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A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A mausoleum without the person's remains is called a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum.
The word mausoleum (from Greek μαυσωλείον) derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (near modern-day Bodrum in Turkey), the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Historically, mausolea were, and still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the gentry and nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were often in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for kilometres outside Rome. When Christianity became dominant, mausolea were out of use.
Later, mausolea became particularly popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods. A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure. This contains the body or bodies, probably within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may also act as columbaria (a type of mausoleum for cremated remains) with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located in a cemetery, a churchyard or on private land.
In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church. The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, California, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called crypts or catacombs.
Notable mausoleums edit
- Mausoleum of Mohammed V
- Bourguiba mausoleum
- El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the late President, Algeria.
- The Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in Juba, South Sudan.
- Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt.
- Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Luanda, Angola.
- Mausolée (Pyramide) du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Natitingou, Benin.
- Mausolée du Guide Suprême du Patriotisme, Gitega, Burundi.
- Omar Bongo's Mausoleum (A replica of the Mausoleum of Mohammed V) in Franceville, Gabon.
- Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Libreville, Gabon.
- Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum
- Atta Mills's Mausoleum at Asomdwee Park in Accra, Ghana.
- Burma Camp Military Cemetery in Accra, Ghana.
- Mausoleum of late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park Presidential Burial in Lusaka, Zambia.
- Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum.
- Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo.
- Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.
- Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo.
- Mausolée de Joseph Kasa-Vubu, Singini, Tshela, Kongo Central, The Democratic Republic of Congo.
- The pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are also types of mausolea.
- Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Cairo, Egypt.
- Unknown Soldier Memorial (Egypt)
- Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
- Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, and purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson.
- Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum ever to be built.
- Jedars – thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret.
- Palm Grove Cemetery, Monrovia, Liberia.
- National Hall, Mausoleum of the late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Montserrado, Liberia.
- Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Kara, Togo.
- Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi.
- Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried.
- Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
- King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Lobamba, Eswatini.
- Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Mwalimu Nyerere Museum Centre, Butiama, Tanzania.
- The Heroes Square, Maputo, Mozambique.
- Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
- Mausoleum of the late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya.
- Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Mausoleum, Bondo, Kenya.
- Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya in Grand Mosque of Conakry.
- Nnamdi Azikiwe's burial site, Onitsha, Nigeria.
- Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Bauchi, Nigeria.
- Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
- Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Kano, Nigeria.
- National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Asia, Eastern, Southern, Central, and Southeast edit
- Mausoleum of Kazi Nazrul Islam
- Mausoleum of Lalon Shah
- Mausoleum of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
- Mausoleum of Three Leaders
- Mausoleum of Ziaur Rahman
- List of mausoleums of Chinese monarchs
- Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor biggest underground mausoleum
- The pyramids of ancient China are also types of mausolea.
- Qianling Mausoleum in China, houses the remains of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and the ruling Empress Wu Zetian, along with 17 others in auxiliary tombs.
- Tomb and Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia.
- Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
- Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing.
- Mausoleum of Yuan Shikai, Beiguan, Anyang.
- Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing.
- Akbar's tomb at Agra, India
- Taj Mahal at Agra, India
- Qutb Shahi Tombs at Hyderabad, India
- Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, India
- Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, India
- Tomb of Sher Shah Suri at Sasaram Bihar, India
- Safdarjung's Tomb at Delhi, India
- Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
- Grave of Sukarno at Blitar, East Java, Indonesia
- Astana Giribangun at Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia
- Imogiri complex in Imogiri, Central Java is the cemetery for Mataram royals and the Hamengkubuwana Royals of Yogyakarta and Pakubuwono of Surakarta
- Grave of Bung Hatta at Jakarta, Indonesia
- Mausoleum O. G. Khouw at Jakarta, Indonesia
- Grave of Kyai Langgeng at Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia
- Mausoleums of Emperors of Japan
- Toyokuni Shrine at Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Mausoleum of Kampaku Toyotomi Hideyoshi, which was later destroyed by the Tokugawa clan.
- Nikkō Tōshō-gū at Nikkō, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. It is part of the "Shrines and Temples of Nikkō", Mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa shōguns.
- Rinnō-ji at Nikkō, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. The temple also administers the Taiyū-in Reibyō (大猷院霊廟), which is the mausoleum of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the third Tokugawa shōgun. Together with Nikkō Tōshō-gū and Futarasan Shrine.
- Zuihōden at Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan is the mausoleum complex of Date Masamune and his heirs, daimyō of the Sendai Domain
- Tamaudun, at Shuri, Okinawa, Japan
- Makam Pahlawan at National Mosque of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Makam Diraja Mahmoodiah at Bukit Mahmoodiah in Jalan Mahmoodiah, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
- Hang Kasturi Mausoleum at Jonker Walk, Melaka City, Melaka, Malaysia.
- Kedah Royal Mausoleum at Langgar, Kota Setar District, Kedah, Malaysia.
- Kelantan Royal Mausoleum
- Al-Ghufran Royal Mausoleum at Bukit Chandan in Jalan Istana, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia.
- Hang Jebat Mausoleum in Melaka City, Melaka, Malaysia.
- Shah Alam Royal Mausoleum
- Tun Teja Mausoleum in Merlimau, Jasin District, Melaka, Malaysia.
- Seri Menanti Royal Mausoleum
- Sultan Abdul Samad Mausoleum in Jugra, Banting, Selangor, Malaysia.
- Tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, near Lahore, Pakistan.
- Mazar-e-Quaid at Karachi, Pakistan
- Tomb of Allama Iqbal at Lahore, Pakistan
- Data Durbar at Lahore, Pakistan
- Samadhi of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
- Bhutto family mausoleum, Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, Sindh, Pakistan
Shrine of Islamic Naqshbandi saints of Allo Mahar Sharif.
The exterior view of the Mausoleum of Emperor Jahangir, located in Punjab, Pakistan
- Rizal Monument at Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines, houses the remains of Dr. Jose Rizal, national hero of the Philippines.
- Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines.
- Mausoleum of the Veterans of the Revolution, enshrining participants in the 1896 revolution against the Spanish Empire.
- Quezon Memorial, in Quezon City, Philippines, houses the remains of President Manuel L. Quezon and his wife, Aurora.
- Marcos Museum and Mausoleum in Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines, housing the remains of President Ferdinand Marcos.
- National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan.
- National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan.
- Mausoleum of late President Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
- Mausoleum of late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
- Chen Tsyr-shiou Memorial Park, Former Mausoleum and Memorial of late Vice President Chen Cheng, Taishan District, New Taipei, Taiwan.
- Konbaung tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by Konbaung Dynasty kings in Mandalay, Amarapura, and Inwa, Myanmar.
- Kandawmin Garden Mausolea, Myanmar.
- Martyrs' Mausoleum, Myanmar.
- Royal Cemetery at Wat Ratchabophit, Thailand
- Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea
- Kim Koo Museum and Hyochang Park, Seoul, Republic of Korea (South Korea)
- Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka
- Kurjey Lhakhang, Bumthang Valley, Bumthang District, Bhutan
- Silver Pagoda, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
- Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi, Vietnam
- Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il Sung Mausoleum, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
Asia, western edit
- Al-Khazneh at Petra, Jordan
- Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus
- Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, Iran.
- Naqsh-e Rustam at Persepolis Iran, Tombs of Persian Achaemenid kings (522-486 BCE).
- Tomb of Ferdowsi in Mashhad, Iran.
- Tomb of Hafez (Hāfezieh) in Shiraz, Iran
- The Shrine of the Báb and the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa and Acre, Israel, respectively.
- Imam Husayn Mosque, Karbala – according to Shī‘ah belief, the head and body of Husayn ibn Ali, along with all others who fell at the Battle of Karbala are buried here.
- Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran
- The Mausoleum of Khomeini in Tehran, Iran
- Anıtkabir mausoleum of Atatürk the founder of the Republic of Turkey at Ankara, Turkey
- Celal Bayar Mausoleum in Bursa, Turkey
- Adnan Menderes's Mausoleum, in Istanbul, Turkey
- Turgut Özal's Mausoleum, in Istanbul, Turkey
- Süleyman Demirel Mausoleum in Atabey, Turkey
- Mausoleum of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah, West Bank
- Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
- Bismarck Mausoleum outside Friedrichsruh in northern Germany
- Hamilton Mausoleum at Hamilton in Scotland
- House of Karageorgevich Mausoleum, St. George's Church, Oplenac in Topola, Serbia
- Royal Mausoleum and the Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum at Frogmore, England
- Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia
- Cathedral of the Archangel in Moscow, Russia
- Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow, Russia
- Cathedral of Saint Domnius in Split, Croatia
- Lajos Batthyány's Mausoleum in Budapest, Hungary
- Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome, Italy.
- Pantheon, Rome in Italy
- Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome, Italy
- Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, Italy
- Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy
- Mausoleum of Marasesti in Marasesti, Romania
- Pyramid of Tirana in Tirana, Albania
- Batenberg Mausoleum in Sofia, Bulgaria
- Trentham Mausoleum near Stoke-on-Trent, England
- Panthéon, Paris in France
- Les Invalides in France
- Valle de los Caídos, in San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain
- Imperial Crypt in Austria
- Church of Our Lady of Laeken in Belgium
- Oplenac Mausoleum in Topola, Serbia, the Mausoleum of the Serbian and Yugoslav Royal House of Karađorđević
- National Pantheon / Church of Santa Engrácia in Lisbon, Portugal
- Mausoleum of Njegoš in Lovćen, Montenegro
- Wilhelm II Mausoleum in Doorn, Netherlands
- Juselius Mausoleum in Finland
- Barclay de Tolly Mausoleum in Estonia
Les Invalides in Paris, France
South America edit
- La Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires
- Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, mausoleum of José de San Martín
- Mausoleum of Néstor Kirchner, Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz
- Cathedral of La Plata, mausoleum of Dardo Rocha
- Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace, La Paz, mausoleum of Andrés de Santa Cruz
- General Cemetery of Santa Cruz
- Cementerio General de Cochabamba, mausoleum of "general del pueblo" René Barrientos Ortuño
- Obelisk of São Paulo, mausoleum to the heroes of Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo, São Paulo
- Chico Xavier mausoleum in Uberaba, Minas Gerais
- São João Batista Cemetery, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
- Monument to the Independence of Brazil in São Paulo
- JK Memorial in Brasília, Federal District
- Convent of Santo Antônio, Rio de Janeiro
- Central Cemetery of Bogotá, Colombia
- San Diego Cemetery, Quito
- Cathedral of Quito
- Mausoleo en el Centro Cívico Ciudad Alfaro, Montecristi, Ecuador
- Panteón de los Próceres
- Presbitero Maestro mausoleum and museum in Lima
- Cathedral Basilica of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist, Lima
Altar de la Patria of Chile
North America edit
- Eaton family mausoleum at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, Ontario
- Hart Massey's mausoleum at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, Ontario
- Sir Henry Pellatt's mausoleum at Forest Lawn in Toronto, Ontario
Dominican Republic edit
- Altar de la Patria, mausoleum to the Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic
- National Pantheon of the Dominican Republic
El Salvador edit
- Haiti's National Cemetery in Port-au-Prince, where François Duvalier, who ruled from 1957 to 1971, is buried
- Cementerio General, Trujillo
- El Ángel Victory column and mausoleum to the heroes of the Mexican Independence in Mexico City
- Monumento a la Revolución monument commemorating and mausoleum to the heroes of the Mexican Revolution in Mexico City
- Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Mexico City
- Panteon San Fernando, Mexico City
- Jardines Del Humaya, a cemetery with opulent multi-story and air-conditioned mausoleums of Mexican drug cartel members
United States edit
- Henry Flagler's mausoleum in St. Augustine, Florida
- Presidential memorials in the United States and Presidents' graves of the United States
- MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia
- Miles Mausoleum in Arlington National Cemetery
- Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum in Hartsdale, New York
- Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California
- Queen of Heaven Mausoleum in Queen of Heaven Cemetery, Hillside, Illinois
- Rose Hills Memorial Park, Whittier, California
- Rose Chapel Mausoleum in Roseland Park Cemetery, Berkley, Michigan
- Shrine of the Good Shepherd Chapel Mausoleum in Green Bay, Wisconsin
- Wilhelm's Portland Memorial Funeral Home in Portland, Oregon
- Tacoma Mausoleum in Tacoma, Washington
- Tombs of the Uga mascots inside Sanford Stadium in Athens, Georgia
- Brigadier General Egbert Ludovicus Viele's Egyptian-style pyramid mausoleum in West Point, New York
- Rapper XXXTentacion's mausoleum at The Gardens of Boca Raton in Boca Raton, Florida
- Rapper Juice Wrld's mausoleum at Beverly Cemetery in Blue Island, Illinois
- Mausoleo a los Heroes de El Polvorín, at Cementerio Civil de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico
See also edit
- ^ The plurals mausoleums and mausolea are both used in English, although mausoleums is more common.
- "Anıtkabir'de yabancı ziyaretçi rekoru kırıldı". www.sozcu.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2022-05-12.
- Toms, J. Mason (Winter 2019). "Arkansas Listings in the National Register of Historic Places: The Community Mausoleums of Cecil E. Bryan". Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 78 (4): 423–431. ISSN 0004-1823.
- Paul Veyne, in A History of Private Life: I. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Veyne, ed. (Harvard University Press) 1987:416.
- al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 63.