Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.
Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature), and non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature.
The Duino Elegies
are a collection of ten elegies
written by the Bohemian
poet Rainer Maria Rilke
(1875–1926). Rilke, who is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets," began writing the elegies in 1912 while a guest of Princess Marie von Thurn und Taxis
(1855–1934) at Duino Castle
, near Trieste
on the Adriatic Sea
. The poems, 859 lines long in total, were dedicated to the Princess upon their publication in 1923. During this ten-year period, the elegies languished incomplete for long stretches of time as Rilke suffered frequently from severe depression
—some of which was caused by the events of World War I
and being conscripted
into military service. Aside from brief episodes of writing in 1913 and 1915, Rilke did not return to the work until a few years after the war ended. With a sudden, renewed inspiration—writing in a frantic pace he described as a "boundless storm, a hurricane of the spirit"—he completed the collection in February 1922 while staying at Château de Muzot
, in Switzerland
's Rhone Valley
. After their publication in 1923 and Rilke's death in 1926, the Duino Elegies
were quickly recognized by critics and scholars as his most important work.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
(29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian physician, dramaturge
and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. His career as a dramatist produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Chekhov practised as a medical doctor
throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."
Chekhov renounced the theatre after the disastrous reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Constantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard.
Chekhov had at first written stories only for financial gain, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story. His originality consists in an early use of the stream-of-consciousness technique, later adopted by James Joyce and other modernists, combined with a disavowal of the moral finality of traditional story structure. He made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them.
||A lion was awakened from sleep by a Mouse running over his face. Rising up angrily, he caught him and was about to kill him, when the Mouse piteously entreated, saying: 'If you would only spare my life, I would be sure to repay your kindness.' The Lion laughed and let him go. It happened shortly after this that the Lion was caught by some hunters, who bound him by strong ropes to the ground. The Mouse, recognizing his roar, came, gnawed the rope with his teeth, and set him free, exclaiming 'You ridiculed the idea of my ever being able to help you, expecting to receive from me any repayment of your favor; but now you know that it is possible for even a Mouse to confer benefits on a Lion.'
|— Aesop, "The Lion and the Mouse"
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Don Quixote is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Widely considered one of the greatest works of fiction ever published, it follows the adventures of Alonso Quijano, an hidalgo who reads so many chivalric novels that he decides to set out to revive chivalry, under the name Don Quixote. This illustration depicts Quijano before he begins his quest.
Did you know
Today in literature
- 1605 - The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes was published in Madrid.
- 1634 - Dorthe Engelbrechtsdatter, Norwegian poet born
- 1747 - Barthold Heinrich Brockes, German poet died
- 1865 - Edmond François Valentin About, French writer died
- 1874 - Robert W. Service, Canadian poet born
- 1879 - Octave Crémazie, French Canadian poet died
- 1885 - Zhou Zuoren, Chinese writer born
- 1888 - Osip Brik, Russian writer born
- 1897 - Carlos Pellicer, Mexican poet born
- 1918 - Nel Benschop, Dutch poetess born
- 1923 - Anthony Hecht, American poet born
- 1928 - William Kennedy, American author
- 1933 - Susan Sontag, American writer born
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