Shihna was a medieval Islamic term meaning, roughly, "military administrator." The term was used particularly for the Seljuk Turks' representative in Iraq, who exerted the Seljuks' power over the Abbasid caliph. The Seljuks themselves ruled their empire, which included most of southwest Asia in the 11th century and after, from Iran.
- "Shihna." Encyclopedia of Islam 3rd ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1993.