Ogun State is a state in southwestern Nigeria. As a Nigerian state, Ogun is the second most industrialised state after Lagos, with a focus on metal processing. It has good road and rail connections to the harbours in Lagos and Lekki. Wole Soyinka, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature 1986, lives in Ogun.

Ogun State
Ìpínlẹ̀ Ògùn (Yoruba)
Aerial view of Gbagura mosque in Abeokuta in Ogun State
Aerial view of Gbagura mosque in Abeokuta in Ogun State
Flag of Ogun State
Seal of Ogun State
Location of Ogun State in Nigeria
Location of Ogun State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 7°00′N 3°35′E / 7.000°N 3.583°E / 7.000; 3.583
Country Nigeria
Date created3 February 1976
 • BodyGovernment of Ogun State
 • GovernorDapo Abiodun (APC)
 • Deputy GovernorNoimot Salako-Oyedele (APC)
 • LegislatureOgun State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsC: Shuaibu Salisu (APC)
E: Gbenga Daniel (APC)
W: Solomon Adeola (APC)
 • RepresentativesList
 • Total16,980.55 km2 (6,556.23 sq mi)
 • Rank24th of 36
 (2006 census)
 • Total3,751,140
 • Estimate 
 • Rank11 of 36
 • Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
 • Year2021
 • Total$32.55 billion[2]
8th of 36
 • Per capita$5,288[2]
11th of 36
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
ISO 3166 codeNG-OG
HDI (2021)0.671[3]
medium · 2nd of 37

Abeokuta is both Ogun State's capital and most populous city; other important cities in the state include Ijebu-Ode, the capital of the Ijebu Kingdom, and Sagamu, Nigeria's leading kola nut grower.[4] Ogun state is covered predominantly by rain forest and has wooden savanna in the northwest.[5] Ogun State had a total population of 3,751,140 residents as of 2006,[6] making Ogun State the 16th most populated state in Nigeria.[7] In terms of landmass, Ogun State is the 24th largest State in Nigeria with land area of 16,762 kilometer square.[8]

Ogun State is predominantly Yoruba,[9] with the Yoruba language serving as the lingua franca of the state. The dominant religions in Ogun State are Islam and Christianity although a certain amount of traditional religion is still practiced.[10] Ogun State is noted for being the almost exclusive site of Ofada rice production. Ogun is also home to many icons in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general.

Governor edit

The current governor is Prince Dapo Abiodun, A member of the All Progressives Congress, who heads the Executive Council of Ogun State.[11] On Wednesday May 29, 2019, Abiodun was sworn in as the fifth governor of Ogun State at the MKO Abiola Stadium in Kuto, Abeokuta.[12] He was re-elected for a second term of office in March 2023.

Local government areas edit

Politics edit

The State government is led by a democratically elected governor who works closely with members of the state's house of assembly. The capital city of the state is Abeokuta.[13]

Geography edit

Ogun State borders the Republic of Benin to the west for about 185 km, Oyo State and Osun State (for 84 km) to the north, Ondo State to the east, Lagos State to the south for about 283 km, and has 16 km of coastline on the Bight of Benin to the south, interrupted by Araromi Beach exclave of Ondo State.

Climate edit

Ogun has a Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The city's yearly temperature is 29.34 °C (84.81 °F) and it is -0.12% lower than Nigeria's averages. Ogun typically receives about 141.58 millimeters (5.57 inches) of precipitation and has 224.18 rainy days (61.42% of the time) annually.[14]

Major rivers edit

Electoral system edit

The governor of the state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two -third of the State local government Areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government Areas.[15]

Ogun State consists of twenty local government areas. They are:

The main ethnic groups in Ogun State are the Ẹgba, Ijebu, Remo, Egbado, Awori and the Egun peoples.There are also sub groups like the Ikale, the Ketu, the Ohori and the Anago[16]

Ogun State is divided into three senatorial districts: Ogun Central, Ogun East and Ogun West.

Ogun Central consists mostly of the Egbas that occupies six local governments: Abeokuta North (Akomoje), Abeokuta south (Ake), Ewekoro (Itori), Ifo (Ifo), Obafemi owode (Owode ẹgba) and Odeda (Odeda).

Ogun East consists mostly of the Ijebus and the Remos that occupies 9 local governments: Ijebu East (Ogbẹrẹ), Ijebu North (Ijebu Igbo), Ijebu North East (Attan), Ijebu ode (Ijebu ode), Ikenne (Ikenne remo), Odogbolu (Odogbolu), Ogun waterside (Abigi), Remo North (Ilisan Remo) and Sagamu (Sagamu).

Ogun West consists mostly of the Yewas (formerly Egbados) that occupies 5 local governments: Ado odo Ota (Otta), Imeko Afon (Imeko), Ipokia (Ipokia), Yewa North (Ayetoro) and Yewa South (Ilaro).

History edit

In pre-colonial times, today's Ogun belonged to the kingdom of Oyo, which sank into civil war around 1800. South of Ogun, on the tiny island of Lagos, the British had a naval base near which the town of the same name grew rapidly.

Until the Berlin Congo Conference in 1885, Great Britain had focussed on a few strategically placed bases for its merchant fleet and navy, such as Lagos and Calabar, and was not interested in the communities developing there.

After the European colonial powers had staked out their spheres of interest 1885 in Berlin (these were only valid if another power had not previously brought the area in question under its control) the United Kingdom quickly expanded thusly its territory in the assigned Niger region. The British attack on the Kingdom of Oyo in 1891 was the first step, the punitive expedition against Benin 1896 the second. Today's Ogun became part of the "Protectorate of Lagos" (as opposed to the Colony of Lagos; the border between these two is identical to the modern border between Lagos State and Ogun State - inhabitants of a colony were treated as fully entitled subjects of the British crown, those in protectorates not) in 1893 and later of the "Protectorate of Yorubaland", in 1906 of the "Protectorate of Southern Nigeria" and in 1914 of the whole of Nigeria. In 1899, it received a railway connection to Lagos, the "Boat Express" ran through Ogun to Apapa and thus connected the region with the wider world. In 1899, it was several years earlier in this than other regions in West and Central Africa that were not connected to the coast.

In the 1930s, Ogun was a centre of the Nigerian women's movement under the leadership of Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti (Fela Kuti's mother). Democracy in colonial Nigeria after 1922 only existed in Lagos and Calabar; Nigerians could not participate politically elsewhere (see here).

During the 1940s, food was strictly rationed in Nigeria. The transport of food from the more agrarian Ogun to the hungry metropolis of Lagos was severely penalised (Pullen Scheme, see here).

In the first elections in Ogun, 1954, the semi-socialist "Action Group" (AG) under Ọbáfẹ́mi Awólọ́wọ̀ became the strongest party in the Western Region, to which Ogun also belonged.

After independence in 1960, the Yoruba region, and Ogun in particular, was engulfed in conflict between the Ọbáfẹ́mi Awólọ́wọ̀ and Samuel Ládòkè Akíntọ́lá fractions of the AG party ("Operation Wetie", see here). In July 1966, the then ruler of Nigeria, Johnson Agulyi-Ironsi, was assassinated in Abeokuta in the second coup of the year, which was the prelude to the Biafra War.

The state was formed on 3 February 1976 from part of the former "Western" state.

Educational facilities edit

Ogun state has three federal secondary schools; Federal Government Girls' College, Sagamu [17] and Federal Government College, Odogbolu[18] and Federal Science and Technical College, Ijebu-Imushin.[19]

Ogun state has one Federal University; the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB[20]) and one Federal college of education, FCE Osiele (both at Odeda Local government area), one state government college of education, named after the late Nigerian educationist of international repute Augustus Taiwo Solarin in 1994 as Tai Solarin College of Education (TASCE[21]), (formerly known as Ogun State College of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, one Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro). One is named after late Nigerian business mogul and winner of June 12, 1993 election, Basorun Moshood Kasimawo Olawale Abiola as Moshood Abiola Polytechnic (MAPOLY[22]), formerly known as Ogun State Polytechnic, Ojere, Abeokuta, Another Gateway Polytechnic Saapade,[23] Remo (GAPOSA), Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic[23] Ijebu-Igbo (Aapoly) (formerly known as 'The Polytechnic Ijebu-Igbo) it was name after Chief Abraham Aderibigbe Adesanya who was a Nigerian politician, lawyer and activist.

Two state government universities: Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye (formerly known as Ogun State University), and the Tai Solarin University of Education (TASUED[24]) Ijebu Ode.[6]

Ogun State has a total of nine registered universities, the highest of any state in Nigeria. It has five private universities.[25] Amongst which are Chrisland University, Hallmark University in Ijebu-itele, Abeokuta Bells University of Technology in Ota, Covenant University and Babcock University in Ilisan-Remo, which was the first private university in the country.[6]

The state has two major government hospitals: the Federal Medical Center at Abeokuta, and the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu. The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Permanent Orientation Camp is located at Sagamu Local Government area of the state.[6]

Ogun state Government has begin the itele road today[26]

Tertiary institutions edit

Moshood Abiola Polytechnic entrance gate, Abeokuta, Ogun state

Think tanks edit

Economy edit

The state is one of the richest and most developed areas in Nigeria and has one of the lowest incidences of extreme poverty (around 5% of the population against a national average of 31%) according to World Bank data from 2018.[30]

Nicknamed the "Gateway to Nigeria", the state is notable for having a high concentration of industrial Estates and being a major manufacturing hub in Nigeria. Major factories in Ogun include the Dangote Cement factory in Ibese,[31] Nestle,[32] Lafarge Cement factory in Ewekoro, Memmcol in Orimerunmu,[33] Coleman Cables in Sagamu and Arepo,[34] Procter & Gamble in Agbara,[35] amongst others.

Primary sector edit

Mining and agriculture are among the most important economic sectors in Ogun. Limestone, chalk, phosphate and gravel are mined and grain, rice, maize, cassava, yams, bananas, cocoa, kola nuts, rubber, palm oil and palm kernels are harvested. The state is the largest producer of kolanut in Nigeria.

Secondary sector, metal processing edit

Proforce MRAP vehicle

Ogún is also the name of the god (Orisha) for metalworking in the local Yoruba nature religion, similar to the Greek Hephaestus or the Roman god Vulcan (since the ancient world had trade relations with present-day Nigeria, this may not be entirely coincidental). The state lives up to this name by being the Nigerian centre for metalworking. Here are two examples:

  • Proforce manufactures armoured vehicles in Ode-Remo (25 km from Lagos), which are also sold to Europe.[36] Since 2008, the company has expanded its product range and also produces drones for the security sector.[37]
  • The wagon assembly plant in Kajola is the only plant in West Africa that manufactures, maintains and repairs railway vehicles.[38][39]
Kajola wagon assembly plant, Ifo Junction, Ogun

Ogun also produces timber, ceramic products, bicycle tyres, carpets, adhesives and other products.

Transportation edit

Ogun benefits from its proximity to the metropolis of Lagos and the new deep-sea harbour and the new Dangote refinery in Lekki (as of 2024). The planned airport Lagos-Epe will be located next to the border to the state of Ogun.

Railways edit

Nigerian Railway Company edit

Ogun benefits from the Lagos-Abeokuta-Ibadan standard rail link since 2021.

The planned Apapa-Kajola Express will connect the centre of the state with the Lagos port.[40]

Abeokuta also is connected with Lagos by 77 km of the Western Railway (built in 1899), which still is used for freight trains.

Lagos Mass Transit (Lamata) edit

The terminus of the "Red Line" of the Lagos suburban railway is located in Agbado, which is part of the Lagos agglomeration but belongs to the state of Ogun in administrative terms. This is why the trains and carriages of Lagos State will be parked, cleaned and maintained in Ogun.[41]

Roads edit

Federal Highways are:

Three roads to the Republic of Benin:

  • the Sango Ota-Idi-Iroko Rd at Idiroko as part of the Lagos-Badagry-Porto Novo highway west to RNIE 1,
  • the Oja-Odan Road from Ilaro at Obelle to RN3 in Pobè,
  • F102 west from Sagamu via Abeokuta to Meko at Idofa to RNIE 4 to Kétou.

Other major roads include:

  • the Epe-Ijebu-Ode Rd south from Sagamu to Lagos State at Agboju,
  • the Iken-Sekungba Rd south from the Awa-Itokin Rd from Egbe to Lagos State at Omu,
  • the Agbara-Atan Rd south from Atan to Lagos State at Morogbo,
  • the Abeokuta-Igboora-Iseyin Rd north from the Ayetoro Rd at Rounda Roundabout to Oyo State as the Ibara-Orile-Ijeun Rd,
  • the Ibadan-Eruwa Rd west from A5 at Ilugun to Oyo State at Olokemeji,
  • the Ibadan-Ijebu-Ode Rd north from Ilaporu to Oyo State at Mamu,
  • the Ibadan-Ijebu-Igbo Rd northeast from Ilaporu to Oyo State at Olugbuyi.

Religion edit

Shrine to the Orisha (god) of fire and metal works, Ogun

Mainly Islam and Christian, some traditional Yoruba animism.

The Anglican Province of Lagos within the Church of Nigeria includes the ten Dioceses of Awori led by Bishop Johnson Akin Atere (2009), Egba (1976) led by Bishop Emmanuel Adekunle (2009), Egba West (2007) led by Bishop Samuel Oludele Ogundeji (2010), Ifo (2007) led by Bishop Nathaniel Oladejo Ogundipe (2012), Ijebu led by Bishop Peter Rotimi Oludipe (2020), Ijebu-North led by Bishop Solomon Kuponu (2005), Remo led by Bishop Michael Fape (2004, Archbishop of Lagos 2016-21), Yewa, formerly Egbado led by Bishop Michael Adebayo Oluwarohunbi (2014), and Ijebu-South West led by Bishop Babatunde Ogunbanwo (2009).

179,014 Catholics (2020) in the Dioceses of Abeokuta (1997) with 60 parishes under Bishop Peter Kayode Odetoyinbo (2014) and Ijebu-Ode (1969) with 40 parishes under Bishop Francis Obafemi Adesina (2019), both suffragans of the Archdiocese of Lagos.

Notable religious places edit

Notable people edit

Tourist centers in Ogun state edit

Mineral resources in Ogun State edit

The following are the mineral resources in Ogun State:[43]

References edit

  1. ^ "Ogun State: Subdivision". www.citypopulation.de.
  2. ^ a b Okeowo, Gabriel; Fatoba, Iyanuoluwa, eds. (2022-10-13). "State of States 2022 Edition" (PDF). Budgit.org. BudgIT. Retrieved 2023-03-07.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ "Ogun | state, Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-09-23.
  5. ^ Aderoju, Michael Atilade (2015). "Impact of kolanuts trade on socio-economic development of Sagamu, 1910-1970". Nigerian Journal of Economic History. 13: 167–188.
  6. ^ a b c d "Ogun State". Ogun Smart City. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  7. ^ "National Results" (PDF). 2011-05-19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 2021-12-10.
  8. ^ "World Gazetteer: Nigeria - administrative divisions (per geographical..." archive.ph. 2013-01-05. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2021-12-10.
  9. ^ "OGUN STATE". Ogun State Government Official Website. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  10. ^ Oludare, Ishola (2021-08-15). "Declare public holiday for Ifa festival like Muslims, Christians – Traditionalists tell Abiodun". Daily Post Nigeria. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  11. ^ "Executives". Ogun State Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  12. ^ "Abiodun takes oath of office as Ogun. In 2023, he was re-elected for a second term of office. Gov". Punch Newspapers. 2019-05-29. Retrieved 2022-02-04.
  13. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (2022-09-27). "2023: Next President, Govs Must Get Two-thirds Spread, Says INEC". Retrieved 2023-02-23.
  14. ^ "Ogun, NG Climate Zone, Monthly Weather Averages and Historical Data". tcktcktck.org. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  15. ^ Oguntola, Tunde (2022-09-27). "2023: Next President, Govs Must Get Two-thirds Spread, Says INEC". Retrieved 2023-02-23.
  16. ^ "6 Important Facts about Ogun State You Probably Didn't Know". Vanguard News. 2017-07-27. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  17. ^ "Federal Government Girls College, Sagamu | School Website". www.fggcsagamu.org.ng. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  18. ^ "Federal Government College, Odogbolu | School Website". fgcodogbolu.com.ng. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  19. ^ "Federal Science And Technical College, Ijebu Imushin | School Website". fstcijebuimusin.com. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  20. ^ "Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, teaching, learning, research". Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  21. ^ ":::TASCE". tasce.edu.ng. Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  22. ^ "Moshood Abiola Polytechnic". Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  23. ^ a b "List of NBTE approved State government owned Polytechnics in Nigeria". NBTE portal.
  24. ^ "Tai Solarin University of Education | The Premier University of Education". tasued.edu.ng. Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  25. ^ "Ogun State". Ogun Smart City. Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  26. ^ "Mindat.org". www.mindat.org. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  27. ^ "Home - Chrisland University". www.chrislandtuniversity.edu.ng.
  28. ^ "Home - Covenant University". www.covenantuniversity.edu.ng.
  29. ^ "McPherson University". Jul 15, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  30. ^ "Geospatial Poverty Portal: Interactive Maps". World Bank. Retrieved 2024-01-22.
  31. ^ "Ibese Cement Plant - Dangote Cement". dangote.com. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  32. ^ "Nestlé Flowergate Factory, Ogun". Food Processing Technology. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  33. ^ "Electricity Meter Manufacturing Company". www.memmcol.com. Retrieved Aug 6, 2020.
  34. ^ "Coleman Wires and Cables". www.colemancables.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  35. ^ "P&G in Nigeria". www.pgcareers.com. Retrieved 2020-05-24.
  36. ^ Nigeria's Proforce to Supply Armored Vehicles to Belarus, retrieved 2024-02-26
  37. ^ Profroce Puts Nigeria On World Map Through Manufacturing Of Quality Military Hardware, retrieved 2024-02-26
  38. ^ FG Commissions Kajola Wagon Assembly Plant In Ogun State, retrieved 2024-02-26
  39. ^ Anagor-Ewuzie, Amaka (2023-05-23). "Nigeria's first wagon assembly plant to produce 500 yearly". Businessday NG. Retrieved 2024-02-26.
  40. ^ Nigerian Railway Introduces New Express Train, retrieved 2024-02-26
  41. ^ "Lagos Redline Metro – First metro infrastructure limited". Retrieved 2024-02-26.
  42. ^ Sungbo Eredo and Its Ecotourism Values: Sonubi O K (2009)
  43. ^ "Natural Resources – Welcome To The Embassy of Nigeria". Retrieved 2021-12-19.

External links edit