Chief Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (9 May 1936 – 11 January 2022) was a Nigerian lawyer and statesman who served as the interim head of state of Nigeria from 26 August 1993 to 17 November 1993. He was titled Abese of Egbaland from 1981 (in addition to a variety of other chieftaincy titles).
|9th Head of State of Nigeria|
26 August 1993 – 17 November 1993
|Preceded by||Ibrahim Babangida as Military President of Nigeria|
|Succeeded by||Sani Abacha as Military Head of State of Nigeria|
|Head of Government of Nigeria|
2 January 1993 – 17 November 1993
|Vice President||Augustus Aikhomu|
|Preceded by||Ibrahim Babangida|
|Succeeded by||Sani Abacha|
|Born||9 May 1936|
Lagos, British Nigeria (now Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria)
|Died||11 January 2022 (aged 85)|
Lekki, Lagos State, Nigeria
Prior to his political career, Shonekan was the chairman and chief executive of the United African Company of Nigeria (successor of The Niger Company), a vast Nigerian conglomerate, which at the time was the largest African-controlled company in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Early life Edit
Early business career Edit
Shonekan joined the United Africa Company of Nigeria in 1964, at the time a subsidiary of the United Africa Company which played a prominent role in British colonisation. He rose through the ranks in the company and was promoted to assistant legal adviser. He later became a deputy adviser and joined the board of directors at the age of 40. He was made chairman and managing director in 1980, and went on to cultivate a wide array of international business and political connections.
Crisis of the Third Republic Edit
On 2 January 1993, Shonekan assumed office simultaneously as head of transitional council and head of government under Ibrahim Babangida. At the time, the transitional council was designed to be the final phase leading to a scheduled hand over to an elected democratic leader of the Third Nigerian Republic.
Shonekan learned of the dire condition of government finances, which he was unable to correct. The government was hard pressed on international debt obligations and had to hold constant talks for debt rescheduling.
In August 1993, Babangida resigned from office, following the annulment of the 12 June elections. He signed a decree establishing the Interim National Government led by Shonekan who was subsequently sworn-in as head of state.
Interim government Edit
Shonekan was unable to control the political crisis which ensued following the election annulment. During his few months in power, he tried to schedule another presidential election and a return to democratic rule, while his government was hampered by a national workers' strike. Opposition leader Moshood Abiola, viewed Shonekan's interim government as illegitimate. Shonekan released political prisoners detained by Babangida. Shonekan's administration introduced a bill to repeal three major draconian decrees of the military government. Babangida made the interim government weak by placing it under the control of the military.
Shonekan had lobbied for debt cancellation but, after the election annulment, most of the Western powers had imposed economic sanctions on Nigeria. Inflation was uncontrollable and most non-oil foreign investment disappeared. The government also initiated an audit of the accounts of NNPC, the oil giant, an organisation that had many operational inefficiencies. Shonekan served as an executive of Royal Dutch Shell while acting as the interim president of Nigeria.
Shonekan tried to set a timetable for troop withdrawal from ECOMOG's peacekeeping mission in Liberia. General Sani Abacha, was the minister of defence and chief of defence staff who had full control over the military.
Out of office Edit
In 1993, he along with other prominent Nigerians and expatriates, founded the Nigerian Economic Summit Group an advocacy group and think-tank for private sector-led development of the Nigerian economy.
Since then Shonekan went on to feature prominently as an elder statesman.
Personal life and death Edit
Shonekan was married to Margaret Shonekan. He died on 11 January 2022, at the age of 85 at Evercare Hospital in Lagos. At the time of his death, he was the third oldest surviving Nigerian head of state by age after Elizabeth II and Yakubu Gowon.
- "40 Egba chiefs we hardly talk about". citypeopleonline.com. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
- "Stronger Moves Towards Manufacturing", Financial Times (London, England), 3 March 1986
- Abe, Bankole (11 January 2022). "Ernest Shonekan (1936-2022): His role in Third Republic debacle". International Centre for Investigative Reporting. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- "Ernest Shonekan (1936 – 2022)". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- Latestnigeriannews. "Ernest Shonekan Celebrates His 84th Birthday Today". Latest Nigerian News. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Tsohon shugaban rikon kwarya na Najeriya Cif Shonekan ya rasu". BBC News Hausa (in Hausa). Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- Opara, Bartholomew Nnamdi (2007). June 12, 1993 Presidential Election. Subavic International. ISBN 978-978-028-666-8.
- "A Leader in Time of Real Crisis – THISDAYLIVE". www.thisdaylive.com. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
- Noble, Kenneth B. (27 August 1993). "Nigerian Ruler Cedes Power to Civilian (Published 1993)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "Shonekan's life and 'interim' honour in politics". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
- "Government Probes Oil Industry Corruption", The Associated Press, 16 September 1993
- "WikiLeaks cables: Shell's grip on Nigerian state revealed". the Guardian. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- Agence France Presse, --Full cabinet list of interim government-- English, 26 August 1993
- "The Nigerian Economic Summit Group | About Us". nesgroup.org. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "Jonathan Felicitates with Chief Shonekan at 84". THISDAYLIVE. 10 May 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
General references Edit
- "Military swears in transitional government", Agence France Presse—English, 4 January 1993
- "Nigeria prepares medium-term plan", Financial Times (London, England), 28 January 1993
- "NIGERIA: HARD ROAD AHEAD FOR INTERIM GOVERNMENT", IPS-Inter Press Service, 26 August 1993