Education in Argentina
Education in state institutions is free at the initial, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and in the undergraduate university level (not for graduate programs). Private education is paid, although in some cases (especially in primary and secondary schools) state subsidies support its costs. According to studies by UNESCO, education in Argentina and Uruguay guarantee equality to have institutional features that hinder the commercialization of education, as well as Finland has characteristics that favor multiethnic population education and special education, education favors Argentina equality. According to the last census, the illiteracy rate is 1.9%, the second lowest in Latin America. In the last decade, Argentina has created nine new universities, while the outflow of university students increased by 68%.
Education is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces and federal district and private institutions, though basic guidelines have historically been set by the Ministry of Education. Closely associated in Argentina with President Domingo Sarmiento's assertion that "the sovereign should be educated" ("sovereign" referring to the people), education has been extended nearly universally and its maintenance remains central to political and cultural debate. Even though education at all levels, including universities, has always been free, there are a significant number of private schools and universities.
- 1 History
- 2 Achievements
- 3 Characteristics
- 4 Universities
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The education in Argentina known as the Latin American docta has had a convoluted history. There was no effective education plan until President Domingo Sarmiento (1868–1874) placed emphasis on bringing Argentina up-to-date with practices in developed countries. Sarmiento encouraged the immigration and settling of European educators and built schools and public libraries throughout the country, in a programme that doubled the enrollment of students during his term; in Argentina, Teacher's Day (on September 11) commemorates his death. The first national laws mandating universal, compulsory, free and secular education (Law 1420 of Common Education) were sanctioned in 1884 during the administration of President Julio Roca. The non-religious character of this system, which forbade parochial schools from issuing official degrees directly but only through a public university, harmed the relations between the Argentine State and the Catholic Church, leading to resistance from the local clergy and a heated conflict with the Holy See (through the Papal Nuncio).
Following the University Reform of 1918, Argentine education, especially at university level, became more independent of the government, as well as the influential Catholic Church. The church began to re-emerge in country's secular education system during the administration Juan Perón, when in 1947, catechism was reintroduced in public schools, and parochial institutions began again receiving subsidies. A sudden reversal in the policy in 1954 helped lead to Perón's violent overthrow, after which his earlier, pro-clerical policies were reinstated by General Pedro Aramburu. Aramburu's Law 6403 of 1955, which advanced private education generally, and parochial, or more often, Catholic-run schools (those staffed with lay teachers), in particular, helped lead to the establishment of the Argentine Catholic University.
The program of deregulation and privatization pursued by President Carlos Menem in reaction to the country's socio-economic crisis of 1989 led to the decentralization of the Argentine secondary school system, whereby, from 1992 onward, the schools' administration and funding became a provincial responsibility. The policy's weakness, however, lay in that federal revenue sharing did not increase accordingly, particularly given the decision to shift two primary school years to the secondary system.
In spite of its many problems, Argentina's higher education managed to reach worldwide levels of excellence in the 1960s. Up to 2013 Argentina educated five Nobel Prize winners, three in the sciences: Luis Federico Leloir, Bernardo Houssay and César Milstein and two in peace: Carlos Saavedra Lamas and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, the highest number in Latin America surpassing countries economically more developed and populated as Ireland or Spain. In addition, as of 2010, Argentines are the only Latin Americans to have ever been honoured with a Rolf Schock Prize.
The Argentine population benefits from a relatively high level of educational attainment, by regional standards. Among those age 20 and over, the highest level attained, per the 2010 Census, was distributed thus:
Education in Argentina has four levels and two different systems: initial level (kindergarten, educación inicial), primary level (educación primaria), secondary level (educación secundaria) and tertiary level (educación superior).
In some provinces, primary level is called educación primaria or EP (Spanish for "primary education") and comprises grades first to sixth. Secondary level, called educación secundaria or ES (Spanish for "secondary education") comprises grades first to sixth (called years). EP and ES are divided in two stages, called ciclos ("cycles"):
- EP: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th (only in some provinces) school years
- ES: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th (Only in some provinces) school years
In some other provinces EP comprises grades first to seventh (the traditional system, established by Argentine law 1420/1884). ES comprises grades first to fifth (the traditional system, in use throughout the 20th century).
In both systems EP is mandatory to all students, as well as secondary education, according to the National Educational Law established in 2011.
The fourth stage is tertiary education, which includes both college and university education.
Education is funded by tax payers at all levels except for the majority of graduate studies. There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels. Around 11.4 million people were enrolled in formal education of some kind in 2005:
Qualification Modes of GradingEdit
The scale to grade up the academic performance in students at most of the primary and secondary schools rest in the 1-10 ladder as is described in the following frame.
|9 and 8||Highly Satisfactory|
|7 and 6||Satisfactory|
|5 and 4||Not satisfactory (failed)|
|3, 2, 1||Insufficient (failed, known as 'aplazo')|
As of the start of the 2019 school year, in 16 out of 24 jurisdictions (23 provinces + the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires), 6 is the minimum passing grade, while in the others is 7. In the University System however the scale can vary depending on the independent policies and statutes of grading of each independent Argentine University.
Accepted between ages 6 and 14. Primary education s the first EP cycles (grades 1–6). Because of the system that was in place during 1995-2007, most schools that offered 7 years of primary school prior to 1995 were forced to be converted and accept grades 8th and 9th, while others chose to eliminate 7th grade altogether, forcing students to complete the 3rd cycle in another institution.
Secondary education in Argentina comprises two levels. Years 1st to 3rd are common to all schools (Ciclo básico). Years 4th to 6th (in some provinces 4th to 5th) are organized in orientations (Ciclo orientado) such as Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Arts, Sport, Design, etc. An additional year is offered in certain schools (Technical-Professional schools), which grants a professional title, also with orientations (agriculture, electricity, mechanics, construction, etc.).
In many provinces the secondary education system is still divided in three traditional large groups, "Bachiller" schools (very similar to grammar schools with a huge emphasis on humanistic studies), "Comercial" schools (focusing on economic sciences and everything related to it) and "Escuelas Técnicas" (with a focus on technical and scientific assignments, this one having the particularity of lasting six/seven years instead of five/six, it used to be called "Industrial") each one subdivided in more specific orientations related to its main branch.
In December 2006 the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Congress approved a new National Education Law restoring the old system of primary followed by secondary education, making secondary education obligatory and a right, and increasing the length of compulsory education to 12 years. The transitional period ended in 2011.
In addition an adult system of high schools (usually called Acelerados, Spanish for accelerated) exists in order to guarantee secondary education to people over 18. Normally it consists in 2 or 3 years of intensive program of study and it is provided by a large number of public and private schools varying on each province. Night shift is available in order to satisfy those who work during the day. These high school diplomas are accepted to enroll in a university.
Argentina's network of vocational schools, many under the auspices of the National Technological University (UTN) or the provincial educational systems, have historically given students viable alternatives, as well.
As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed Argentina as having 160 international schools. ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation." This definition is used by publications including The Economist.
Higher Education in ArgentinaEdit
Argentine higher education system is based, since its conception during the colonial period, on the old and dogmatic Spanish higher education system, which is basically a Continental education system (opposed to the Anglo-Saxon Model). A historic event took place in the Reforma Universitaria de 1918, a highly-popular series of reforms that took place in the oldest university of the Country, the Universidad de Córdoba that finally paved the way to the modernization of the Argentinian higher university systems as it is known nowadays. Since its foundation, it was focused on the teaching of Professions offering Professional degrees.
It is divided in three levels .
- Tertiary Education level: 1- to 4-years degrees related to education or technical professions like Teachers, Professorship, Technicians.
- University level: 4- to 6-years of professional education taught at universities offering many different degrees, such as Licentiate, Engineer's degree, Medic Title, Attorney Title, Professorships, Translation degrees, etc.
- Post-graduate level: This is a specialized and research-oriented education level. It is roughly divided in a first sub-level where a Specialist degree can be obtained in a 12–18 months period or Master's degree, requiring 24–30 months and an original research work and a higher sub-level where a Doctorate degree could be achieved.
One important aspect is that Public universities at Tertiary Education level and at University level are tuition-free and open to anyone. Although it is not required to pay any kind of fee at universities, hidden costs of education, like transportation and materials, are often neglected and a lack of a well-developed and widespread scholarship system makes it hard for students from low-income families to enroll in public universities: for each eight students from the 20% upper-income class, there is only one student from the 20% lower-income class. In contrast, post-graduate education requires some form of funding and it is generally not free.
Additionally, financial pressure to freshman college students force them to join the work force before graduation, thus it is very common for young students to have full-time jobs and at the same time study at the University. This is considered beneficial because when the students graduate they already have working experience, though this could also be one of the causes of the high ratio of dropouts.
Argentina maintains a network of 39 National universities, financed by the Ministry of Education since 1946. Private and parochial universities are also abundant, numbering 46 among the active institutions and they enroll about a sixth of the collegiate student body (see University reform in Argentina and List of universities in Argentina). Summing up, over 1.5 million students attend institutions of higher learning in Argentina, annually (roughly half the population of college age).
Argentina does not have a standard and common system of examination after high school, thus admission to universities is strictly defined by each university. Moreover, a steady degradation in primary and secondary education created a huge difference between the required level to enter a university and the level achieved by the high school students. Some universities like University of Buenos Aires cope with this issue by creating a 1-year shared program called CBC that students need to complete in order to join the university.
The doctoral fields of study in Argentina are generally research-oriented doctoral studies, leading mostly to the awarding of the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science, Doctor of Medicine, and Doctor of Law, among others. Enrollment in doctorate programs in Argentina is available to candidates having earned a Licentiate, Professorships Engineer's degree or Master's degree in a related area of study.
Doctoral fields of study mostly pertain to one of five fields of knowledge: Applied Sciences, Basic Sciences, Health Sciences, Human Sciences and Social Sciences. The doctoral studies offered by the Argentine universities include multiple fields and do have national and international validity of the degrees granted.
Academic regulations governing doctorates, and their corresponding fields, in Argentina prescribe that all graduate courses must be accredited by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. This entity stands as a public and decentralized body working under the jurisdiction of the Department of Education, Science and Technology. It administers the process of evaluation and accreditation for all doctorate programs, and is responsible for the institutional evaluation of all such programs at a national level. Graduate programs, including the Doctorados (PhDs), set standards per guidelines set forth by the Ministry of Science and Technology, together with the Universities Council.
Additionally, external evaluations of the doctoral programs are carried out by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation, or private entities created to that effect, together with the participation of academic peers. Argentine institutions of higher education provide further accreditation by international establishments to many of their courses of studies.
- Autonomous University of Entre Ríos
- University of Buenos Aires
- National University Arturo Jauretche
- National University of Avellaneda
- National University of Catamarca
- National University of Chilecito
- National University of Córdoba
- National University of Cuyo
- National University of Entre Ríos
- National University of Formosa
- National University of General San Martín
- National University of General Sarmiento
- National University of José C. Paz
- National University of Jujuy
- National University of La Matanza
- National University of La Pampa
- National University of Patagonia
- National University of Patagonia Austral
- National University of La Plata
- National University of La Rioja
- National University of Lanús
- National University of Lomas de Zamora
- National University of Luján
- National University of Mar del Plata
- National University of Misiones
- National University of Moreno
- National University of Quilmes
- National University of Río Cuarto
- National University of Río Negro
- National University of Rosario
- National University of Salta
- National University of San Juan
- National University of San Luis
- National University of Santiago del Estero
- National University of the South
- National University of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands
- National University of Tres de Febrero
- National University of Tucumán
- National University of Villa María
- National University of Villa Mercedes
- National University of Central Buenos Aires
- National University of Austral Chaco
- National University of Comahue
- National University of Litoral
- National University of Noroeste of Buenos Aires
- National University of the Oeste
- National University of the Sur
- National Technological University
- National University Of San Anonio De Areco
- Technological Institute of Buenos Aires
- University Institute of Health Sciences - HA Barceló Foundation
- H. A. Barceló Foundation
- Open Interamerican University
- Adventist University of Plata
- Argentina University of the Company
- Universidad Argentina John F. Kennedy
- Atlantis Argentina University
- Austral University (Argentina)
- University Blas Pascal
- Caece University
- Catholic University Argentina
- Catholic University of Córdoba
- Catholic University of Cuyo
- Catholic University of La Plata
- Catholic University of Parana
- Catholic University of Salta
- Catholic University of Santa Fe
- Catholic University of Santiago del Estero
- Champagnat University
- University of Belgrano
- CEMA University
- Universidad Argentina de la Empresa
- University of Business and Social Sciences
- University of Concepcion del Uruguay
- University of Congress
- University of Flores
- University of Cuenca del Plata
- University of the Fraternity of St. Thomas Aquino Groupings
- University of Merchant
- University of Mendoza
- University of Morón
- University of Palermo
- University of San Andrés
- University of San Isidro (USI)
- University of Sao Paulo (Tucuman)
- University of Aconcagua
- University of the Latin American Educational Center
- University of Cinema
- University of the Argentine Social Museum
- University of North St. Thomas Aquinas
- University of Salvador
- 21st Century Business University
- University Favaloro
- University ISALUD
- Juan Agustín Maza University
- University Maimonides
- University Notarial Argentina
- Torcuato di Tella University
- Latino, Rosa María (March 2010), "Familia Infancia y Genero" (PDF), La travesía de la libertad ante el Bicentenario, X Seminario Argentino-Chileno, IV Congreso Interoceanico de Estudios Latinoamericanos., Mendoza, Argentina, Simposio 10: 9, ISBN 978-987-9441-40-4
- Esti Rein, Mónica. Politics and education in Argentina, 1946-1962. M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
- Delgado, Marta. Descentralización Educativa: entre una vieja utopía y la cautela Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
- Economy Ministry: National budget Archived 2009-09-20 at the Wayback Machine
- Universitarias, SPU - Secretaría de Políticas. "SPU - Secretaría de Políticas Universitarias". www.me.gov.ar.
- Science and Education in Argentina Archived June 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Argentine Higher Education Official Site Archived 2008-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
- "Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien". www.kva.se.
- INDEC (2010 Census): Población de 20 años o más por máximo nivel de instrucción alcanzado Archived 2014-04-18 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ministerio de Educación". Argentina.gob.ar. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- INDEC: sistema educativo Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
- "Home - International School Consultancy". www.iscresearch.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-02-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The new local". The Economist.
- "Realidad y propuestas para la Universidad Argentina", Alieto Aldo Guadagni, Academia Nacional de Educación
- "¿Se puede estudiar y trabajar al mismo tiempo?".
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Book of the Year. Statistical Appendix: Argentina.
- Clarin.com. "Un nuevo bochazo en el ingreso a la universidad".
- Doctorate Engine Seeker - CONEAU by Areas Disciplinarias[permanent dead link]
- Doctorates in Argentina Archived 2010-04-21 at the Wayback Machine
- Disciplinary Election in the Argentine University System Archived 2009-06-19 at the Wayback Machine Secretary of Academic Policies
- Postgraduate Career Guide Secretary of Academic Policies
- National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation Archived July 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva". Argentina.gob.ar. 30 October 2017.
- External evaluation — CONEAU[permanent dead link]
- Ministerio de Educación / Argentina
- Statistics and more statistics about education in Argentina
- World Data on Education 2010/2011 - Argentina (International Bureau of Education / Unesco)
- Country Dossiers: Argentina (International Bureau of Education / Unesco)
- Academia Nacional de Educación / Argentina
- Dirección Nacional de Información y Evaluación de la Calidad Educativa (DINIECE) (National Directorate for Information and Evaluation of Education Quality )
- Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria (National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation)
- Educational Research in Argentina, webdossier by the portal Education Worldwide (German Education Server)