|Ab urbe condita||1886|
|Balinese saka calendar||1054–1055|
|English Regnal year||33 Hen. 1 – 34 Hen. 1|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)|
3829 or 3769
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
3830 or 3770
|- Vikram Samvat||1189–1190|
|- Shaka Samvat||1054–1055|
|- Kali Yuga||4233–4234|
|Japanese calendar||Chōshō 2|
|Minguo calendar||779 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1444/1445 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1675–1676|
1259 or 878 or 106
— to —
1260 or 879 or 107
- Spring – A German expeditionary force led by King Lothair III marches into northern Italy and arrives at Rome after a 6-month journey across the Alps. Accompanied by Bernard of Clairvaux, French abbot and Doctor of the Church, Lothair is crowned by Pope Innocent II as Holy Roman Emperor at the Church of the Lateran, on June 4. He receives as papal fiefs the vast estates of Matilda, former margravine of Tuscany, which he secures for his daughter Gertrude of Süpplingenburg and her husband, Duke Henry X (the Proud) of Bavaria.
- July 17 – Battle of Fraga: The Castellan troops led by King Alfonso I (the Battler) defeat the Almoravid army, thanks to a timely intervention of a Norman Crusader army from Tarragona, led by Robert Bordet.
- Ramon Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona, launches a raid against Almoravid-held territories in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), and pillages the country all the way to Cadiz.
- The first convent on Iceland, the Þingeyraklaustur, is inaugurated at a monastery of the Order of Saint Benedict (located in Þingeyrar).
- Antipope Anacletus II forces Innocent II out of Rome following the departure of Lothair III. Innocent flees and takes ship to Pisa.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth, an English cleric, writes the chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae.
- Rijnsburg Abbey is founded by Petronilla of Lorraine, countess and regent of Holland.
- Construction of the chapter house at Durham Cathedral which is completed in 1140.
- March 5 – Henry II (Curtmantle), king of England (d. 1189)
- May 13 – Hōnen, Japanese religious reformer (d. 1212)
- Abu al-Abbas al-Jarawi, Moroccan poet (d. 1212)
- Abu Mansur Isma'il Al-Zafir, Fatimid caliph (d. 1154)
- Andronikos Doukas Angelos, Byzantine aristocrat
- Andronikos Kontostephanos, Byzantine aristocrat
- Faidiva of Toulouse, countess of Savoy (d. 1154)
- Jean de Gisors, Norman nobleman (d. 1220)
- Ralph de Sudeley, English nobleman (d. 1192)
- Sigurd II (or Sigurd Munn), king of Norway (d. 1155)
- Stephen IV, king of Hungary and Croatia (d. 1165)
- Thorlak Thorhallsson, Icelandic bishop (d. 1193)
- Urraca of Castile, queen of Navarre (d. 1179)
- Zhang Shi, Chinese Confucian scholar (d. 1181)
- February 19 – Irene Doukaina, Byzantine empress (b. 1066)
- May 1 – Manegold von Mammern, German abbot
- December 4 – Bernard degli Uberti, Italian bishop
- December 18 – Hildebert, French hagiographer (b. 1055)
- December 21 – Guigues III (the Old), French nobleman
- Dirmicius of Regensburg, Irish monk and abbot
- Gregory of Catino, Italian monk and historian (b. 1060)
- þorlákur Runólfsson, Icelandic bishop (b. 1086)
- William of Zardana (or Saone), French nobleman
- McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.