Manila North Cemetery
The Manila North Cemetery (Spanish: Cementerio del Norte) is one of the oldest cemeteries in Metro Manila, Philippines. The cemetery is owned by and located in the City of Manila, the national capital, and is one of the largest in the metropolis at 54 hectares. It is located alongside Andrés Bonifacio Avenue and borders two other important cemeteries: the La Loma Cemetery and the Manila Chinese Cemetery. Numerous impoverished families notably inhabit some of the mausoleums.
Entrance of the Manila North Cemetery
|Owned by||Manila City Government|
|Size||54 ha (130 acres)|
|Find a Grave||Manila North Cemetery|
History and ArchitectureEdit
The Manila North Cemetery was formerly part of La Loma Cemetery, but was separated as an exclusively Catholic burial ground. The cemetery formerly known as Cementerio del Norte was laid out in 1904.
The cemetery in its entirety was once called Paang Bundok, the area National Hero Jose Rizal selected as his final resting place. The current Paang Bundok is now a barangay located before the cemetery grounds.
During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II the cemetery became the site of atrocities, with accounts that Imperial Japanese forces led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita brutally killed more than 2,000 unarmed noncombatants in the cemetery from October to November 1944.
The cemetery being one of the oldest cemeteries in the metropolis is evident on the different designs of mausoleums that reflect the prevailing architectural style in the Philippines during the period they were constructed. The styles range from simple, plain-painted with a patch of greenery, to very complex designs that contain reliefs that are difficult to carve while also having different colors.
Many people already live inside the cemetery with some of them serving as caretakers of the mausoleums where they also stay to survive. When the families or owners of the mausoleums come, especially during and after All Soul's Day, the families transfer to other places. In addition, the informal settlers often serve as informal tour guides, bringing visitors to tombs of famous people and discussing the oral history of the area. Others take advantage of the quantity of visitors during the Allhallowtide holiday, setting up stalls to sell drinks and snacks, and providing visitors other services like renting out their toilets.
Clearing operations made in 2019 destroyed the shanties and other obstructions inside the cemetery, displacing the families who lived in the makeshift homes and in the mausoleums.
The Bautista-Nakpil Pylon at the North Cemetery was designed by Juan Nakpil as a tribute to both Bautista and Nakpil families, including his uncle and benefactor, Dr. Ariston Bautista. The funerary pylon is a tall, square podium which has four human figures on the top corners that form a gesture of prayer capping off the tall columns. The frontal side is embellished by geometricized flowers, spiraling foliage, and nautilus shells in low-relief concrete panels which has a highly decorized stoup on the lower portion. An octagonal lantern-like form sits on top of the podium with miniature columns buttressing on all sides and crowned by a rigid dome.
Mausoleum of the Veterans of the RevolutionEdit
The remains of key figures in Philippine history such as former Presidents Sergio Osmeña, Ramón Magsaysay and Manuel Roxas; historian Epifanio de los Santos; and celebrities as actor Fernando Poe Jr. are buried in the cemetery.
Most of the people have their tombs on the main avenue of the cemetery while other notable people are located near the main entrance.
- María Agoncillo–Aguinaldo (1879–1963), wife of Emilio Aguinaldo. Her tomb once occupied the center of the Mousoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución, but was exhumed and reburied at the Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite.
- Melchora Aquino (1812–1919), also known as Tandang Sora and Mother of Katipunan. Formerly buried at Mousoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución, whose remains were later transferred to the Tandang Sora National Shrine in Quezon City.
- Arcadio Arellano (1872–1920), architect
- Juan Arevalo, patriot, son of Bonifacio Flores Arevalo, buried at Mousoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución, Assembly Member (Declaration of Philippine Independence, Cavite-Viejo, Province of Cavite, 12 June 1898)
- Iggy Arroyo (1950–2012), former congressman of Negros Occidental (2004–12)
- Ladislao Bonus (1854–1908), also called "Father of the Philippine Opera."
- José Corazón de Jesús (1896–1932), poet known as Huseng Batute. Lyricist of the famed protest anthem Bayan Ko
- Tomas Cloma (1904–1996), president of the Philippine Maritime Institute (now PMI Colleges). His mausoleum is shaped like a ship, titled SS Last Voyage.
- Mariano Jesús Cuenco (1888–1964), 4th President of the Senate of the Philippines
- Doña Narcisa Buencamino vda. de León (Doña Sisang) (1877–1966), Founder and matriarch of LVN Pictures, Inc. (The "L" of LVN)
- Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850–1896), Philippine author and propagandist. Formerly buried at the Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución under the name Plaridel, was later exhumed and reburied in his house in Marcelo H. del Pilar Shrine Bulacan, Bulacan.
- Pío del Pilar (1865–1931), Philippine revolutionary figure. Buried at the Mousoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución.
- Manuel Earnshaw (1862–1936), former resident commissioner to the US Congress
- Isauro Gabaldon (1875–1942), former senator and resident commissioner to the US Congress
- Licerio Geronimo (1855–1924), Revolutionary general. Initially buried at the Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución, his remains were then reinterred in the base of the Licerio Geronimo Memorial located in Rodriguez, Rizal on February 20, 1993.
- Pedro Guevara (1879–1938), former senator and resident commissioner to the US Congress
- Francis Burton Harrison (1873–1957), former American governor-general
- Adriano Hernández (1870–1925), Brigadier General of the Philippine Revolution and Military Strategist and the local hero of Dingle, Iloilo. Buried at Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución.
- Amado Hernández (1903–1970), labor leader, Philippine literary icon and National Artist for Literature.
- Atang de la Rama-Hernández (1905–1991), wife of Amado, kundiman singer, actress, and National Artist for Theater and Music.
- Félix Resurrección Hidalgo (1853–1913), painter
- Pilar Hidalgo-Lim (1893–1973), one of the founders of Girl Scouts of the Philippines
- Emilio Jacinto (1875–1899), patriot, the "Brains of the Katipunan". Formerly buried at the Manila North Cemetery was later exhumed and reburied in Himlayang Pilipino in 1975.
- Arsenio Lacson (1912–1962), former Manila mayor
- Benito Legarda y Tuason (1853–1915), vice-president of the Malolos Congress and first resident commissioner of the Philippines to the US Congress.
- Alfredo Lim (1929–2020), former Manila mayor NBI Director DILG Secretary and senator
- Justo Lukban (1863-1927), Major of the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. Member of the Malolos Congress. Third Mayor of Manila.
- Ramon Magsaysay (1907–1957), 7th President. His wife Luz Banzon Magsaysay is also buried with him, as are his immediate family members.
- Genaro Magsaysay (1924–1978), former Senator of the Philippines and Representative of the Zambales
- Tomas Morato (1887–1965), mayor of Calauag, Quezon, then first appointed mayor of Quezon City
- Gregoria de Jesús-Nakpil (1875–1943), wife of Andrés Bonifacio, later wife of Julio Nakpil
- Juan Nakpil (1899–1986), national artist for architecture
- Julio Nakpil (1867–1960), composer, father of Juan Nakpil.
- Mariano Noriel (1864–1915), Filipino general who fought during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. Formerly buried at the Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución.
- Román Ongpin (1847–1912), businessman, philanthropist, nationalist, and civic citizen
- Sergio Osmeña (1878–1961), 4th President. His wife Esperanza Limjap-Osmeña is also buried with him.
- Jose Fortich Ozamiz (1898–1944), former senator and first provincial governor of Misamis Occidental.
- Quintin B. Paredes (1884–1973), former House Speaker and senator
- Pedro Paterno (1857–1911), 2nd Prime Minister of the Philippines under the First Republic. Formerly Buried at the Manila North Cemetery. His Remains were transferred at San Agustin Church.
- Carmen Planas (1914–1964), first elected female councilor of Manila
- Fernando Poe, Sr. (1916–1951), film producer, director, actor
- Fernando Poe, Jr. (Ronald Allan K. Poe) (1939–2004), movie actor, 2004 presidential candidate, and National Artist
- Andy Poe (1943-1995), An actor and brother of Fernando Poe Jr.
- Conrad Poe (1948-2010), An actor and half-brother of Fernando Poe Jr.
- Mariano Ponce (1863–1918), active member of the Propaganda Movement.
- Manuel L. Quezon (1878–1944), Commonwealth President (1935-1944). Formerly buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Transferred to Quezon Memorial Circle Museum in 1979.
- Aurora Quezón (1888–1949), First Lady, consort of Manuel Quezon. Also transferred to Quezon Memorial Circle Museum in 2005.
- Claro M. Recto (1890–1960), former senator and Spanish-language author
- Isabelo delos Reyes (1864–1938), politician, labor union activist, and a founder of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.
- Paciano Rizal (1852–1930), oldest brother of José Rizal. Remains later transferred to Los Baños, Laguna in 1985.
- Owen Robyns-Owen, Chief Officer, British Merchant Navy (died: January 9, 1945 at the age of 67), is the only British Commonwealth war grave in the cemetery.
- José E. Romero (1897–1978), former representative of Negros Oriental, senator, first Philippine ambassador to the United Kingdom, and Secretary of Education. His second wife, Elisa Zuñiga Villanueva (1910–1999), is also buried with him.
- Manuel A. Roxas (1892–1948), 5th President.
- Gerardo "Gerry" Roxas, Sr. (1924–1982), former senator
- Gerardo A. Roxas, Jr. (1960–1993), former representative of Capiz, son of Gerardo Roxas Sr.
- Trinidad Roxas (1899–1995), wife of former President Manuel Roxas and former First Lady.
- Epifanio de los Santos (1871–1928), historian and former statesman. EDSA, is named after him.
- Hilarion "Larry" Silva (1937–2004), comedian and politician
- Andres Solomon (also known as "Tugo" or "Togo") (1905–1952), actor
- Trinidad Tecson (1848–1928), revolutionary nurse
- Lilian Velez (1924–1948), a singer-actress of the mid and late 1940s and dubbed as the Singing Sweetheart of Philippines Movies, who was murdered by her co-actor, Narding Anzures on June 26, 1948.
- Pancho Villa (1901–1925), a boxer, the first Asian Flyweight World Champion.
- Antonio Villegas (1928–1984), former Manila mayor. Formerly buried in Reno, Nevada.
- Teodoro Yangco (1861–1939), former resident commissioner to the United States Congress and businessman for whom Yangco Market is named.
- Dick Israel (1947–2016), movie and television actor, formerly of ABS-CBN and Viva Films.
- Rafael "Liling" R. Roces Jr. (1912–1944), Filipino journalist, writer, patriot, World War II spy, hero, and martyr.
- 28 victims of Asociacion De Damas De Filipinas fire tragedy on December 3, 1998. Buried in unmarked graves.
- American Association plot
- Armed Forces of the Philippines Cemetery
- Boy Scout Cenotaph (in memory of the 24 Boy Scouts who died in a plane crash en route to the 11th World Scout Jamboree)
- Firemen's plot
- Jewish Cemetery
- Masonic burial grounds
- Mausoleo de los Veteranos de la Revolución
- Military and police plot
- Thomasites' plot
- Veterans of Foreign Wars plot (now neglected, since relatives all migrated to the USA)
- The Museum Foundation of the Philippines and Carlos Celdran's Walk This Way both used to hold walking tours the Chinese Cemetery, North Cemetery and La Loma Cemetery.
- Manila North Cemetery and Chinese Cemetery have a trove of funerary architecture. Mausoleums are designed to look like Chinese pagodas, Hindu Shikhara temples, Egyptian pyramids guarded by Sphinxes, Greek- and Roman-inspired temples, Romanesque-type churches, even Art Deco mausoleums.
- The Manila North Cemetery was the plot setting for the episode 'Paa' of the 2010 horror film Cinco.
- James Chance (2010). "Living with the dead: Manila's North Cemetery". Pictures of the Year International. Donald W Reynolds Journalism Institute. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Republic of the Philippines: Presidential Museum and Library."Our Heritage and the Departed: A Cemeteries Tour Archived 2015-09-28 at the Wayback Machine".
- Palafox, Quennie Ann (4 September 2012). "Cemeteries of Memories, Where Journey to Eternity Begins". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- Vintage Philippines. December 2, 2010. "Manila North Cemetery: A Time Capsule of Philippine History Archived 2014-05-03 at the Wayback Machine".
- Sauler, Erik. November 2, 2012. Philippine Daily Inquirer. "From buko shakes to portalets, entrepreneurs thrive at Manila North Cemetery".
- Valenzuela, Nikka G. (2019-10-30). "Illegal settlers out of Manila North Cemetery". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
- Lico, Gerard (2008). Arkitekturang Filipino: A History of Architecture and Urbanism in the Philippines. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press. pp. 331–332, 339. ISBN 978-971-542-579-7.
- Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 2, 2012. "Did You Know: Manila North Cemetery".
- Pedrajas, Joseph Almer (2020-08-29). "Former Manila mayor Alfredo Lim is laid to rest". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
-  CWGC Casualty record.
- Walter Ang. October 28, 2013. 8list.ph. "8 Trivia About Manila Cemeteries".
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