Bissau (Portuguese pronunciation: [βiˈsaw]) is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. In 2015, Bissau had a population of 492,004.[1] Bissau is located on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean, and is Guinea-Bissau's largest city, major port, and its administrative and military centre.

Bissau
Mercado de Bandim, Bissau
Mercado de Bandim, Bissau
Flag of Bissau
Flag
Official seal of Bissau
Seal
Bissau is located in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
Bissau
Location of Bissau in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau is located in Africa
Bissau
Bissau
Bissau (Africa)
Coordinates: 11°51′N 15°34′W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567Coordinates: 11°51′N 15°34′W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567
Country Guinea-Bissau
RegionBissau Autonomous Sector
Founded1687
Area
 • Total77.5 km2 (29.9 sq mi)
Elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2015 census)
 • Total492,004
 • Density5,009/km2 (12,974/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
ISO 3166 codeGW-BS
ClimateAw

HistoryEdit

The city was founded in 1687 by Portugal as a fortified port and trading center.[2] In 1942 it became the capital of Portuguese Guinea.

After the declaration of independence by the anti-colonial guerrillas of PAIGC in 1973, the capital of the rebel territories was declared to be Madina do Boe, while Bissau remained the colonial capital. When Portugal granted independence, following the military coup of April 25 in Lisbon, Bissau became the capital of the new independent state.

Bissau was the scene of intense fighting during the beginning and end of the Guinea-Bissau Civil War in 1998 and 1999.[3]

Geography and climateEdit

 
View of Bissau in the 1960s as the capital of Portuguese Guinea

Bissau is located at 11°52' North, 15°36' West (11.86667, -15.60) [1], on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean. The land surrounding Bissau is extremely low-lying, and the river is accessible to ocean-going vessels despite its modest discharge for about 80 kilometres (50 mi) beyond the city.

Bissau has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), not quite wet enough to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate (Am) but much wetter than most climates of its type.

Almost no rain falls from November to May, but during the remaining five months of the year the city receives around 2,000 millimetres (79 in) of rain.

Climate data for Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1974-1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
(98.1)
38.3
(100.9)
38.9
(102.0)
41.1
(106.0)
39.4
(102.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.1
(88.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
25.6
(78.1)
26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
18.3
(64.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.6
(69.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
Record low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13.3
(55.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.0
(68.0)
15.0
(59.0)
12.8
(55.0)
12.2
(54.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
17.3
(0.68)
174.8
(6.88)
472.5
(18.60)
682.5
(26.87)
434.9
(17.12)
194.8
(7.67)
41.4
(1.63)
2.0
(0.08)
2,022.8
(79.63)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248 226 279 270 248 210 186 155 180 217 240 248 2,707
Source 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[4]
Source 2: World Climate Guides (sunshine only)[5]

DemographicsEdit

At the 1979 census, Bissau had a population of 109,214. By the 2015 census Bissau had a population of 492,004.[1]

EconomyEdit

Bissau is the country's largest city, major port, educational, administrative and military center. Peanuts, hardwoods, copra, palm oil, and rubber are the chief products.

TransportationEdit

The airport that serves Bissau is Osvaldo Vieira International Airport, with regional international flights as well as flights to Europe, on six scheduled commercial airline companies.

EducationEdit

The main high school institutions in Bissau are the National Lyceum Kwame N'Krumah[6] and the Bethel-Bissau Adventist School[7] The main higher education institutions in the city are the University Amílcar Cabral[8] and the Catholic University of Guinea Bissau.

The city of Bissau still has two international schools:[9]

  • Escola Portuguesa da Guiné-Bissau
  • Escola Portuguesa Passo a Passo

CultureEdit

Attractions include the Portuguese-built Fortaleza de São José da Amura barracks from the 18th century, containing Amílcar Cabral's mausoleum, the Pidjiguiti Memorial to the dockers killed in the Bissau Dockers' Strike on August 3, 1959, the Guinea-Bissau National Arts Institute, Bissau New Stadium and local beaches.

Many buildings in the city were ruined during the Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998–1999), including the Guinea-Bissau Presidential Palace and the Bissau French Cultural Centre (now rebuilt), and the city centre is still underdeveloped.

Places of worshipEdit

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques.[10] There are also Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Diocese of Bissau (Catholic Church), Evangelical Churches, Universal Church of the Kingdom of God.

GalleryEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Bissau is twinned with:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Africa by Country Internet User Stats and 2017 Population". www.internetworldstats.com.
  2. ^ Roman Adrian Cybriwsky, Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2013, p. 53
  3. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Guinea Bissau: government, in depth, viewed July 12, 2013, http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=68&regionSelect=2-Southern_Africa# Archived 2013-12-31 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "GUINEA-BISSAU - BISSAU". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  5. ^ "Bissau Climate Guide". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  6. ^ Furtado, Alexandre Brito Ribeiro. Administração e Gestão da Educação na Guiné-Bissau: Incoerências e Descontinuidades. Universidade de Aveiro. 2005
  7. ^ Voluntários fazem diferença em projeto em Guiné-Bissau. Notícias Adventistas. 22 de julho de 2016.
  8. ^ "Equipamento novo e desafios adicionais para Universidade Amílcar Cabral" (in Portuguese). Unmultimedia.org. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  9. ^ "ESCOLAS COM CURRÍCULO PORTUGUÊS NA GUINÉ-BISSAU" (Archive). Direção de Serviços de Ensino e Escolas Portuguesas no Estrangeiro (DSEEPE) of the Portuguese Education Ministry. Retrieved on October 26, 2015.
  10. ^ Britannica, Guinea-Bissau, britannica.com, USA, accessed on July 7, 2019
  11. ^ http://www.tcc.gov.tw/en/cp.aspx?n=81569D74DD82C7DB
  12. ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". www.ankara.bel.tr.

Further readingEdit

  • Lobban, Richard Andrew, Jr.; Mendy, Peter Karibe (1997). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (3rd ed.). Scarecrow Press. pp. 91–96. ISBN 0-8108-3226-7.

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Bissau at Wikimedia Commons
  •   Bissau travel guide from Wikivoyage