Congregational mosque

A congregational mosque (Arabic: مَسْجِد جَامِع‎, Persian: مسجد جامع‎) or Friday mosque, sometimes known as a jami masjid, great mosque, or grand mosque, is the main mosque of a certain area that hosts the special Friday noon prayers known as jumu'ah.[1][2][3] It can also host the Eid prayers in situations when there is no musalla or eidgah available nearby to host the prayers.

The Jameh Mosque in Isfahan, Iran, a historical congregational mosque originally founded in the 8th century

EtymologyEdit

The full Arabic term for this kind of mosque is masjid jāmi‘ (مَسْجِد جَامِع‎), which is typically translated as "mosque of congregation" or "congregational mosque".[3] "Congregational" is used to translate jāmi‘ (جَامِع‎), which comes from the Arabic root "ج - م - ع" which has a meaning ‘to bring together’ or ‘to unify’ (verbal form: جمع‎ and يجمع‎).[4][3] From this the Persian term masjed-e jame (مسجد جامع‎) was derived. The term is rendered similarly in transliterations from other languages, such as jame mosque, jami masjid, jameh mosque, jamia masjid, or jomeh mosque.[5] In Arabic, the term is typically simplified to just jāmi‘ (جَامِع‎).[2]

In non-Arab Muslim nations, the word jāmi‘ ("that which gathers, congregates or assembles") is often conflated with another word from the same root, jumu‘ah (Arabic: جُمُعَة‎, lit.'assembly, gathering'), a term which refers to the Friday noon prayers (Arabic: صَلَاة الْجُمُعَة‎, romanizedṣalāṫ al-jumu‘ah, lit.'prayer of assembly') or the Friday itself (Arabic: يَوْم الْجُمُعَة‎, romanizedyawm al-jumu‘ah, lit.'day of assembly').[6] This is due to the fact that the jumu'ah prayers require congregations and are only held in congregational mosques, usually the main mosque or central mosque of a town or city, and hence they are also sometimes known as Friday mosques.

HistoryEdit

 
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As, founded in the 7th century as the first congregational mosque of Fustat, Egypt

Since the early periods of Islam a functional distinction existed between large central mosques built and controlled by the state versus small local mosques built and maintained by the general population.[7] In the early years of Islam, under the Rashidun caliphs and many of the Umayyad caliphs, each city generally had only one congregational mosque where Friday prayers were held, while smaller mosques for regular prayers were built in local neighbourhoods. In fact, in some parts of the Islamic world such as in Egypt, Friday services were initially not permitted in villages and in other areas outside the main city where the congregational mosque stood.[8] The ruler or governor of the city usually built his residence (the dar al-imara) next to the congregational mosque, and in this early period the ruler also delivered the khutbah (Friday sermon) during Friday prayers.[7][9] This practice was inherited from the example of Muhammad and was passed on the caliphs after him. In the provinces, the local governors who ruled on behalf of the caliph were expected to deliver the khutbah for their local community.[9] The minbar, a kind of pulpit from which the khutbah was traditionally given, also became a standard feature of congregational mosques by the early Abbasid period (late 8th century).[10][11]

 
The mihrab area of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus today, with the minbar to the right

In later centuries, as the Islamic world became increasingly divided between different political states, as the Muslim population and the cities grew, and as new rulers wished to leave their mark of patronage, it became common to have multiple congregational mosques in the same city.[7][8] For example, Fustat, the predecessor of modern Cairo, was founded in the 7th century with just one congregational mosque (the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As). However, by the 15th century, under the Mamluks, the urban agglomeration of Cairo and Fustat had 130 congregational mosques.[7] In fact, the city became so saturated with congregational mosques that by the late 15th century its rulers could rarely build new ones.[12] A similar proliferation of congregational mosques occurred in the cities of Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Morocco, as well as in the newly-conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) under Ottoman rule.[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Petersen, Andrew (1996). Dictionary of Islamic architecture. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 9781134613663.
  2. ^ a b M. Bloom, Jonathan; S. Blair, Sheila, eds. (2009). "Mosque". The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195309911.
  3. ^ a b c Bearman, Peri (2014). "Masjid Jāmiʿ". In Emad El-Din, Shahin (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199739356.
  4. ^ Mitias, Michael H.; Al Jasmi, Abdullah (2018). "Form and Function in the Congregational Mosque". Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics. 55 (1): 25–44.
  5. ^ "DawateIslami Khuddam-ul-Masajid". buildamasjid.net. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  6. ^ Quran 62:9–11,Quran 62:10–11
  7. ^ a b c d e Esposito, John L., ed. (2009). "Mosque". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305135.
  8. ^ a b Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P., eds. (2012). "Masd̲j̲id". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill.
  9. ^ a b Esposito, John L., ed. (2009). "Khuṭbah". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305135.
  10. ^ Petersen, Andrew (1996). "minbar". Dictionary of Islamic architecture. Routledge. pp. 191–192.
  11. ^ M. Bloom, Jonathan; S. Blair, Sheila, eds. (2009). "Minbar". The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195309911.
  12. ^ Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2008). "The Mamluk City: From Fustat to al-Qahira". In Jayyusi, Salma K. (ed.). The City in the Islamic World (Volume 1). Brill. pp. 295–316. ISBN 9789004171688.