and it competed with Hasankeyf over the control the region, Siirt was only to become a center of the region in the 14th century. But it was still dependent from Hasankeyf until the 17th century.[5] An illuminated manuscript known as the Syriac Bible of Paris might have originated from the Bishop of Siirt's library, Siirt's Christians would have worshipped in Syriac, a liturgical language descended from Aramaic still in use by the Syriac Rite,Chaldean Rite, other Eastern Christians in India, and the Nestorians along the Silk Road as far as China. The Chronicle of Seert was preserved in the city; it describes the ecclesiastical history of the Persian realm through to the middle of the seventh century. From 1858 to 1915 the city was the seat of a bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Church. Most of the city's Assyrians, including Addai Scher their archbishop were murdered during the Assyrian genocide along with the loss of artefacts such as the Syriac manuscript of Theodore of Mopsuestia's De Incarnatione.[6] Also during World War I, the Armenian population of Siirt became a victim of the Armenian genocide.[7]

DemographicsEdit

Mother tongue composition of the city proper of Siirt in 1927 according to Turkish census[8]
Languages Speakers %
Arabic 10,498 69.5
Turkish 3,621 24.0
Kurdish 973 6.5
Other 7 0.0
Total 15,099 100

İsmet İnönü referred to the city as an Arab city eager to get Turkified, while Kurds lived in the outskirts.[9] Kurds currently constitute a majority in the city[10] with a significant Arab community.[11][12]

GovernmentEdit

In the municipal elections of March 2019 Berivan Helen Işık of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) was elected mayor.[13] She was dismissed from her post on 15 May 2020 and detained over terror charges. Ali Fuat Atik, the Governor of the Siirt province was appointed trustee by the Ministry of the Interior.[14]

LandmarksEdit

The city's landmark is the Great Mosque (Ulu Cami) built in 1129 by the Great Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II who belonged to the main branch of the dynasty that ruled from Baghdad after this Turkish Empire had split into several branches. The mosque was restored in 1965.

TriviaEdit

Siirt was Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's constituency from 2003 to 2007. His wife, Mrs. Emine Erdoğan, is from Siirt and the PM had been elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly in a by-election held in Siirt in 2003.

Although Siirt remains one of the poorer cities in Turkey, some neighbourhoods have fine and modern housing including new shops, banks and hotels.[15]

ClimateEdit

Siirt has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa, Trewartha: Cs) with very hot, dry summers and chilly, wet winters. During winter months there is frequent frost and occasional snowfall.

Climate data for Siirt (1991–2020, extremes 1939–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
20.6
(69.1)
28.5
(83.3)
32.9
(91.2)
36.2
(97.2)
40.2
(104.4)
44.4
(111.9)
46.0
(114.8)
40.0
(104.0)
36.6
(97.9)
25.8
(78.4)
24.3
(75.7)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
9.3
(48.7)
14.2
(57.6)
19.7
(67.5)
25.7
(78.3)
32.8
(91.0)
37.5
(99.5)
37.6
(99.7)
32.6
(90.7)
25.2
(77.4)
15.7
(60.3)
9.1
(48.4)
22.2
(72.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.2
(48.6)
14.3
(57.7)
19.8
(67.6)
26.5
(79.7)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
25.8
(78.4)
18.9
(66.0)
10.6
(51.1)
5.1
(41.2)
16.7
(62.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
1.2
(34.2)
5.1
(41.2)
9.7
(49.5)
14.3
(57.7)
20.1
(68.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.1
(75.4)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
6.8
(44.2)
2.3
(36.1)
11.8
(53.2)
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
(−2.7)
−16.5
(2.3)
−13.3
(8.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
2.0
(35.6)
8.2
(46.8)
13.1
(55.6)
14.4
(57.9)
8.5
(47.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−6.6
(20.1)
−14.6
(5.7)
−19.3
(−2.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 81.0
(3.19)
98.6
(3.88)
115.2
(4.54)
102.2
(4.02)
63.9
(2.52)
9.7
(0.38)
3.8
(0.15)
2.2
(0.09)
7.9
(0.31)
49.1
(1.93)
76.8
(3.02)
90.3
(3.56)
700.7
(27.59)
Average precipitation days 12.73 12.53 14.83 14.07 11.33 4.13 1.53 1.00 2.47 8.77 9.07 11.90 104.4
Average relative humidity (%) 70 70 59 56 52 33 25 23 28 46 61 69 49
Mean monthly sunshine hours 108.5 121.5 164.3 192.0 263.5 333.0 356.5 331.7 285.0 217.0 156.0 105.4 2,634.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.5 4.3 5.3 6.4 8.5 11.1 11.5 10.7 9.5 7.0 5.2 3.4 7.2
Source 1: Turkish State Meteorological Service[16]
Source 2: Weatherbase[17]

Notable peopleEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "31 ARALIK 2021 TARİHLİ ADRESE DAYALI NÜFUS KAYIT SİSTEMİ (ADNKS) SONUÇLARI" (XLS). TÜİK (in Turkish). Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  2. ^ Thomas A. Carlson et al., “Siirt — ܣܥܪܬ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer last modified December 9, 2016, http://syriaca.org/place/188.
  3. ^ Adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 57. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Türkiye Mülki İdare Bölümleri Envanteri". T.C. İçişleri Bakanlığı (in Turkish). Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  5. ^ Sinclair, T. A. (1989-12-31). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural & Archaeological Survey, Volume III. Pindar Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-907132-34-9.
  6. ^ Gaunt, David; Beṯ-Şawoce, Jan (2006), Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 251–253, ISBN 978-1593333010
  7. ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (2016-01-25). "The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime (1915-1916) | Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance - Research Network". extermination-ottoman-armenians-young-turk-regime-1915-1916.html. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  8. ^ Umumî Nüfus Tahriri. İstatistik Umum Müdürlüğü. 1927. pp. 223–224. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  9. ^ Mumcu, Uğur (August 1993). Kürt Dosyası (42 ed.). Ankara: Uğur Mumcu Araştırmacı Gazetecilik Vakfı. p. 72. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  10. ^ Taş, Latif (2016). Legal Pluralism in Action: Dispute Resolution and the Kurdish Peace Committee. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781317106159.
  11. ^ Akay, Sedat (September 2, 2021). Geçmişten Günümüze Siirt Arapçası. DBY Yayınları. p. 33. ISBN 9786257471053. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Siirt halkı: Kürtçe yok sayılırken 'biz kardeşiz' denilmesi bir anlam ifade etmiyor". İLKHA. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Siirt Seçim Sonuçları - 31 Mart 2019 Yerel Seçimleri". www.sabah.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  14. ^ "Four mayors detained over alleged terror links - Turkey News". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  15. ^ Siirt in South East Turkey Photo Gallery by Dick Osseman at. Pbase.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-16.
  16. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Siirt, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 28 August 2021.

External linksEdit