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A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional terms section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught is commonly called a university college or university.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary (elementary in the U.S.) and secondary (middle school in the U.S.) education. Kindergarten or preschool provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods. (Full article...)

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Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality. The court's decision partially overruled its 1896 decision Plessy v. Ferguson, declaring that the "separate but equal" notion was unconstitutional for American public schools and educational facilities. It paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement, and a model for many future impact litigation cases.

The underlying case began in 1951 when the public school system in Topeka, Kansas, refused to enroll local black resident Oliver Brown's daughter at the elementary school closest to their home, instead requiring her to ride a bus to a segregated black school farther away. The Browns and twelve other local black families in similar situations filed a class-action lawsuit in U.S. federal court against the Topeka Board of Education, alleging that its segregation policy was unconstitutional. A special three-judge court of the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas rendered a verdict against the Browns, relying on the precedent of Plessy v. Ferguson and its "separate but equal" doctrine. The Browns, then represented by NAACP chief counsel Thurgood Marshall, appealed the ruling directly to the Supreme Court. (Full article...)
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University of Wrocław, seen from the Oder river
Credit: Jar.ciurus

The University of Wrocław is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland. It was founded in 1945, replacing the previous German University of Breslau. Following the territorial changes of Poland's borders, academics restored the university building on the banks of the Oder river, which was heavily damaged and split as a result of the Battle of Breslau (1945). Nowadays, it is one of the most prominent educational institutions in the region.

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Zdeňka Wiedermannová-Motyčková (17 April 1868 – 16 October 1915) was a Moravian teacher, journal editor, and women's rights activist. Born into a family of progressive educators, she studied to become a teacher, graduating in 1886. Her Catholic education led her to more conservative values than her family's, but after teaching for several years, she began to recognize the disparities between women and men teachers, as well as those of their students. By 1898, she was publicly calling for equal pay for equal work and campaigning for equal education for boys and girls. In 1902, Wiedermannová founded and became chair of the Moravian Teachers Union, whose focus was to professionalize teaching standards. The following year, she opened a Girls' Academy in Brno, hoping later to include secondary education there. As the Austro-Hungarian Empire provided little funding for girls' education, she held lectures to provide for the operating costs of the academy. Finally in 1908, she successfully established the first girls' secondary school in Moravia.

That year, Wiedermannová founded and became the editor for Ženská revue (Women's Review), a magazine publishing articles on developments in the international women's movement. Also in 1908, she began an informal marriage with fellow teacher Vincenc Motyčka. As he was Catholic and unable to divorce his first wife, the two were not able to formalize their union, but she added his surname to her own. In 1909, she retired as a teacher to focus on activism. She became one of the most visible Czech feminists, presenting over a hundred lectures during her career. She founded numerous women's associations and in 1910 was instrumental in the creation of a regional umbrella organization, the Progressive Organization of Women in Moravia, actively committed to women's suffrage and the integration of women into all segments of public life. (Full article...)

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