The Literature Portal
is a term that does not have a universally accepted definition, but which has variably included all written work; writing that possesses literary merit; and language that foregrounds literariness, as opposed to ordinary language
the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura
"writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts
. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction
, and whether it is poetry
; it can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel
, short story
; and works are often categorised according to historical periods, or according to their adherence to certain aesthetic
features or expectations (genre
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), a category that may also include polemical works, biographies, and reflective essays, or it may consist of texts based on imagination (such as fiction, poetry, or drama). Literature written in poetry emphasizes the aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as sound, symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, ordinary meanings, while literature written in prose applies ordinary grammatical structure and the natural flow of speech. Literature can also be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. While the concept of genre has broadened over the centuries, in general, a genre consists of artistic works that fall within a certain central theme; examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
More about literature…
"The Open Boat
" is a short story
by American author Stephen Crane
(1871–1900). First published in 1897, it was based on Crane's experience of surviving a shipwreck off the coast of Florida
earlier that year while traveling to Cuba
to work as a newspaper correspondent. Crane was stranded at sea for thirty hours when his ship, the SS Commodore
, sank after hitting a sandbar. He and three other men were forced to navigate their way to shore in a small boat; one of the men, an oiler
named Billie Higgins, drowned after the boat overturned. Crane's personal account of the shipwreck and the men's survival, titled "Stephen Crane's Own Story", was first published a few days after his rescue.
Crane subsequently adapted his report into narrative form, and the resulting short story "The Open Boat" was published in Scribner's Magazine. The story is told from the point of view of an anonymous correspondent, with Crane as the implied author, the action closely resembles the author's experiences after the shipwreck. Praised for its innovation by contemporary critics, the story is considered an exemplary work of literary Naturalism, and is one of the most frequently discussed works in Crane's canon.
Francis bin Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash
(June 1836 – 1873) was a Syrian
writer and poet of the Nahda
movement—the Arabic renaissance—and a physician. Most of his works revolve around science, history and religion, analysed under an epistemological
light. He travelled through the Middle East and France in his youth, and after some medical training and a year of practice in his native Aleppo
, during which he wrote several works, he enrolled in a medical school in Paris; yet, declining health and growing blindness forced him to return to Aleppo, where he produced more literary works until his early death.
Middle Eastern historian Matti Moosa considered Marrash to be the first truly cosmopolitan Arab intellectual and writer of modern times. Marrash adhered to the principles of the French Revolution and defended them in his own works, implicitly criticising Ottoman rule in the Middle East. He was also influential in introducing French romanticism in the Arab world, especially through his use of poetic prose and prose poetry, of which his writings were the first examples in modern Arabic literature, according to Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Shmuel Moreh. His modes of thinking and feeling, and ways of expressing them, have had a lasting influence on contemporary Arab thought and on the Mahjari poets.
||The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents. We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far. The sciences, each straining in its own direction, have hitherto harmed us little; but some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the deadly light into the peace and safety of a new dark age.
|— H. P. Lovecraft, The Call of Cthulhu
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Today in literature
- 1722 - Hryhori Skovoroda, Ukrainian poet born
- 1819 - George Eliot, British novelist born
- 1869 - André Gide, French writer born
- 1877 - Endre Ady, Hungarian poet born
- 1884 - Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Pakistani biographer born
- 1916 - Jack London, American writer died
- 1932 - William Walker Atkinson, American author died
- 1936 - James Burke, British writer born
- 1947 - Valerie Wilson Wesley, American author born
- 1962 - Victor Pelevin, Russian writer born
- 1963 - Aldous Huxley, British author died
- 1963 - C. S. Lewis, Irish author died
- 1970 - Stel Pavlou, British novelist born
- 1986 - William Bradford Huie, American writer died
- 1993 - Anthony Burgess, British author died
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