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An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.[1]

The title is derived from the Old English title of ealdorman, literally meaning "elder man", and was used by the chief nobles presiding over shires.

Similar titles exist in other Germanic countries, such as the Swedish Ålderman, the Danish and Frisian Olderman, the Dutch Ouderman, the Finnish Oltermanni and the German Ältester which all mean "elder man" or "wise man".

Contents

Usage by countryEdit

AustraliaEdit

Many local government bodies used the term "alderman" in Australia. As in the way local councils have been modernised in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term alderman has been discontinued in a number of places. For example, in the state of Queensland before 1994, rural "shires" elected "councillors" and a "chairman", while "cities" elected a "mayor" and "aldermen". Since 1994, all local and regional government areas in Queensland elect a "mayor" and "councillors." (Australian capital cities usually have a Lord Mayor). An example of the use of the term alderman is evident in the City of Adelaide.[2] Aldermen were elected from the electors in all the wards.[3]

CanadaEdit

Historically, in Canada, the term "alderman" was used for those persons elected to a municipal council to represent the wards. As women were increasingly elected to municipal office, the term "councillor" slowly replaced "alderman", although there was some use of the term "alderperson". Today, the title of "alderman" is rarely used except in some cities in Alberta and Ontario, as well as some smaller municipalities elsewhere in the country, that retain the title for historical reasons.

IrelandEdit

The title "alderman" was abolished for local authorities in the Republic of Ireland by the Local Government Act 2001, with effect from the 2004 local elections.[4] Early usage of the term mirrored that of England and Wales. Local elections since the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1919 have used the single transferable vote in multiple-member electoral areas.[5][6] In each electoral area of a borough or county borough, the first several candidates elected were styled "alderman" and the rest "councillor".[7] Someone co-opted to fill a seat vacated by an alderman would be styled "councillor".[8]

England and WalesEdit

Although the term originated in England, it had no single definition there until the 19th century, as each municipal corporation had its own constitution. It was used in England, Wales and Ireland (all of Ireland being part of the United Kingdom from January 1801 until December 1922), but was not used in Scotland. Under the Municipal Reform Act 1835, municipal borough corporations consisted of councillors and aldermen. Aldermen would be elected not by the electorate, but by the council (including the outgoing aldermen), for a term of six years, which allowed a party that narrowly lost an election to retain control by choosing aldermen. This was changed by the Municipal Corporations Amendment Act 1910, so that outgoing aldermen were no longer allowed to vote.[9][10] Aldermen with voting rights were finally abolished under the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, except for the Greater London Council and the London borough councils, where they remained a possibility until 1977/1978.[11] County councils also elected aldermen, but not rural district and urban district councils.

Councils in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland still have the power to create honorary aldermen, as a reward for their services as a councillor, doing so at a special meeting to pass the title approved by two thirds of those attending.[12] This power is used much more often in Northern Ireland than in England or Wales, where councils may additionally designate up to a quarter of their elected councillors as aldermen.

In the City of London, but nowhere else, aldermen are still elected for each of the wards of the City, by the regular electorate, and until 2004 could hold office for life, but now have a term of not more than six years. They form the Court of Aldermen. To be a candidate to be Lord Mayor of the City of London, it is necessary to be an alderman and to have been a sheriff of the City of London.

In Scotland, the office of "baillie" bore some similarities.

"Alderman" is used for both men and women and may be prefixed to a person's name (e.g., Alderman John Smith, Alderman Smith or, for women, Alderman Mrs (or Miss) Smith).

South AfricaEdit

In South Africa the term "Alderman" refers to senior members of municipal assemblies.[13] They are distinguished from ordinary councillors for their "long and distinguished service as a councillor".[14] This can be achieved either via long term of service, or through alternative means such as 'point' systems.[15]

United StatesEdit

A "board of aldermen" is the governing executive or legislative body of many cities and towns in the United States. The term is sometimes used instead of city council, but it can also refer to an executive board independent of the council, or to what is essentially an upper house of a bicameral legislature (as it was in New York City until the 20th century). Its members are called "Alderman."

Some cities, such as Chicago, mix the two terms, thereby having a city council composed of aldermen. Some states such as Pennsylvania established aldermen in the 19th century to serve as local judges for minor infractions. Pennsylvania's aldermen were phased out in the early 20th century. Depending on the jurisdiction, an alderman could have been part of the legislative or judicial local government. Boards of aldermen are used in many rural areas of the United States as opposed to a larger city council or city commission.

Historically the term could also refer to local municipal judges in small legal proceedings (as in Pennsylvania[16] and Delaware).

Alderman is abbreviated as Ald., e.g.,

Ald. Danny Solis (25th) has overhauled the zoning application to spell out the purpose of the zoning change and identify everyone with an interest in the property -- including limited partnerships and liability corporations.

— Chicago Sun-Times, 10 Feb 2010

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Alderman". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010. 
  2. ^ "Adelaide - City Council, Town Hall and Allied Matters". Slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  3. ^ "Microsoft Word - 7540 ACC Rep Review Stage 1 Consultants Report FINAL - Volume 2.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  4. ^ O'Sullivan, Terry (2003). "Local Areas and Structures". In Callanan, Mark; Keogan, Justin F. Local Government in Ireland: Inside Out. Institute of Public Administration. p. 49. ISBN 9781902448930. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  5. ^ Deignan, Patrick (May–June 2009). "PR & the Sligo borough election of 1919". History Ireland. 17 (3). Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  6. ^ "Local Elections in Ireland". Ireland: Citizens Information Board. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2017. The electoral system is based on proportional representation with single transferable vote. 
  7. ^ Originally "Local Government (Ireland) Act 1919". Wikisource. 3 June 1919. Section 4 (2). Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  8. ^ "Local Government Act, 1941, Section 42". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  9. ^ kclancy. "Stoke-on-Trent memories of politician Terry Crowe". Thisisstaffordshire.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  10. ^ "Aldermen in Municipal Boroughs Bill (Hansard, 20 July 1910)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 20 July 1910. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  11. ^ Minors, Michael; Grenham, Dennis (March 2007). "London Borough Council Elections 4 May 2006" (PDF). Greater London Authority. ISBN 9781852612320. Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  12. ^ Local Government Act 1972 Part XII Section 249 (1)
  13. ^ Policy: Conferment of Aldermanship on Councillors of the West Coast District Municipality. West Coast District Municipality. http://westcoastdm.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/confernment_of_aldermanship.pdf
  14. ^ Policy Relating to the Conferment of Civic Honours. Sedibeng Municipality. http://www.sedibeng.gov.za/a_keydocs/20100914_honours_policy.pdf
  15. ^ "Councillor made alderman | IOL". Retrieved 2017-06-04. 
  16. ^ "Have Pittsburgh city councilors ever been called "aldermen"? I used to see "alderman" signs on an old building.". Pittsburghcitypaper.ws. Retrieved 2011-03-02.