Mohammed V of Morocco
Mohammad Al-Khamis Ben Youssef Ben Mohammed Al-Alaoui (Arabic: محمد الخامس بن يوسف بن الحسن بن محمد بن عبد الرحمن بن هشام بن محمد بن عبد الله بن إسماعيل بن إسماعيل بن الشريف بن علي العلوي), known as Mohammed V (10 August 1909 – 26 February 1961) (Arabic: محمد الخامس), was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953; he was recognized as Sultan again upon his return from exile in 1955, and as King from 1957 to 1961. His full name was Sidi Mohammed ben Yusef, or Son of (Sultan) Yusef, upon whose death he succeeded to the throne. He was a member of the Alaouite dynasty.
|Mohammed V of Morocco|
|King of Morocco|
|Reign||14 August 1957 – 26 February 1961|
|Sultan of Morocco|
|Reign||30 October 1955 – 14 August 1957|
|Predecessor||Mohammed Ben Aarafa|
|Reign||17 November 1927 – 20 August 1953|
|Successor||Mohammed Ben Aarafa|
|Born||10 August 1909|
|Died||26 February 1961 (aged 51)|
|Spouse||Lalla Hanila bint Mamoun|
Lalla Abla bint Tahar
Lalla Bahia bint Antar
|Issue||Princess Fatima Zohra|
On 20 August 1953 (the eve of Eid al-Adha), the French colonial authorities forced Mohammed V, an important national symbol in the growing Moroccan independence movement, into exile in Corsica along with his family. His first cousin once removed, Mohammed Ben Aarafa, was made a puppet monarch and placed on the throne. Mohammed V and his family were then transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Mohammed V returned from exile on 16 November 1955, and was again recognized as Sultan after active opposition to the French protectorate. In February 1956 he successfully negotiated with France and Spain for the independence of Morocco, and in 1957 took the title of King.
"There are competing accounts of exactly what Mohammed V did or did not do for the Moroccan Jewish community" during the Holocaust. However, "though a subject of debate, most scholars stress the benevolence of Mohammed V toward the Jews" during the Vichy era. Mohammed blocked efforts by Vichy officials to impose anti-Jewish legislation upon Morocco and deport the country's 250,000 Jews to their deaths in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps in Europe. The sultan's stand was "based as much on the insult the Vichy diktats posed to his claim of sovereignty over all his subjects, including the Jews, as on his humanitarian instincts." Partial Nazi race measures were enacted in Morocco over Mohammed's objection, and Mohammed did sign, under the instructions of Vichy officials, two dahirs (decrees) that barred Jews from certain schools and positions.
Nevertheless, Mohammed is highly esteemed by Moroccan Jews who credit him for protecting their community from the Nazi and Vichy French government, and Mohammed V has been honored by Jewish organizations for his role in protecting his Jewish subjects during the Holocaust. Some historians maintain that Mohammed's anti-Nazi role has been exaggerated; historian Michel Abitol writes that while Mohammed V was compelled by Vichy officials to sign the anti-Jewish dahirs, "he was more passive than Moncef Bay (ruler of Tunisia during the Second World War) in that he did not take any side and did not engage in any public act that could be interpreted as a rejection of Vichy's policy."
Revolution of the King and the PeopleEdit
Sultan Muhammad V was a central figure in the independence movement in Morocco, or as it is also called: the Revolution of the King and the People (ثورة الملك والشعب). This nationalist movement grew from protests regarding the Berber Dahir of May 16, 1930. On April 10, 1947, he delivered a momentous speech in Tangier, appealing for the independence of Morocco, without calling out specific colonial powers.
His second wife was his first cousin Lalla Abla bint Tahar (Arabic: لالا عبلة بنت طهار) (born 5 September 1909 – died 1 March 1992). She was the daughter of Moulay Mohammed Tahar bin Hassan, son of Hassan I of Morocco. She married Mohammed V in 1929 and died in Rabat on 1 March 1992. She gave birth to five children: the future King Hassan II, Lalla Aicha, Lalla Malika, Moulay Abdallah and Lalla Nuzha.
He died on 26 February 1961 following complications of a surgery he had undergone.
The Mohammed V International Airport and Stade Mohamed V of Casablanca are named after him, as well as numerous universities and various public spaces across Morocco. There is an Avenue Mohammed V in nearly every Moroccan city and a major one in Tunis, Tunisia.
- Order of Blood of the Tunisian Republic
- Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of the French Republic-1927
- Companion of the Order of Liberation of the French Republic-1945
- Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit of the United States-1945
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Yoke and Arrows of Francoist Spain-03/04/1956
- Grand Collar of the Order of Idris I of the Kingdom of Libya-1956
- Collar of the Order of the Hashemites of the Kingdom of Iraq-1956
- Grand Cordon of the Order of Umayyad of Syria-1960
- Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of Lebanon, special class-1960
- Collar of the Order of the Nile of the Republic of Egypt-1960
- Collar of the Order of Al-Hussein bin Ali of Jordan-1960
- Grand Cordon of the King Abdulaziz Decoration of Saudi Arabia-1960
- Jessica M. Marglin, Across Legal Lines: Jews and Muslims in Modern Morocco (Yale University Press, 2016), p. 201.
- Orit Bashkin & Daniel J. Schroeter, "Historical themes: Muslim-Jewish relations in the modern modern Middle East and North Africa" in The Routledge Handbook of Muslim-Jewish Relations (Routledge, 2016), p. 54.
- Susan Gilson Miller, A History of Modern Morocco (Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 142-43.
- Abdelilah Bouasria, "The second coming of Morocco's 'Commander of the Faithful': Mohammed VI and Morocco's religious policy" in Contemporary Morocco: State, Politics and Society Under Mohammmed VI (eds. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman & Daniel Zisenwine, 2013), p. 42.
- "KIVUNIM Convocation Honoring the Memory of King Mohammed V of Morocco". Kivunim. 24 December 2015.
- Atlasinfo. "Evènements du 7 avril 1947 à Casablanca, un tournant décisif dans la lutte pour la liberté et l'indépendance". Atlasinfo.fr: l'essentiel de l'actualité de la France et du Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Prince Moulay Hicham El Alaoui. Journal d'un Prince Banni: Demain le Maroc (Grasset ed.). 9 April 2014. ISBN 978-2-246-85166-0.
allait devenir la petite-fille préférée de Hassan II, le roi s’est émerveillé sans aucune gêne des yeux bleus de la nouveau-née. « Elle tient ça de son arrière-grand-mère turque », faisait-il remarquer en rappelant les yeux azur de la mère de Mohammed V
- Triple royal wedding in Morocco
- Zeyna (13 August 2014). "Feue la princesse Lalla Fatima Zahra décedée le 10 aout 2014". Skyrock (in French). Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- International Business Publications, Morocco Foreign Policy and Government Guide p. 84
- "Mohammed V of Morocco Dies at 51 After Surgery". New York Times. 26 February 1961. Retrieved 13 June 2008.
King Mohammed V died today after a minor operation. He was 51 years old and had occupied the throne since 1927
- An Arab King Righteous Among the Nations?. The Forward, 12 December 2007
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- "''Royal Ark''". Royalark.net. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
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