Education in Greece

Education in Greece is centralized and governed by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs (Υ.ΠΑΙ.Θ.) at all levels. The Ministry exercises control over public schools, formulates and implements legislation, administers the budget, coordinates national level university entrance examinations, sets up the national curriculum, appoints public school teaching staff, and coordinates other services.

Education in Greece
Coat of arms of Greece.svg
Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs
MinisterNiki Kerameus
National education budget (2010)
Budget12,08 billion (public)
4% of GDP[1][2]
General details
Primary languagesGreek
System typeNational
Literacy (2014)
Total98%
Male99%
Female97%
Enrollment
Total1,426,175
Primary786,0251
Secondary360,2482
Post secondary276,9023

The national supervisory role of the Ministry is exercised through Regional Unit Public Education Offices, which are named Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary School Education.[3][4][5][6][7] Public schools and their supply of textbooks are funded by the government. Public school students attend free, tuition-free, and they provided free with textbooks from the state approved list.

About 25% of postgraduate programs have free tuition, while about 30% of students are eligible to attend programs tuition-free based on individual criteria.[8]

Formal education in Greece comprises three educational stages. The first stage of formal education is the primary stage, which lasts for six years starting at age six, followed by the secondary stage, which separates into two sub-stages: the compulsory Gymnasio, which lasts three years starting at age 12, and non-compulsory Lyceum, which lasts three years starting at 15.[9] The third stage involves higher education.

School holidays in Greece include Christmas, Greek Independence Day, Easter, National Anniversary Day, a three-month summer holiday, National Public Holidays, and local holidays, which vary by region such as the local patron saint's day.

In addition to schooling, the majority of students attend extracurricular private classes at private centres called "frontistiria" (φροντιστήρια, frontistirio), or one-to-one tuition. These centres prepare students for higher education admissions, like the Pan-Hellenic Examinations, and provide foreign language education.

It is forbidden by law for students to use mobile phones while in the school premises. Taking or making phone calls, texting, or the use of other camera, video or other recording devices or medium that have image and audio processing like smartwatches. Students must switch off their mobile phones or set them to silent mode and keep them in their bags.[10][11][12][13]

DiagramEdit

Greece Framework
Compulsory School Education PK9
Year in Schooling Age Designation Educational Stage
Pre-kindergarten Year 1 4–5 Pre-kindergarten Preschool
Kindergarten Year 2 5–6 Kindergarten
First grade Year 1 6–7 1st Grade Primary School
Second grade Year 2 7–8 2nd Grade
Third grade Year 3 8–9 3rd Grade
Fourth grade Year 4 9–10 4th Grade
Fifth grade Year 5 10–11 5th Grade
Sixth grade Year 6 11–12 6th Grade
Seventh grade Year 7 12–13 1st Grade Lower Secondary School
(Gymnasium)
Eighth grade Year 8 13–14 2nd Grade
Ninth grade Year 9 14–15 3rd Grade
Non-Compulsory School Education
Tenth grade Year 10 15–16 1st Grade Upper Secondary School
(Lyceum)
(US equivalent: High School)
Eleventh grade Year 11 16–17 2nd Grade
Twelfth grade Year 12 17–18 3rd Grade

PreschoolEdit

Most preschools, also known as pre-primary, are attached to and share buildings with a primary school. Preschool is compulsory and lasts 2 years, split into 1 year of Pre-kindergarten (Προνηπιαγωγείο) and 1 year of Kindergarten (Νηπιαγωγείο; Nipiagogeio).[14] Since the school year 2018–2019, children who would be four years of age by December 31 are required to begin attending preschool on September 11 of the same year.[a] Applications for registration and enrolment are usually carried out annually during fifteen consecutive days in May. After this period expires, students are neither allowed to register nor enroll.

  • 1st Year / Pre-Kindergarten (Προνηπιαγωγείο), age 4 to 5 years old (with some 3 year olds, about to turn 4, attending)[C]
  • 2nd Year / Kindergarten (Νηπιαγωγείο), age 5 to 6 (with some 4 year olds, about to turn 5, attending)
  1. ^ If September 11 is a Saturday or Sunday, then the start date would be the following Monday.

Primary educationEdit

Primary school (Δημοτικό, Dimotiko) is compulsory for 6 years.[15][16][17]

In Year 1 and Year 2, pupils are not officially graded. Grading begins in Year 3, and written exams are introduced in Year 5. Automatic progression exists from the one year to the next year. The school year starts on September 11 and ends on June 15. The school day starts at 08.15 hour and finishes at 13.15 hour. It comprises six academic years of schooling name τάξεις (grades), numbered 1 through to 6. Enrollment to the next tier of compulsory education, the Gymnasium, is automatic. The classes a week for a subject vary from the teacher who teaches. It is awarded "Απολυτήριο Δημοτικού" (Apolytirio Dimotikou, primary school leaving certificate) which gives automatic admission to the lower secondary education (gymnasium). Αges are typical and can vary with the most common ages approximately:[C]

Primary School National Curriculum

Subjects of Primary School Weekly Hours of Grades
(school year 2019-2020) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Modern Greek Language 9 9 8 8 7 7
Mathematics 5 5 4 4 4 4
Art 2 2 1 1 1 1
Music 1 1 1 1 1 1
History - - 2 2 2 2
Physics - - - - 3 3
Geography - - - - 2 2
Flexible Zone 3 3 2 2 - -
Religious Studies - - 2 2 1 1
Computer Studies 1 1 1 1 1 1
Physical Education 3 3 3 3 2 2
Theatrical Education 1 1 1 1 - -
Environmental Studies 4 4 2 2 - -
Social and Political Studies - - - - 1 1
English Language (Modern) 1 1 3 3 3 3
2nd Foreign Language (Modern; French or German) - - - - 2 2
Primary School Total Weekly Hours of Grades: 30 30 30 30 30 30

Secondary educationEdit

 
View of the Jewish school, Thessaloniki
 
The public school of Astros, built in 1915.

GymnasiumEdit

Gymnasium (Γυμνάσιο, Gimnasio, Lower Secondary Education School) is compulsory for 3 years.

Article 16, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution of 1975 mandated that compulsory education must be nine years in length. This constitutional provision, to apply to all Greek children, was enshrined in Law 309/1976, by which also was replaced classical Greek (polytonic system, katharevousa) by modern Greek (monotonic system, single-accent, dimotiki), as the official language for teaching at all levels of education, and ceased to be a one-tier non-compulsory six years lower and upper secondary school named gymnasium (pupils aged 12–18), converted to compulsory three years lower secondary school for pupils aged 12–15 named gymnasium and three years non-compulsory upper secondary school for pupils aged 15–18 named lyceum.

Admitted students can have a maximum age up to 16-years-old, while must have Primary Education School Certificate or its international equivalent. No entry exams required. Schooling starts on September 11 and ends on early June before the first day of the Pan-Hellenic Examinations. The lessons end on May 31 so that the students will be able to study for their examinations in early June. The gymnasium school awarded qualification "Απολυτήριο Γυμνασίου" (Apolytirio Gymnasium, gymnasium school leaving certificate, referred to simply as gymnasium certificate) at HQF (NQF) level 3, which gives automatic admission to the upper secondary education (lyceum). Gymnasium has three academic years of schooling known as "τάξη" (grade), numbered 1 through to 3. Ages are typical and can vary with the most common being are between:[18][16][17][C]

  • 1st Year / First grade (Πρώτη τάξη γυμνασίου), age 12 to 13-year-olds
  • 2nd Year / Second grade (Δευτέρα τάξη γυμνασίου), age 13 to 14
  • 3th Year / Third grade (Τρίτη τάξη γυμνασίου), age 14 to 15

The types of gymnasium in Greece are:

  • Gymnasium
  • Evening Gymnasium
  • Ecclesiastical Gymnasium
  • Gymnasium of Cross-Cultural Education
  • Experimental Gymnasium (to enter must pass certain exams on Maths,
    Science, Reading Comprehension and Writing - the last two are written as one)
  • Integrated Special Vocational Gymnasium-Lyceum (ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ.-Λ; 4 years for the gymnasium)
  • Music Gymnasium (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a musical instrument)
  • Art Gymnasium (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on either arts, dance, or theater; 2004–Present)

Gymnasium National Curriculum Curriculum

Subjects of Gymnasium Weekly Hours of Grades
(school year 2019-2020) 1st 2nd 3rd
Modern Greek Language 3 2 2
Modern Greek Literature 2 2 2
Ancient Greek Language 2 2 2
Ancient Greek Literature 2 2 2
Mathematics 4 4 4
Chemistry - 1 1
Physics 1 2 2
Biology 1 1 1
History 2 2 2
Art 1 1 1
Music 1 1 1
Technology 1 1 1
Geography 1 2 -
Home Economics 2 - -
Religious Studies 2 2 2
Computer Studies 1 1 1
Physical Education 2 2 2
Social and Political Studies - - 2
English Language (Modern) 2 2 2
2nd Foreign Language (Modern; French or German) 2 2 2
Gymnasium Total Weekly Hours of Grades: 32 32 32

LyceumEdit

Lyceum (Λύκειο, Lykeio, Upper Secondary Education School; High School: the US term for upper secondary school) non-compulsory education 3 years.

Lyceum school starts on September 11 and ends on June 15. Lessons end in late May so that the students will be able to study for their examinations in June. Admitted students can have a maximum age up to 20-year-old, while must have Gymnasium Certificate or Lower Secondary Education School Certificate or its international equivalent. The Evening Lyceum (Εσπερινό) is for both adult students and underage working students lasts 3 years since 2020–2021 academic year.[19][20] After having completed the 3rd grade, the graduates of the Lyceum are awarded the "Απολυτήριο Λυκείου" qualification (Apolytirio Lykeiou, Lyceum Apolytirio, upper secondary leaving certificate, high school diploma, referred to simply as lyceum certificate) at HQF(NQF) / EQF level 4, at ISCED level 3.[21][22] The marking scale on the Apolytirio Lykeiou (GPA) is set to a 20-point grading system, law 4610/2019.[23][A] The Lyceum Apolytirio is required for admission to Higher Education and to continue studies, and is an equivalent in level to the GCE Advanced Level.[24][25]

Students wishing to access study programmes in Higher Education must be both secondary education school graduates (lyceum or its equivalent) holding Apolytirio Lykeiou (lyceum certificate or its equivalent) and must take nationally set examinations officially entitled "Πανελλαδικές Εξετάσεις" (Pan-Hellenic Examinations, Panelladikes Eksetaseis) which is an externally assessed national standardized test given one time in any given school year, which also accept all adult ages for candidates. Apolytirio certificate grants the right to pursue entry to higher education at a later date by participating at the Pan-Hellenic Examinations. Ministry of Education bears the responsibility for the central organization of these matriculation examinations. Candidates exam in 4 subjects that have selected from the 3rd grade of lyceum, while different numerical value titled "συντελεστής βαρύτητας" (coefficient weight) has assigned to each of those subjects contributes differently towards the overall score.

Successful admission is determined through the combination of a) "Βαθμός Πρόσβασης", literally "the access score", that is the candidate's weighted average of the grades achieved in examinations, b) the candidate's "Βαθμός Προαγωγής και Απόλυσης" Β.Π.Α. represents the student's sum of all three Grade Point Averange (GPA) earned in 1st, 2nd, 3rd Grade of lyceum each of these is multiplied by a given coefficient weight where the result is divided by two, Β.Π.Α. = (1st Grade GPA × 0.4 + 2nd Grade GPA × 0.7 + 3rd Grade GPA × 0.9) / 2, c) the candidate's "μηχανογραφικό δελτίο" (michanografiko deltio, application form) in which it states its preferences for the higher education institutions by priority order, d) the available number of places allocated in each academic department. The number of students that are admitted for each programme is determined annually by the Ministry of Education. As there are usually more applicants than places available in certain fields of study, students with the highest average exam results are selected, e) For admission to programmes requiring specialised knowledge or skills, special admission examinations are require in one or more certain subjects (such as fine arts, architecture, music studies, foreign languages, and others) or compulsory preparatory tests (health, sports, psychometric). "Βεβαίωση Πρόσβασης" (Vevaiosi Prosvasis, Access to Higher Education Certificate) is a document given to students soon after Pan-Hellenic Examinations results are released.

Lyceum designates school class levels based on the years of schooling of the student cohort, using 3 academic year levels, known as "τάξη" (grade), numbered 1 through to 3. Ages are typical[C] and can vary with the most common being are between:

  • 1st Year / First grade (Πρώτη τάξη λυκείου), age 15 to 16-year-olds
  • 2nd Year / Second grade (Δευτέρα τάξη λυκείου), age 16 to 17
  • 3rd Year / Third grade (Τρίτη τάξη λυκείου), age 17 to 18

The types of lyceum (Λύκειο) in Greece are:

  • Μουσικό Λύκειο (Mousiko Lykeio; Music Lyceum; 3 years, 1988–Present)
    (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on a musical instrument)
  • Πειραματικό Λύκειο (Peiramtiko Lykeio; Experimental Lyceum; 3 years, 1995–Present)
    (to enter this type of schools students must pass certain exams on Mathematics, Science,
    Reading Comprehension and Writing [the last two are written as one])
  • Γενικό Λύκειο (ΓΕΛ; Geniko Lykeio; General Lyceum; 3 years, 1976–1996, 2006–Present)
  • Γενικό Λύκειο Διαπολιτισμικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΓΕΛΔΕ; i.e. comprehensive lyceum type;
    Diapolitismiko Lykeio; General Lyceum of Cross-Cultural Education; 3 years, 2018–Present)
  • Καλλιτεχνικό Λύκειο (Kalitexniko Lykeio; Art Lyceum; 3 years, 2006–Present)
    (to enter this type of school students must pass certain exams on either arts, dance, or theater)
  • Eπαγγελματικό Λύκειο (ΕΠΑΛ; Epagelmatiko Lykeio; Vocational Lyceum; EPAL; 3 years, 2006–Present)
  • Εσπερινό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (Esperino Epagelmatiko Lykeio; Evening Vocational Lyceum; 3 years)
  • Εσπερινό Γενικό Λύκειο (Esperino Geniko Lykeio; Evening General Lyceum; 3 years, 1976–Present)
  • Γενικό Εκκλησιαστικό Λύκειο (ΓΕΕΛ; Ekklisiastiko Lykeio; Ecclesiastical General Lyceum; 3 years, 2006–Present)
  • Ενιαίο Ειδικό Επαγγελματικό Γυμνάσιο-Λύκειο (ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ-Λ; Integrated Special Vocational Gymnasium-Lyceum; 4 years for the lyceum)
Lyceum Timetable
Days Hours Times From - To Duration Break
  • Monday
  • Tuesday
  • Wednesday
  • Thursday
  • Friday
1st 08.15 - 09.00 45' 5'
2st 09.05 - 09.50 45' 10'
3rd 10.00 - 10.45 45' 10'
4th 10.55 - 11.40 45' 10'
5th 11.50 - 12.30 40' 5'
6th 12.35 - 13.15 40' 5'
7th 13.20 - 14.00 40' -
Evening Lyceum Timetable[19]
Days Hours Times From - To Alternate Times From - To Duration Break
  • Monday
  • Tuesday
  • Wednesday
  • Thursday
  • Friday
1st 18.00 - 18.40 18.30 - 19.10 40' -
2st 18.40 - 19.20 19.10 - 19.50 40' 15'
3rd 19.35 - 20.15 20.05 - 20.45 40' -
4th 20.15 - 20.55 20.45 - 21.25 40' 15'
5th 21.10 - 21:50 21.40 - 22.20 40' -
6th 21.50 - 22:30 22.20 - 23.00 40' -
- - - - -

General Lyceum (GEL)Edit

General Lyceum (GEL; Γενικό Λύκειο; ΓΕ.Λ.; Geniko Lykeio).[26][27][28]

It awarded "Απολυτήριο Γενικού Λυκείου" (Apolytirio Genikou Lykeiou, General Lyceum Apolytirio, General Lyceum Certificate, Upper Secondary Leaving Certificate, General High School Diploma). It can be awarded in Orientation Groups requiring an advanced level in a number of four different subjects (advanced level subjects, or also known as high level subjects), depending on the group. The second-grade students must choose one out of the two academic tracks named "Ομάδες Προσανατολισμού" (Orientation Groups), and the third-grade students one out of the four Orientation Groups. The Orientation Group is also known as Stream. Once it has selected a Stream it needs to follow a sequence of subjects to complete it. If they wish, graduating students are eligible to exam in Pan-Hellenic Examinations on four subjects of their chosen third-grade Orientation Group.

General Lyceum (GEL) National Curriculum 2019-2020
Subjects of General Lyceum Weekly Hours of Grades Orientation Groups of the Third Grade Weekly Hours
1st 2nd 3rd 3rd
Modern Greek Language 2 2 - Humanities, Law and Social Sciences I. Group
Modern Greek Literature 2 2 - History 7
Ancient Greek Language 5 2 - Sociology 7
Mathematics (Algebra) 2 2 - Ancient Greek Language 7
Chemistry 2 2 - Modern Greek Language and Literature 6
Physics 2 2 - Sciences II. Group
Biology 2 2 - Physics 7
History 2 2 - Chemistry 7
Philosophy - 2 - Mathematics 7
Political Studies 3 2 - Modern Greek Language and Literature 6
Religious Studies 2 2 1 Health Sciences III. Group
Physical Education 2 1 2 Biology 7
Research Creative Activities 2 1 - Physics 7
Foreign Language (English or French or German) 2 2 - Chemistry 7
Introduction to the Principles of Computer Sciences - 1 - Modern Greek Language and Literature 6
Elective Subject (it must choose 1 out of the 4 subjects) - - 2 Economic and Computer Studies IV. Group
1. Foreign Language (English, or French, or German) IT Applications Development in Programming Environment 7
2. Freehand drawing Mathematics 7
3. Linear drawing Principles in Economic Theory 7
4. Latin Modern Greek Language and Literature 6
Orientation Group (Elective) - 5 -
(it must choose 1 out of the 2 Orientation Groups)
Sciences Orientation Group Weekly Hours
Mathematics 2
Physics 3
Humanities Orientation Group Weekly Hours
Basic Principles of Social Sciences 2
Ancient Greek Language and Literature 3
Orientation Group (Elective Academic Track) - - 27
Total Weekly Hours of Grades 35 35 32

Vocational Lyceum (EPAL)Edit

Vocational Lyceum (EPAL; Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο; ΕΠΑ.Λ.; Epagelmatiko Lykeio).[29][27][26][30][31][20][32][33][34][17]

It awarded "Απολυτήριο Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου" (Apolytirio Epagelmatikou Lykeiou; Vocational Lyceum Apolytirio; Vocational Lyceum Certificate; EPAL Certificate; Upper Secondary Leaving Certificate; High School Diploma). EPAL High School Diploma is a Double Diploma. Double Diploma is double-subject studies which lead to the attainment of one diploma qualification for two different fields of study at the same time corresponding to two separate diplomas. EPAL High School Diploma comprises two qualifications in their own right taken alongside being awarded independently of each other, a High School Diploma and a Specialisation Diploma. EPAL High School Diploma can be awarded in Orientation Groups (specializations or streams) requiring an advanced level in a number of four different subjects (advanced level subjects, or also known as high level subjects), depending on the group.[35][36][37][38][39]

The EPAL High School Diploma is imposed by two fields of study, a Specialisation Diploma programme which is an elective integrated occupational specialism programme (academic track, school-based VET) completed within the number of core subjects required for a High School Diploma. EPAL Specialisation Diploma, also called "Specialist Diploma", is titled "Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας" at HQF(NQF) level 4. EPAL students graduate from both curricula concurrently receiving two qualifications separately, an EPAL Specialisation Diploma parchment, and an EPAL High School Diploma parchment issued with both curricula listed, and both curricula are listed on a student's attainment transcript. EPAL High School Diploma programme of study is designed in relation to the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO).[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]

The Grade 2 students must choose one of nine Orientation Groups, also known as "τομείς" sectors (penultimate year). The Grade 3 students must choose one of varying specialisations (or specialties) titled "ειδικότητες" (final year, specialties corresponding those orientation groups offered in Grade 2). The chosen orientation group at the Grade 2 it is cannot switch at Grade 3. The Grade 2 subjects contributes only to the half of a full Grade 3 Specialty, and do not constitute a separate qualification. Until a maximum age up to 20-year-old lyceum graduates are exempted from all core subjects from Grades 2 and 3 of the EPAL lyceum and they can be directly admitted to EPAL Grade 2, meaning these students when will graduate, it will only be awarded EPAL Specialisation Diploma.

EPAL High School Diploma is required for admission to Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) and to continue studies, and is an equivalent in level to the GCE Advanced Level.[24] Students normally select their chosen Specialty in fields relevant to intended study at the higher education, and in Pan-Hellenic Examinations, if they wish, exam in 4 advanced level subjects of the Grade 3 which are 2 subjects of chosen Specialty with 3.5 coefficient weight per subject, and 2 subjects of general education with 1.5 coefficient weight per subject.[51]

EPAL Specialisation Diploma is titled "Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας", shortened to simply "Πτυχίο", and transliterated to "Ptychio" (Greek: Πτυχίο; Ptychio in dhimotiki from 1976–present; or defunct Πτυχίον; Ptychion in polytonic, katharevousa up until 1976). The Greek word "Πτυχίο" has translation into English as "Degree", it is a qualification term has common meaning in Greece. It signifies that it is a direct translation from the terminology in Greek as it appears in the Greek legislation. In Greece, the word "Πτυχίο" is commonly used for titles of study from different education levels (secondary, higher etc.). It must not confuse with its usage in the English language, whereby the word Degree refers to Higher Education qualification title only. Greece Universities' Degree is titled "Πτυχίο", transliterated to "Ptychio", signifies that it is a University Ptychio, Higher Education Ptychio, Level 6 Ptychio. EPAL Specialisation Diploma either standalone parchment or integrating into an EPAL Certificate parchment, is an Upper Secondary Education Ptychio, Level 4 Ptychio. EPAL Certificate (comprises by default an EPAL Specialisation Diploma) is one parchment having two qualification both and it can be called either as an EPAL Lyceum Certificate or as an EPAL Specialisation Diploma (Level 4 Ptychio).

Students that they don't want to continue to tertiary education, they have the option to choose "Mathitia". With, "Mathitia", the students can upgrade the EPAL Lyceum Certificate or as an EPAL Specialisation Diploma (Level 4 Ptychio) from Level 4 to Level 5. During the year, the students work for 4 days in a workplace of their specialisation and 1 day at school lessons at their laboratories. Also, the students are paid during their work.

Vocational Lyceum (EPAL) National Curriculum 2019-2020
Subjects of Vocational Lyceum Weekly Hours of Grades Specialties of the Third Grade
1st 2nd 3rd
Modern Greek 4 3 3

Specialties of Structural Works, Environment and Architectural Design

1. Structural Engineer and Geoinformatics

Specialties of Αgriculture, Food and Environment

1. Crop Production Technician

2. Animal Production Technician

3. Food and Beverage Technology Technician

4. Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Technician

Specialties of Business Administration and Economics

1. Tourism Businesses Clerk

2. Marketing and Advertising Specialist

3. Clerk of Administration and Financial Services

4. Warehouse and Supply Systems Clerk (logistics)

Specialties of Applied Arts

1. Graphic Arts

2. Design-Interior Decorations

3. Furnishings and Wood Sculpture

4. Design and Production of Clothing

5. Restoration and Conservation of Works of Art

6. Silver-Gold-Smithing (Jewellery Designer-Maker)

Specialties of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation

1. Technician of Electronics and Computer Systems,
Installations, Networks and Telecommunications

2. Technician of Electrical Systems, Installations and Networks

Specialties of Mechanical Engineering

1. Automotive Technician

2. Aircraft Assembly Technician (aviation)

3. Technician of Thermal and Hydraulic Installations
and Technology of Oil and Natural Gas

4. Mechanical Engineering and Construction Technician

5. Technician of Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Specialties of Maritime Professionals

1. Merchant Navy Engineer

2. Merchant Navy Master (Captain)

Specialties of Information Technology

1. Information Technology Applications Technician

2. Computer Engineer and Computer Networks Technician

Specialties of Health, Welfare and Wellbeing

1. Nursing Assistant

2. Pharmacy Assistant

3. Physiotherapy Assistant

4. Aesthetic Art (cosmetology)

5. Hairdressing Art (Hairdresser and Barber)

6. Assistant of Medical-Biological Laboratories

7. Assistant of Radiological Laboratories (radiography)

8. Infant Care Assistant (also referred to as Nursery Assistant)

9. Dental Assistant (also referred to as Dental Nursing Assistant)

Mathematics (Algebra) 3 2 2
Mathematics (Geometry) 1 1 1
History 1 - -
Biology 1 - -
Physics 2 1 2
Chemistry 1 1 1
Political Studies 2 1 1
Religious Studies 1 1 -
Physical Education 2 1 1
Creative Activities Zone 3 1 1
English Language (Modern) 2 1 1
Research Project in Technology 2 - -
School Occupational Orientation 2 - -
Applications of Computer Science 2 - -
Introduction to the Principles of Science of Computers - 1 1
Three Elective Subjects (each subject is 2 hours/week)

(A total of three subjects must be selected)

  1. Nautical Art
  2. Health Education
  3. Principles of Economics
  4. Principles of Mechanical Engineering
  5. Agriculture and Sustainable Development
  6. Principles of Linear and Architectural Design
  7. Basic Principles of Composition (Applied Arts)
  8. Principles of Electrical Engineering and Electronics
6 - -
Orientation Group (Elective Academic Track)

(Orientation Group Subjects in total are 23 hours/week.
It must choose one out of the nine Orientation Groups)

  1. Αgriculture, Food and Environment
  2. Business Administration and Economics
  3. Structural Works, Environment and Architectural Design  
  4. Applied Arts
  5. Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation
  6. Mechanical Engineering
  7. Maritime Professionals (shipping)
  8. Information Technology (IT)
  9. Health, Welfare and Wellbeing
- 23 -
Specialty (Elective Academic Track)

(Specialty Subjects in total are 23 hours/week.
One Specialty must choose based on the Orientation Group
has already been studied previously at Second Grade.)

- - 23
Each Grade has 32 Weeks and 35 Total Weekly Hours 35 35 35
Subjects of Pan-Hellenic Examinations:
(Four Advanced Level Subjects of the Third Grade)
Modern Greek, Mathematics (Algebra), Two Specialty Subjects

Vocational education and trainingEdit

When applying for admission or enrolment, candidate students are to those who are duly qualified. It must have all the legal eligibility requirements and valid documentation, outlined by the directives of applicable laws, regulations, and policies, imposed by the Greek governmental authorities. As the prerequisite health medical certificate of five consecutive years validity for the Ho.Re.Ca programmes of study (hotel, restaurant, catering, F&B), or allied healthcare programmes, or unless otherwise programme specialty required to have passed the relevant specialized examinations.[52][53][54]

Vocational School (EPAS)Edit

The Vocational School (EPAS) (Επαγγελματική Σχολή; ΕΠΑ.Σ.; 1985–Present) or Trade School (EPAS) of OAED is 2 years' duration. Also known as Vocational School of Apprenticeship (Επαγγελματική Σχολή Μαθητείας, Epaggelmatiki Sxoli Mathitias), shortened to EPAS Apprenticeship or simply to EPAS. EPAS Apprenticeship is an upper secondary two-track education system, Dual VET (Greek: δυικό σύστημα επαγγελματικής εκπαίδευσης και κατάρτισης), having alternating periods in a school with theory classroom and at the workplace with work-(traineeship) practice experience,[B] with terms are contractually regulated by law and labour agreement. Balance between school-and work-based training: in-company (ca. 70%) + school (ca. 30%). Student insurance and two-part agreement (Greek: Σύμβαση Μαθητείας) between the student and apprenticeship company are applied. Generally, the maximum number of students that can register in a given education programme is up to 20. Apprenticeship (Greek: Μαθητεία) is based on the German dual learning system which combines classroom education with paid practical work in a business. EPAS is operated by Workforce Employment Organisation of Greece (OAED).[55][56][57] The EPAS of OAED provides its students in having an apprenticeship term work placement by finding and coordinating it. Students are entitled to receive at least the national minimum wage for their age. The majority of these students are classed as unskilled workers (entry-level). Admitted students are aged from 15–16 to 23-year-old maximum who must have completed at least the lyceum first grade. The EPAS of OAED awarded "Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Σχολής" (i.e. Vocational School Diploma) at HQF level 4.

Specialties of Vocational School (EPAS) of OAED 2020–2021[58]
  • Aesthetic Art (cosmetology)
  • Hairdressing (Hairdresser and Barber)
  • Technician of Automotive Body (coachwork)
  • Technician of Automotive Electrical Systems
  • Technician of Automotive Engines and Systems
  • Technician of Gaseous Fuels (physical gas)
  • Technician of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Works
  • Technician of Thermal and Hydraulic Installations-Facilities
  • Hotel Businesses
  • Financial Operations Clerk
  • Administrate Operations Clerk
  • Carpentry and Joinery
  • Technician of Metal Constructions
  • Cookery (culinary)
  • Bakery and Patisserie (pastry)
  • Milk Processing and Cheese Making
  • Pharmacy Aide
  • General Nursing Aide
  • Infant General Care Aide
  • Textile and Apparel
  • Silver-Gold-Smithing
  • Watchmaking (horology)
  • Ceramics and Angioplasty
  • Phytotechnology Business and Landscaping Architecture
  • Graphic Arts and Printing (offset printing machine for typography)
  • Graphic Arts and Digital Design for Print Media (print publications)
  • Technician of Electronic Appliances, Installations and Informatics Units
  • Technician of Electrical Works
  • Technician of Shipping Industry
  • Aircraft Assembly Technician (aviation)
  • Technician of Support Computer Systems

Post-lyceum Year Apprenticeship ClassEdit

Post-lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class (Μεταλυκειακό Έτος Τάξη Μαθητείας; 2016–Present) is provided by Vocational Lyceum (ΕΠΑL).[59][60][61] Only EPAL graduates and Lyceum graduates hold EPAL Specialization Diploma are admitted to Post-lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class being regarded as a separate and distinctive stage of post-secondary education (i.e. Μετα-δευτεροβάθμιου Κύκλου Σπουδών). It includes 1 year post-secondary apprenticeship dual programme (non-tertiary; Dual VET two-track vocational training system) belongs to the non-formal education having alternating periods in an EPAL school unit with theory classroom (1 day/week, 7 hrs per day) and at the workplace with work practice training (4 days/week, 7 hrs per day). All apprenticeships schemes should include a contract (i.e. Greek: Σύμβαση Μαθητείας), wage and social security rights/benefits to student which is a trainee referred to simply as "apprentice". EPAL Apprenticeship Class programmes are based on Workforce Employment Organisation (OAED) at its dual learning principle and follow the same quality framework for apprenticeships. Graduates of the apprenticeship class will receive "Βεβαίωση Πιστοποίησης Μεταλυκειακού Έτους Τάξης Μαθητείας" (Certificate of Post-Lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class) signifies completion of Apprenticeship Class programme. If they wish the Apprenticeship Class graduates are therefore eligible to take the National Accreditation Examinations (i.e. Greek: Εξετάσεις Πιστοποίησης) will be held at EOPPEP examination centers. Once, they have been passed all examinations then are awarded "Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας, Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης, επιπέδου 5", i.e. Diploma of Vocational Education and Training) at HQF level 5.[62][63][64]

Specialties of Post-Lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class
  • Medical - Biological Laboratories Assistant
  • Food and Beverage Technology Technician
  • Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
  • Clerk of Administration and Financial Services
  • Warehouse and Supply System Clerk (logistics)
  • Silver-Gold-Smithing (Jewellery Designer-Maker)
  • Technician of Computers and Computer Networks
  • Graphic Arts
  • Hairdressing Art
  • Nursing Assistant
  • Brewer Technician
  • Pharmacy Assistant
  • Infant Care Assistant
  • Automotive Technician
  • Physiotherapy Assistant
  • Tourism Businesses Clerk
  • Aesthetic Art (cosmetology)
  • Crop Production Technician
  • Apparel Design and Production
  • Aircraft Assembly Technician (aviation)
  • Information Technology Applications Technician
  • Technician of Structural Works and Geoinformatics
  • Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Technician
  • Mechanical Installations and Constructions Technician
  • Technician of Electrical Systems, Installations and Networks
  • Dental Assistant (also referred to as Dental Nursing Assistant)
  • Technician of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) Installations
  • Technician of Electronics and Computer Systems, Installations, Networks and Telecommunications
  • Technician of Thermal and Hydraulic Installations-Facilities, Petroleum Technology and Physical Gas

Vocational Lyceum (EPAL)Edit

Vocational Lyceum 3 years (EPAL; Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο; ΕΠΑ.Λ.; 2006–Present)

Special Vocational Education Centre (ΕΕΕΕΚ)Edit

Special Vocational Education Centre (Εργαστήριο Ειδικής Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης; Ε.Ε.Ε.ΕΚ.), 6 years special education at HQF Level 2

Public Schools of Tourism EducationEdit

Public Schools of Tourism Education (ΔΣΤΕ; Δημόσιες Σχολές Τουριστικής Εκπαίδευσης) are operated by Ministry of Tourism. Types are the Further-training Programmes of Employees in Tourism Sector (non-formal education); Schools of Tourist Guides; Institutes of Vocational Training (IEKs) comprise the specialties of Cookery (commercial culinary arts), Bakery and Patisserie (commercial pastry), Tourism Units and Ηospitality Businesses (front office / reception, floor service / housekeeping, commodity education), Specialist of Business Administration and Economics in the Tourism Field.[65]

School of Meat Professions (SEK)Edit

Α School of Meat Professions (SEK; Σχολή Επαγγελμάτων Κρέατος; Σ.Ε.Κ.; 1977–Present) is accredited by the Ministry of Rural Development and Food. There are public and private schools of meat professions. The 300 hours programme has 85 hours theory classes at school and 100 hours laboratory classes (ca. 61.6%), 15 hours educational visits (ca. 5%), 100 hours in-company work-based training (internship, ca. 33.3%). The term is 5 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. The specialties of the School of Meat Professions are, Meat Processing Technician (meat cutter, butcher, Greek: κρεοπώλης), Animal Slaughter (Greek: εκδοροσφαγέας).[66][67]

Laboratory Centre (ΕΚ)Edit

Laboratory Centre (Εργαστηριακό Κέντρο; Ε.Κ.; 2013–Present), 3 years non-formal secondary education. Admitted students must have completed at least the lower secondary education school (gymnasium or its equivalent). Awarded "Βεβαίωση Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης" (literally "Certificate of Vocational Training"). After examinations awarded "Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας και Κατάρτισης, Επιπέδου 3" (i.e. Diploma of Vocational Education and Training) at HQF level 3.

Institute of Vocational Training (IEK)Edit

Institute of Vocational Training (I.E.K.; Ινστιτούτο Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης 1992–Present), 2 years adult non-formal post-secondary vocational education and training at HQF level 5 and 960 hours at a work placement (experiential learning, practicum). Admitted students must have completed at least the upper secondary education (lyceum). EOPPEP organisation is the statutory body for the IEKs.[68] See a list of IEK study programmes, click on the "[show]" below:[69][70][71][72][73]

Institute of Vocational Training (IEK)
IEK Specialties Departments Fields
Forestry protection specialist ‒ Beekeeping ‒ Poultry farming ‒ Greenhouse specialist ‒ Organic and ecological farming ‒ Technological applications and installations for floriculture and landscape architecture ‒ Mechatronics specialist for agricultural machinery repair and maintenance Agriculture Agriculture,
Food Technology, Nutrition
Nutrition and dietetics ‒ Food and beverage technology Food Technology, Nutrition
Management secretary ‒ Distribution specialist ‒ Customer service specialist ‒ Secretary of legal professions ‒ Teiresias/Individuals with vision problems/call centre operators Business Administration Business Administration
and Economics
Sales clerk ‒ Warehouse and supply system clerk (logistics) ‒ Supplies and warehouse manager ‒ Insurance services clerk ‒ Bookstore clerk ‒ Computerized accounting office clerk (accountancy) ‒ Small business clerk ‒ Bank operations clerk ‒ Accounting office clerk ‒ Publishing house clerk ‒ Real estate agent / manager ‒ International commerce specialist ‒ Stock exchange operations clerk ‒ Industry - small business cost specialist ‒ Marketing and product promotion specialist ‒ Administrative and financial business specialist ‒ Statistical market research and polling specialist Economics
Internet technician ‒ Information Technology (IT) applications specialist (multimedia, web design and development, video games) ‒ Computer systems technician ‒ Computer networks technician ‒ Multimedia applications technician ‒ Medical Information Technology (IT) applications technician ‒ Computer and office electronic machines technician ‒ System management and intranet / internet services technician ‒ Telecommunications and information transmission systems technician Information Technology (IT)
and Computing
Technology Applications
Material control technician ‒ Technician of medicines, cosmetics and similar products Chemical Applications
Clothing styling ‒ Clerical tailor ‒ Costume and fashion designer ‒ Technician of shoemaking, leatherwear and leather accessories Apparel and Footwear
Structural projects ‒ Plastering ‒ Dry lining ‒ Painter ‒ Welder ‒ Masory and bricklaying ‒ Geographical Information Systems (GIS) specialist ‒ Topographical applications Structural Projects
Gaseous fuels technician ‒ Automotive technician ‒ Mechatronics technician ‒ Heating facilities technician ‒ HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) installations technician ‒ Moped and motorcycle technician ‒ Work machinery technician ‒ Thermal and hydraulic facilities technician ‒ Water supply and sewage facilities technician ‒ Automotive paint and body (coachwork) repair technician ‒ Marine engines and recreational boats technician ‒ Computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool technician Mechanical
Elevator technician ‒ Automation technician ‒ Medical instruments technician ‒ Automotive electrical technician ‒ Household appliances electrician ‒ Power engines winding technician ‒ Technician of measuring instruments ‒ Technician of internal electrical installations-facilities ‒ Assembly technician of small electronic devices ‒ Computer and office electronic machines technician ‒ Mobile telephony and telecommunications technician ‒ Electronic engineering technician for industrial applications ‒ Radio-Television and electro-acoustic arrangements technician ‒ Telecommunications and information transmission systems technician Electrical,
Electronics,
Automation
Merchant navy master (captain) for recreational vessels (leisure) Maritime Professions
Sports journalism ‒ Journalism editor and reporter ‒ Radio station programme producer ‒ Film-camera operator/videographer Communication
and Mass Media
Bartending (commercial) ‒ Cookery (commercial culinary) ‒ Bakery and Patisserie (commercial pastry) ‒ Catering units services ‒ Hospitality animator ‒ Hospitality event management ‒ Tourism units and hospitality businesses (front office / reception, floor service / housekeeping, commodity education) Hospitality
and Tourism Businesses
Pharmacy aide ‒ Midwifery aide ‒ Ergotherapy aide ‒ Physiotherapy aide ‒ Nursing surgery aide ‒ General nursing aide ‒ Dental technician aide ‒ Medical laboratory aide ‒ Nursing traumatology aide ‒ Aide of actinology and radiology ‒ Special diseases nursing aide ‒ Oncology disease nursing aide ‒ Infant and child carer aide ‒ General nursing aide of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) ‒ Rescuer of ambulance crew Health and Welfare
Mosaic and stained glass ‒ Ceramics and pottery ‒ Watchmaking (horology) ‒ Acting in theatre and cinematography ‒ Drama arts direction ‒ Dance applied arts ‒ Music and song ‒ Music technology ‒ Sound recording ‒ Photography ‒ Painting art ‒ Art of sketch, illustration, graphics ‒ Metalworking ‒ Hagiography painting (Byzantine icons and mural) ‒ Jewellery design and handmade jewellery (designer and maker) ‒ Conservation of antiquities and works of art ‒ Painting conservation woodcraft and furniture making ‒ 3D Animation and graphic electronic design ‒ Graphic designer of print and electronic media ‒ Interior architectural decoration and objects design Applied Arts
and Art Studies
Aromatherapy ‒ Hairdressing (hairdresser and barber) ‒ Cosmetologist, aesthetics and make-up (make-up beautician) ‒ Podology, nail beauty (manicure, pedicure) and onychoplasty ‒ Balneotherapy hydrotherapy and spa ‒ Balneotherapy thalassotherapy and spa ‒ Sport coach ‒ Oenology and winegrowing ‒ Milk processing ‒ Mount tourist guide ‒ Carnival constructions ‒ Persons (close protection officer) and sites security specialist ‒ Guard of museums and archaeological sites ‒ Trainer of candidade drivers of car and motocycle ‒ Air transoprt service specialist (flight dispatcher) ‒ Technical operator for personal computer and call centers, customer information and service for blind and visually impaired ‒ Preschool education activities of creation and expression Separate Fields
and Schools

Tertiary education in GreeceEdit

 
View of the Ionian Academy, Corfu

Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, provided by Higher Educational Institutes (HEIs; Greek: Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα; Α.E.I.) and consist of Universities and specialist Academies, which primarily cater to the military. They are mostly autonomous, but the government is responsible for their funding and the distribution of students to undergraduate programs. Higher Education Institutions in Greece are public universities[74] and can be attended without charge of a tuition fee, textbooks, and for the majority of students meals are also provided for free. About 25% of postgraduate programs have free tuition, while about 30% of students are eligible to attend programs tuition-free based on individual criteria.[8][75] Each academic year is 32 weeks study programme, divided into two semesters of 16 weeks each. The University Center of International Programmes of Studies (UCIPS) of the public International Hellenic University (IHU) offers postgraduate programmes that are fully taught in English.

According to the article 16 of the Greek constitution, private tertiary education is not allowed in Greece, and the government only recognizes the degree programmes offered by the public universities. In Greece, private colleges are Post-secondary Education Centres (Greek: Κέντρα Μεταλυκειακής Εκπαίδευσης; ΚΕ.Μ.Ε) at non-formal education level operate under the proper registration accredited by the Ministry of Education.[76][77][78] Usually, most private colleges have been authorised to offer foreign undergraduate and postgraduate programmes following franchise or validation agreements with collaborating universities established in other countries, primarily in the UK, leading to degrees awarded directly by those foreign universities.

Non-formal educationEdit

Formal education system is the system of primary, secondary and higher (tertiary) education. The formal education private education schools in Greece are dimotiko (primary education), gymnasio (lower secondary), lykeio (upper secondary). The bodies of "non-typical education" term (φορείς μη τυπικής εκπαίδευσης), although they are fully or partially regulated by the state and lead to officially recognised qualifications, they are outside the formal education system, referred to as non-formal education. Some of the well-known include:[79][80]

  • Centre of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (KEDIVIM; Greek: Κέντρο Επιμόρφωσης και Δια Βίου Μάθησης; Κ.Ε.ΔΙ.ΒΙ.Μ.)[81][82]
    Shortened to Centre of Lifelong Learning (LLC). According to premise standards has the level 1 and 2 (Kε.Δι.Βι.Μ.1; Kε.Δι.Βι.Μ.2).
  • Post-secondary Education Centre (Greek: Κέντρo Μεταλυκειακής Εκπαίδευσης; ΚΕ.Μ.Ε) to which the Private Colleges belong[83]
  • Vocational Training Centre (KEK; Greek: Κέντρo Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης; Κ.Ε.Κ.). It is a Centre of Lifelong Learning (LLC).
  • Post-lyceum Υear Apprenticeship Class which is a post-secondary programme exclusively for EPAL lyceum graduates only
  • Institute of Vocational Training (IEK) specifically provides post-secondary adult vocational education and training (VET)
  • Second Chance Adult School (SDE; Σχολείο Δεύτερης Ευκαιρίας; Σ.Δ.Ε.) which is a Gymnasium level equivalent.[84]
    For adults who do not have complete the lower secondary education. 2 years evening school, 25 hours/week.
    Education and Lifelong Learning programme of the Ministry of Education.
  • Laboratory Centre (EK)

HQF levelsEdit

The National Qualification Framework (NQF) of Greece is officially named Hellenic Qualification Framework (HQF; Greek: Ελληνικό Πλαίσιο Προσόντων)[85] has an 8-level framework that unites non-formal and formal qualifications aligned to the appropriate levels from the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP; Greek: Εθνικός Οργανισμός Πιστοποίησης Προσόντων και Επαγγελματικού Προσανατολισμού; Ε.Ο.Π.Π.Ε.Π.) and for qualifications granted by Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) in according to the National Authority for Higher Education (NAHE; Greek: Εθνική Αρχή Ανώτατης Εκπαίδευσης; ΕΘ.Α.Α.Ε.). The HQF is linked to the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and to the Qualifications Framework in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA). The HQF is the Greek Register of Regulated Qualifications (Μητρώο Ρυθμιζόμενων Τίτλων) provides information for the accredited awarding bodies and the regulated qualifications of study (officially recognized) in Greece. The learning-outcomes-based qualification frameworks level systems of HQF, EQF, ISCED have reference levels classify the learning outcomes into reflection of study load (the amount of credit points), knowledge, skills, grant equal professional rights of level,[86] attainment covering formal and non-formal education recognized programmes which are designed within a national context and to make grades more comparable in an international context. See a list of HQF levels, click on the "[show]" below:

Hellenic Qualification Framework (HQF)
HQF Level Qualifications Awarding Bodies EQF Level ISCED Level
0 0 0
1 Απολυτήριο Δημοτικού
(literally "Apolytirio Primary";
i.e. Primary School Leaving Certificate)
  • Primary School
1 1
2 Απολυτήριο Γυμνασίου
(literally "Apolytirio Gumnasium";
i.e. Lower Secondary School Leaving Certificate)
  • Gymnasium
  • Art Gymnasium
  • Music Gymnasium
  • Evening Gymnasium
  • Experimental Gymnasium
  • Ecclesiastical Gymnasium
  • Gymnasium of Cross-Cultural Education
  • Integrated Special Vocational Gymnasium-Lyceum (ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ-Λ)
2 2
Απολυτήριο Εργαστηρίου
Ειδικής Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης

(Apolytirio Special Vocational Education Centre)
  • Special Vocational Education Centre (Ε.Ε.Ε.ΕΚ.)
3 Βεβαίωση Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης
(literally "Certificate of Vocational Training";
i.e. Vocational Training School Specialty Certificate)
  • Laboratory Centre (ΕΚ)
3 3
Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας και Κατάρτισης
(literally "Ptychio of Vocational Specialisation and Training";
Level 3 Ptychio; i.e. Diploma of Vocational Education and Training.
For Laboratory Centre (ΕΚ) graduates only after examinations.)
  • National Organisation for the Certification
    of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP)
Βεβαίωση Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης (discontinued)
(literally "Certificate of Vocational Training";
i.e. Vocational Training School Specialty Certificate;
One year post lower secondary programme; discontinued.
Students are entitled to apply for admission until an age limit.
For Lower Secondary Education (Gymnasium) graduates only.)
  • Vocational Training Institute (IEK)
Πτυχίο (discontinued)
(literally "Ptychio"; Level 3 Ptychio;
i.e. Secondary Education Diploma)
  • Technical Vocational School (TES; discontinued; 1977–1998)
  • Technical Vocational Training Centre, Cycle-A (TEE; discontinued)
4 Απολυτήριο Λυκείου
(literally "Apolytirio Lyceum";
i.e. High School Diploma;
Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate)
Lyceums:
  • Art Lyceum
  • Music Lyceum
  • Experimental Lyceum
  • General Lyceum (GEL)
  • Evening General Lyceum
  • Vocational Lyceum (EPAL)
  • Evening Vocational Lyceum
  • Athletic Lyceum (discontinued)
  • Ecclesiastical General Lyceum
  • Integrated Lyceum (discontinued)
  • General Lyceum of Cross-Cultural Education
  • Integrated Multilateral Lyceum (EPL; discontinued)
  • Technical Lyceum (equivalent; discontinued; 1977–1985)
  • Vocational Lyceum (equivalent; discontinued; 1977–1985)
  • Technical Vocational Lyceum (TEL; equivalent; discontinued)
  • Gymnasium (i.e. integrated gymnasium-lyceum; discontinued)
  • Integrated Special Vocational Gymnasium-Lyceum (ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ-Λ)
  • Technical Vocational Training Centre, Cycle-B (TEE; equivalent; discontinued)
4
Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας
(literally "Ptychio Vocational Specialisation";
Level 4 Ptychio; i.e. Vocational Specialist Diploma;
Vocational Specialisation Diploma)
  • Vocational Lyceum (EPAL)
Πτυχίο Λυκείου Ενιαίου Ειδικού
Επαγγελματικού Γυμνασίου-Λυκείου

(literally "Ptychio Lyceum of Integrated Special
Vocational Gymnaisum-Lyceum"; Level 4 Ptychio)
  • Integrated Special Vocational Gymnasium-Lyceum (ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ-Λ)
Πτυχίο (discontinued)
(Apolytirio Lyceum equivalent. Literally "Ptychio";
Level 4 Ptychio; i.e. Double Diploma has:
Apolytirio Lyceum and Specialisation Diploma)
  • Technical Lyceum (discontinued; 1977–1985)
  • Vocational Lyceum (discontinued; 1977–1985)
  • Technical Vocational Lyceum (TEL; discontinued)
  • Technical Vocational Training Centre, Cycle-B (TEE; discontinued)
Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Σχολής
(literally "Ptychio Vocational School";
Level 4 Ptychio; i.e. Vocational School Diploma)
  • Vocational Training School (EPAS)
    of the Workforce Employment Organisation (OAED; 1985–Present.
    OAED organisation belongs to the Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs.)
Πτυχίο (discontinued)
(Literally "Ptychio";
Level 4 Ptychio; i.e. Vocational School Diploma)
  • Vocational School (EPAS)
    of the Ministry of Education (discontinued; 2006–2013)
  • Specialist Programme, Integrated Multilateral Lyceum (EPL; discontinued)
5 Βεβαίωση Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης
(literally "Certificate of Vocational Training";
i.e. Vocational Training School Specialty Certificate.
For EPAL Post-lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class graduates.)
  • Ministry of Education
    in cooperation with Workforce Employment Organisation (OAED)
5 4
Πτυχίο Επαγγελματικής Ειδικότητας και Κατάρτισης
(literally "Ptychio of Vocational Specialisation and Training";
Level 5 Ptychio; i.e. Diploma of Vocational Education and Training.
For EPAL Post-lyceum Year Apprenticeship Class graduates only
after examinations.)
  • EOPPEP Organisation
Βεβαίωση Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης
(literally "Certificate of Vocational Training";
i.e. Vocational Training School Specialty Certificate)
  • Institute of Vocational Training (IEK)
Δίπλωμα Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης
(literally "Diploma of Vocational Education and Training".
For IEK graduates only after examinations.)
  • EOPPEP Organisation
Πτυχίο
(literally "Ptychio"; non-tertiary education;
Level 5 Ptychio; i.e. Level 5 Diploma;
Level 5 Post-secondary Diploma)
  • Advanced School of Tourism Education of Rhodes (ASTER)
  • Advanced School of Tourism Education of Crete (ASTEK)
  • Hellenic Police Constable School
  • Fire Service Academy:
    • a. School of Junior Fire Officers.
    • b. School of Senior Fire Officers.
    • c. School of Fire Officers.
    • d. Training and Further Education School.
    • e. National Civil Protection School.
6 Πτυχίο
(literally "Ptychio"; first-cycle tertiary education;
Level 6 Ptychio; i.e. First University Degree;
Bachelor's degree; Undergraduate degree.
Αlso known as "Πτυχίο Ανώτατης Εκπαίδευσης"
literally "Ptychio Higher Education".)
  • Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
  • Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs; discontinued;
    a type of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); 1983–2019.
    TEI undergraduate programmes consisted of four years
    1995–2019 and 240 ECTS, previously a three and a half
    years 1983–1995 and 210 ECTS law 1404/24-11-1983.)
6 6
7 Δίπλωμα
(literally "Diploma";
second-cycle tertiary education; Level 7 Diploma;
At least 5 years duration; i.e. Integrated master's degree;
Long First Degree; Double Degree has Bachelor's and Master's)
  • Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
7 7
Μεταπτυχιακό Δίπλωμα Ειδίκευσης
(literally "Postgraduate Specialized Diploma";
second-cycle tertiary education; Level 7 Postgraduate Diploma;
Level 7 Diploma; i.e. Second University Degree; Master's degree)
  • Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
  • Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs; discontinued;
    a type of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); 1983–2019.
    TEI Level 7 postgraduate programmes 2008–2019 law 3685/2008.)
8 Διδακτορικό Δίπλωμα
(literally "Doctoral Diploma"; third-cycle tertiary education;
Level 8 Diploma; Level 8 Postgraduate Diploma;
i.e. Third University Degree; Doctoral degree)
  • Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
8 8
  • The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) levels and the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) levels are levels equivalent to the Hellenic Qualification Framework (HQF).
  • In Greece, the use of Higher Education legally protected academic term "Degree", either first, second, third cycle, has an equivalent to Greek Higher Education. Any assertion or use the term either degree, or Bachelor's degree, Associate's degree, Foundation's degree, from a Greece located school (non-Higher Education) at HQF level less than 6, is a criminal offence and prohibited by law.
  • The accredited Private Colleges, which belong to the Post-secondary Education Centres (ΚΕΜΕ), are non-formal and not have relation with HQF as their qualifications are from foreign countries.
  • Equivalent qualification is a qualification declared by the relevant Course Authority to have a sufficient similarity of content to another qualification, despite having a different title or different level.
  • Database index herein may not reflect recent changes and is not an exhaustive list of existing qualifications, awarding bodies, discontinued or defunct qualifications and awarding bodies.
  • An education programme when it was offered it was from-to academic years, e.g. 1983–1995 means this programme was from 1983–1984 to 1994–1995 academic year.
  • Officially, the discontinued qualifications abide by the particular laws in which first defined, are currently still retaining their initial value and HQF level.
  • All TEIs in Greece were reformed between 2013 and 2019 and their departments incorporated into existing Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).
  • Not all discontinued qualifications have a legitimately corresponding equivalent qualification (the newly adapted version) at present time.
  • Double Diploma is a Double Award; by award, it means any awarded qualification e.g. Certificate, Diploma, Degree, and others.
  • Discontinued qualification is no longer offering, being withdrawn, being reformed qualification, or transition to new qualification.
  • Discontinued awarding body is no longer a stand-alone entity due to either has been phased out, closure, or replacement.
  • An equivalent qualification of study is recognised on par with a qualification, and carries value at same level and purpose.
  • The awarding bodies are private and public type, where applicable. All the Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) are public.
  • Data as at January 2020. The latest and up to date HQF levels information are published in the HQF's website.[85]

Former education schoolsEdit

This section is for defunct education schools due to either closure or replacement, in which it is not an exhaustive list.

Secondary Vocational Schools of Ministry of Education (Υ.ΠΑΙ.Θ.):

  • Επαγγελματική Σχολή (ΕΠΑΣ; Vocational School; 2 years; Law 3475/2006; 2006–2013)[87]
    25 hours/week. Only subjects of specialization. Admitted students must have completed at least
    the first grade of the upper secondary education school (lyceum). Awarded Specialisation Diploma.
  • Σχολικό Εργαστηριακό Κέντρο (ΣΕΚ; Schooled Vocational Training Centre; SEK; 3 years, 1986–2013)
  • Τεχνική Επαγγελματική Σχολή (ΤΕΣ; Technical Vocational School; 2 years; Law 576/1977; 1977–1998)[88]
    70% subjects of specialization and 30% subjects of general education. Admitted students must have completed at least
    the final year of the lower secondary education school (gymnasium graduates or its equivalent). Awarded Specialisation Diploma.

Varied Schools:

  • Σχολές Τουριστικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΣΤΕ; Schools of Tourism Education; Law 2387/2000; 2000–2003)
  • Σχολές Τουριστικών Επαγγελμάτων (ΣΤΕ; Schools of Tourism Professions; Law 567/1937; 1937–2000)
  • Κέντρα Ανωτέρας Τεχνικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΚΑΤΕ; Centers for Higher Technical Education; Law 652/1970; 1970–1977)
  • Δημόσιες Τεχνικές Σχολές Υπομηχανικών (ΔΤΣΥ; Public Technical Schools of Assistant Engineers; 4 years, 1959-1966)
  • Κέντρα Επαγγελματικής και Τεχνικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΚΕΤΕ; Centres of Vocational and Technical Education; 2 years secondary education)
  • Οργανισμός Τουριστικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης (ΟΤΕΚ; Organization of Tourism Education and Training; Law 3105/2003; 2003–2013)
  • Κέντρα Ανωτέρας Τεχνικής και Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΚΑΤΕΕ; Centers for Higher Technical-Vocational Education; Law 576/1977; 1977–1983)

Higher Education Institutes of Ministry of Education:

  • Τεχνολογικό Εκπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα (ΤΕΙ; Technological Educational Institute; 4 years, previously 3½ years (1983-1995), university status, 1983–2019)

Lyceums of Ministry of Education (Υ.ΠΑΙ.Θ.):

  • Αθλητικό Λύκειο (Athletic Lyceum; 3 years)
  • Ενιαίο Λύκειο (Integrated Lyceum; 3 years, 1997–2006)
  • Τεχνικό Λύκειο (Technical Lyceum; 3 years; Law 576/1977; 1977–1985)
  • Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (Vocational Lyceum; 3 years; Law 576/1977; 1977–1985)
  • Γυμνάσιο (Gymnasium; integrated 3 years lower and 3 years upper secondary school)
  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο (ΤΕΕ; Technical Vocational Training Centre; 3 years; Law 2640/1998; 1998–2006)[89][90]
  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (ΤΕΛ; Technical Vocational Lyceum; 3 years; Law 1566/30.09.1985, 1985–1998)
    awarded upper secondary leaving certificate titled "Πτυχίο Τεχνικού Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου", Technical Vocational Lyceum Ptychio (Level 4),
    i.e. Technical Vocational Lyceum Diploma was one (double) qualification has both an Apolytirio and a Specialisation Diploma, 34 hours/week,
    i.e. High School Diploma comprising core curriculum and tech-vocational curriculum subjects awarded one parchment with both curricula listed
For a list of Specialties, see below click on the "[show]", comprises the Technical Lyceum, the Vocational Lyceum, the Technical Vocational Lyceum:[91][92]
Specialties of Technical, Vocational, Technical Vocational Lyceum
Technical Vocational Lyceum Specialties (19851998)
Technical Lyceum Specialties (19771985) Vocational Lyceum Specialties (19771985)
Specialties of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Sector
  • Industry Electrical Installations-Facilities and External Networks
  • Electronic Installations-Facilities and Automations
  • Internal Electrical Installations-Facilities
  • Electric and Electronics Design
  • Technicians and Computers
Specialists of Chemical and Metallurgical Sector
  • Chemical Laboratories
  • Chemical Industries
  • Mines
Specialties of Weaving and Textile Sector
  • Weaving-Textile
  • Plaiting
  • Dyeing
  • Textile
Specialties of Structural Sector
  • Designer of Works of the Structural Engineers and Architects
  • Transportation and Hydraulic Engineering
  • Buildings Projects
Mechanical Engineering Sector
  • Instustry Installations and Industry Manufactory
  • Thermal and Cooling Installations
  • Precision Instruments
  • Mechanical Design
Information Technology Sector
  • Computer Software Programmer
Specialties of Applied Arts Sector
  • Conservator of Antiquities and Works of Art
  • Ceramics and Artistic Processing of Glass
  • Freehand Drawing and Painting
  • Mosaic and Stained Glass
  • Interior Designer
  • Graphic Arts
  • Furnishings
  • Printing
  • Music
Specialties of Business Administration and Economics Sector
  • Warehouse and Supply System Clerk
    (former Nautical and Transportation Business)
  • Accounting Office Clerk (accountancy)
  • Commercial Businesses
  • Hospitality Businesses
  • Business Office Clerk
Specialties of Agriculture and Livestock Sector
  • Agri-food Societies and Agricultural Holdings
  • Fish Production and Fishery
  • Agricultural Machinery
  • Forestry Production
  • Animal Production
  • Crop Production
  • Floriculture
Specialties of Social Services Sector
  • Dental Assistant (or Dental Nursing Assistant)
  • Assistant of Medical-Biological Laboratories
  • Assistant of Infant Carers and Child Carers
  • Medical Devices Operator
  • Physiotherapy Assistant
  • Medical Representative
  • Pharmacy Assistant
  • Nursing Assistant
  • Dietetic
Specialties of Maritime Sector
  • Merchant Navy Master (Captain)
  • Merchant Navy Engineer
  • Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο (ΕΠΛ; Integrated Multilateral Lyceum; 3 years; Law 1566/1985; 1985–1997). For a list of Specialties, see below click on the "[show]":[93][94]
Fields of Study of Integrated Multilateral Lyceum
First Grade (Year 1)
Second Grade (Year 2)
Cycle 1, Human and Health
Cycle 4, Mechanical Technology
Cycle 2, Health, Natural Sciences, Social Welfare
Cycle 5, Electrical, Electronics Technology
Cycle 3, Business Administration and Economics
Cycle 6, Chemical Technology
No Fields of Study of the Third Grade (Year 3) Cycles Specialist Programmes (Fourth Grade, Optional Year 4) Code
1 C Desmi (Four Advanced Level Subjects) 1 non-offerings -
2 Business Administrative Services - Secretaries 1, 3 Administrative Clerks TE2
3 Librarianship (Library Operations) 1, 3 non-offerings -
4 Information Technology (IT) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Computer Programmers (of Secondary Education) TE4
5 Β Desmi (Four Advanced Level Subjects) 2, 4, 5, 6 non-offerings -
6 Medical Laboratories 2, 6 Assistant Technicians of Biological and Medical Laboratories TE6
7 Social Welfare 1, 2, 3 Social Welfare Guardian TE7
8 D Desmi (Four Advanced Level Subjects) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 non-offerings -
9 Economics 3 Financial Services Clerk TE9
10 Applied Arts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Graphic Designer TE10
11 A Desmi (Four Advanced Level Subjects) 2, 4, 5, 6 non-offerings -
12 Structural Works 4 non-offerings -
13 Mechanical 4 Automotive Technician TE13
14 Electrical 5 Electricians of General Electrical Applications TE14
15 Electronics 5 Technicians of Electronic Applications TE15
16 Chemistry 2, 4, 5, 6 Sheet Metal Technicians TE16
17 Agriculture 6 Technician of Agri-food Societies and Agricultural Holdings TE17
Technician of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture
Technician of Arboriculture and Horticulture
  • A student may choose to lengthen its period of study for an optional (additional) secondary education year of a Specialist Programme (Specialty), also known as Fourth Grade.
  • Approximate equivalence for Greek names are the Cycles (Greek: Κύκλοι), Fields (Greek: Κλάδοι), Specialist Programmes (Τμήματα Ειδίκευσης) or shortened to Specialties.
  • Specialist Programme (Fourth Grade, Year 4) has only specialist courses (subjects) and is only for Integrated Multilateral Lyceum graduates.
  • The Integrated Multilateral Lyceum (1985–1997) was a selective school only.

Education issuesEdit

  • Corruption in Greece in public sector has the first place of all EU countries, and is the most corrupt country in the European Union, a survey revealed in 2012.[95] The Greek public schools lack a human resource development, having huge corruption at all education levels according to the Global Corruption Barometer. According to the 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International, Greece is the 60th least corrupt country out of the 180 countries worldwide,[96][97][98][99] scored 48% corruption out of 100%,[100][101][102] of the perceived level of public level corruption on a scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (clear).
  • Accounts of reports of the Greece National Transparency Authority (EAD; formerly Inspectors-Controllers Body for Public Administration; SEEDD)[103][104] show criminal offences, complaints, lawsuits and criminal prosecutions are against public school trainers, teachers and directors were found to commit violations; using profane, obscene, or ethnically offensive language; organized crime activities; copyright infringement; fraud; personal data theft; use of handphone and other unauthorised electronic and mobile devices during curriculum time; sexual abuse assault from students and teachers; corruption; forgery; extortion; illegal fees; embezzlement of school funds; all forms of bullying.
  • The public Institute of Vocational Training (IEK) trainer employment fixed-term contracts are restricted to specifically candidates only, while all the rest applicant trainers remain in vein. One official of Ministry of Education, public IEK director and deputy director are entitled each semester to decide who will be hire for IEK contracting trainers, while the subject to fulfilling the trainer entry criteria omits, as well many of them receive their contracting appointment using, as a rule, unfair means.
  • The public school teachers and majorly the public ΙΕΚs trainers are not selected for their competence, ethic, value, and teaching performance. Rather, they are identified by virtue of their educational attainment. This very fact has discouraged proactive improvement of education and subsequently has reduced the quality in general.
  • About 95% of public IEKs lack laboratories, premises, libraries, prescribed textbooks which they will have to be purchased at student its own cost. The main findings include IEK students’ delayed arrival in class and whole days and hours chronic absenteeism over the years permitted freely from many trainers who do not keep record of the student absence. The public IEK graduates have very lower limited employment rate with highly per cent rejection within labour market due to their lower performance.
  • Individual employers often offer an exploitative internship or apprenticeship term to a student with a consequence of labour law violations.
  • Many IEK trainers during class hours distributed on the school premises their personal printed cards to advertise their profit purpose services or goods which are on offer.
  • The Greek public schooling is undergoing a crisis with the Greek Ministry of Education (Υ.ΠΑΙ.Θ.) has consistently hides itself and refuses to answer officially once an official report and complaint has been submitted by officially students of a public school by using registered postal mail and/or via online with student's certified email account (has the same legal value with a registered postal mail) or student school authenticating user name and password serves as its electronic authorization, according harassment, disruptive behavior, threats, misconduct, criminal offenses, abuse, assault, fraud, malpractice, maladministration, discrimination, intimidation, that happen during the school's hours and breaks at school's premises performed either by other students or public school teachers and headteachers. This practice maily followed by the General Secretariat for Vocational Education and Training and Life-Long Learning (General Secretariat EEKDBM; Greek: Γενική Γραμματεία Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης, Κατάρτισης και Δια Βίου Μάθησης; Γενική Γραμματεία Ε.Ε.Κ.Δ.Β.Μ; formerly General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning; Γενική Γραμματεία Διά Βίου Μάθησης; Γ.Γ.Δ.Β.Μ.) of Greece Ministry of Education (Υ.ΠΑΙ.Θ.) and its Department of Educational Personnel Administration of Life-Long Learning (Τμήμα Διοίκησης Εκπαιδευτικού Προσωπικού Δια Βίου Μάθησης). There is no defence for this distinctly illegal act, vulgarity, corruption of the Ministry of Education.
  • Greece was controversial for its legal disciplinary measure of school corporal punishment because was widely used and allowed in public schools, performed by school teachers under the Principal's express authority, until it was banned in 1998 at primary schools and in 2005 at secondary schools.[105][106] The physical punishment took place in front of all students consisted in the form of caning the buttocks of a student with a paddle or strap, caning on the palm of the hand with a wood stick, hitting a student's face.
  • The former government agency of ΟΕΕΚ (Οργανισμός Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης; English: Organisation for Vocational Education and Training; which replaced by Εθνικός Οργανισμός Πιστοποίησης Προσόντων και Επαγγελματικού Προσανατολισμού; ΕΟΠΠΕΠ; English: National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance; EOPPEP) had embezzled €6,000,000 of European Commission funds. Since 30 July 2010, an official investigation on the criminal conspiracy theft began from the EU Council of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and European Convention on Human Rights.[107][108][109]
  • One out of the three public school students in Greece have received physical violation and abuse include verbal at 56.5 percent, followed by physical abuse at a rate of 30.5 percent and the threat of social exclusion at 27.8 percent. Greece ranks 4th place of student bullying amongst Europe countries according to the 1st European Anti-Bullying Network Conference, "Bullying and Cyberbullying Across Europe", Conference Proceedings, Athens, 2015 EAN (Ευρωπαϊκό Δίκτυο κατά του Σχολικού Εκφοβισμού).[110][111]
  • Offences and corruption committed by highly rank or wealth persons holding public education school positions are rarely properly and transparently prosecuted.
  • The tuition fee requirement from the most Greek Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) postgraduate programmes is contrary and entirely violating the Constitution of Greece, that all Greek citizens (and certain foreigners who live and work in the country) are entitled to free education on all levels at state educational institutions. The same violation act was done from the founding (law 2009/1992) of the Institutes of Vocational Training (IEKs) where all public IEK students were required to pay up to €367 statute fee for every semester up until the 2012-2013 academic year, that has been repealed since 2013-2014 academic year (article 22, law 4186/2013).[26][112][113][114][115][116][117]

See alsoEdit

  • Latin honors
  • Educational stage
  • Academic grading in Greece
  • Education in ancient Greece
  • Open access to scholarly communication in Greece
  • Κέντρο Εκπαιδευτικής Έρευνας, Το Ελληνικό Εκπαιδευτικό Σύστημα Συνοπτική εικόνα σε αριθμούς, Αθήνα, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-108-3) [1] (accessed June 1, 2006)
  • Education Research Centre - Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, The Greek Education System. Facts and Figures (Supervision: Prof. V. Koulaidis. Compiled by C. Papakyriakopoulos, A. Patouna, A. Katsis & S. Georgiadou), Athens, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-106-7)

NotesEdit

A.^ The Grade Point is on the form of numerical value or letter value applied to a student’s grade in a subject (μάθημα). The grade point average (GPA) is the average number of a student’s collective accumulated final grade points earned in subjects taken (successfully or not). The form of GPA[118] is measured on a scale of 0 to 20 scale, 0 to 10 scale, 0.0. to 4.0 scale, to letters grades.
In Greece, Single Award or Single Subject is the combined study in school of two or three assessment subjects (units) collectively that results in one subject achieves one grade overall from completing the subject. e.g. lyceum Maths Algebra and Manths Geometry results in Maths subject that is called Maths Single Award. The Double Award or Double Subject is the combined study in school of two or three assessment subjects collectively that results in two subject achieves two grade overall from completing the subjects. By award, it means any awarded qualification e.g. Certificate, Diploma.
B.^ A practicum term is a Co-operative Education Employment programme where the student is a trainee-in-practice employee, known as apprentice, in a work placement, having a contract CDD.
C.^ Typical ages refer to the ages that normally correspond to the age at entry and ending of a cycle of education. These ages relate to the theoretical duration of a cycle assuming full-time attendance and no repetition of a year. The assumption is made that, at least in the ordinary education system, a student can proceed through the educational programme in a standard number of years, which is referred to as the theoretical duration of the programme.

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