# Dollar sign

(Redirected from $) The dollar sign, also known as peso sign, is a symbol consisting of a capital "S" crossed with one or two vertical strokes ($ or ${\displaystyle {\mathsf {S}}\!\!\!{{\big |}\!{\big |}}}$), used to indicate the unit of various currencies around the world, including most currencies denominated "peso" and "dollar". The explicitly double-barred ${\displaystyle {\mathsf {S}}\!\!\!{{\big |}\!{\big |}}}$ sign is called cifrão.

$Dollar sign Other namesPeso sign In UnicodeU+0024$ DOLLAR SIGN (&dollar;)
Currency
CurrencyMany (see dollar, peso)
Graphical variants
Category

The sign is also used in several compound currency symbols, such as the Brazilian real (R$) and the Nicaraguan córdoba (C$).

The one- and two-stroke version are often considered mere stylistic (typeface) variants, although in some places and epochs one of them may have been specifically assigned, by law or custom, to a specific currency. The Unicode computer encoding standard defines a single code for both.

### Earlier history of the symbol

It is still uncertain, however, how the dollar sign came to represent the Spanish American peso. There are currently several competing hypotheses:

• One theory holds that the sign grew out of the Spanish and Spanish American scribal abbreviation "ps" for pesos. A study of late 18th- and early 19th-century manuscripts shows that the s gradually came to be written over the p, developing into a close equivalent to the "$" mark.[8][9][10][11][12] However, there are documents showing the common use of the two-stroke version in Portugal already by 1775.[13] A piece of eight from the Potosí mint, showing the Pillars of Hercules with "S" ribbons, and two "PTSI" monograms at about 4 and 8 o'clock around the edge. • Another hypothesis derives the sign from a depiction of the Pillars of Hercules, a classical symbol for two sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, with a ribbon wrapped around both each pillar (or both pillars) in the form of an "S". This device is common support element of the Spanish coat of arms, and appeared on the most common real de ocho coins circulating at the time in the Americas and Europe; namely, those minted at the Potosí mint in Bolivia, which operated from 1573 to 1825.[14][10] Indeed, one of the names used for Spanish dollars in Qing Dynasty China was 双柱; 雙柱; shuāngzhù; 'double-pillar'.[15] • A variant of the above theory claims that the sign comes from the mark of the mint at Potosí, where a large portion of the Spanish Empire's silver was mined, also featured on those coin, which consisted of the letters "P T S I" superimposed. The core of this monogram is a (single-stroked) "$" sign.[16]

Sample ledger with a sign for dollar from John Collins 1686.
• Yet another hypothesis notes that the English word "dollar" for the Spanish piece of eight originally came (through Dutch daalder) from Joachimsthaler or thaler, a similar large German silver coin which was widely used in Europe. It is therefore conjectured that the dollar sign derived from a symbol consisting of a superimposing S and I or J that was used to denote the German silver coin. Such symbol appears in the 1686 edition of An Introduction to Merchants' Accounts by John Collins.[17] Alternatively, the symbol could have come from a snake and cross emblem on the thaler coins.[6]

### Less likely theories

The following theories seem to have been discredited or contradicted by documentary evidence:

• Some historians have attributed the symbol to Oliver Pollock, a wealthy Irish trader and early supporter of the American Revolution, who used the abbreviation "ps", sometimes run together, in a letter dated 1778.[6][18]
• In 1937, historian James Alton James claimed that the symbol with two strokes was an adapted design of patriot Robert Morris in 1778, in letters written to Pollock.[19][20][18]
• In 1939, H. M. Larson suggested that the sign could derive from a combination of the Greek character "psi" (ψ) and "S".[21]
• Writer Ayn Rand claimed in her 1957 book Atlas Shrugged that the sign started off as a monogram of "US", with a narrow "U" superimposed on the "S", which would have been used on money bags issued by the United States Mint. In her theory, the bottom part of the "U" would have been lost, producing the dollar sign with two vertical lines.[22][6]
• Authors T. Seijas and J. Frederick noted that the captors of slaves in Spanish territories sometimes branded enslaved people with a symbol very similar to a one-barred dollar sign. Esclavo is Spanish for "slave," and clavo means nail. A dollar sign is S + clavo.[14]
• A theory often cited in Portuguese speaking countries is that the "S" part of the doubly-stroked sign is a schematic representation of the path followed by the Umayyad Caliphate general Tariq Ibn Ziyad in his conquest of the Visigoth kingdom in 711 CE, and the two strokes represent the Pillars of Hercules that he would have crossed along that path. That symbol would have been engraved in coins commemorating his victory, and then became symbolic of currency in general.[23]

## Currencies that use the dollar sign

### As symbol of the currency

The numerous currencies called "dollar" use the dollar sign to express money amounts. The sign is also generally used for the many currencies called "peso" (except the Philippine peso, which uses the symbol ""). Within a country the dollar/peso sign may be used alone. In other cases, and to avoid ambiguity in international usage, it is usually combined with other glyphs, e.g. CA$or Can$ for Canadian dollar.

The dollar sign, alone or in combination with other glyphs, is or was used to denote several currencies with other names, including:

#### Prefix or suffix

In the United States, Mexico, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Pacific Island nations, and English-speaking Canada, the sign is written before the number ("$5"), even though the word is written or spoken after it ("five dollars", "cinco pesos"). In French-speaking Canada, exceptionally, the dollar symbol usually appears after the number,[24] e.g., "5$". (The cent symbol is written after the number in most countries that use it, e.g., "5¢".)

### Use in the Portuguese Empire

In Portugal, Brazil, and other parts of the Portuguese Empire, the two-stroke variant of the sign (with the name cifrão; (Portuguese pronunciation: [siˈfɾɐ̃w̃] ()) was used as the thousands separator of amounts in the national currency, the real (plural "réis", abbreviated "Rs."): 123 500 meant "123500 réis". This usage is attested in 1775, but may be older by a century or more.[13] It is always written with two vertical lines:  . It is the official sign of the Cape Verdean escudo (ISO 4217: CVE).

In 1911 Portugal redefined the national currency as the escudo, worth 1000 réis, and divided into 100 centavos; but the cifrão continued to be used as the decimal separator,[25] so that 123 50 meant 123.50 escudos or 123 escudos and 50 centavos. This usage ended in 2002 when the country switched to the euro. (A similar scheme to use a letter symbol instead of a decimal point is used by the RKM code in electrical engineering since 1952.)

Car for sale in Cape Verde, showing use of the cifrão as decimals separator.

Cape Verde, a republic and former Portuguese colony, similarly switched from the real to their local escudo and centavos in 1914, and retains the cifrão usage as decimals separator as of 2021. Local versions of the Portuguese escudo were for a time created also for other overseas colonies, including East Timor (1958–1975), Portuguese India (1958–1961), Angola (1914–1928 and 1958–1977), Mozambique (1914–1980), Portuguese Guinea (1914–1975), and São Tomé and Príncipe (1914–1977); presumably[clarification needed] all using the cifrão as decimals separator.[citation needed]

Brazil retained the real and the cifrão as thousands separator until 1942, when it switched to the Brazilian cruzeiro, with comma as the decimals separator. The dollar sign, officially with one stroke but often rendered with two, was retained as part of the currency symbol "Cr $", so one would write Cr$13,50 for 13 cruzeiros and 50 centavos.[26]

It was formerly used by the Portuguese escudo (ISO: PTE) before its replacement by the euro and by the Portuguese Timor escudo (ISO: TPE) before its replacement by the Indonesian rupiah and the US dollar.[27] In Portuguese and Cape Verdean usage, the cifrão is placed as a decimal point between the escudo and centavo values.[28] The name originates in the Arabic sifr (‏صِفْر‎), meaning 'zero'.[29]

## One stroke vs. two strokes

In some places and at some times, the one- and two-stroke variants have been used in the same contexts to distinguish between the U.S. dollar and other local currency, such as the former Portuguese escudo.[25]

However, such usage is not standardized, and furthermore the two versions are generally considered[citation needed] mere graphic variants of the same symbol—a typeface design choice. Computer and typewriter keyboards usually have a single key for that sign, and many character encodings (including ASCII and Unicode) reserve a single numeric code for it. Indeed, dollar signs in the same digital document may be rendered with one or two strokes, if different computer fonts are used. Should that ambiguity be significant, one may use explicit abbreviations (like "US$" or "$NZ"), or ISO 4217 three-letter currency codes (such as USD and MXN) to distinguish different currencies that use the symbol.

When a specific variant is not mandated by law or custom, the choice is usually a matter of expediency or aesthetic preference. Both versions were used in the US in the 18th century. (An 1861 Civil War-era advertisement depicts the two-stroked symbol as a snake.[18]) The two-stroke version seems to be generally less popular today, though used in some "old-style" fonts like Baskerville.

## Use in computer software

Because of its use in early American computer applications such as business accounting, the dollar sign is almost universally present in computer character sets, and thus has been appropriated for many purposes unrelated to money in programming languages and command languages.

### Encoding

The dollar sign "$" has Unicode code point U+0024 (inherited from ASCII via Latin-1). • U+0024$ DOLLAR SIGN (&dollar;)[a]

There are no separate encodings for one- and two-line variants. The choice is typeface-dependent, they are allographs. However, there are three other code points that originate from other East Asian standards: the Taiwanese small form variant, the CJK fullwidth form, and the Japanese emoji. The glyphs for these code points are typically larger or smaller than the primary code point, but the difference is mostly aesthetic or typographic, and the meanings of the symbols are the same.

• U+FE69 SMALL DOLLAR SIGN
• U+FF04 FULLWIDTH DOLLAR SIGN
• U+1F4B2 💲 HEAVY DOLLAR SIGN

However, for usage as the special character in various computing applications (see following sections), U+0024 is typically the only code that is recognized.

Support for the two-line variant varies. As of 2019, the Unicode standard considers the distinction between one- and two-bar dollar signs a stylistic distinction between fonts, and has no separate code point for the cifrão. The symbol is not in the October 2019 'pipeline',[32] but appears to be under active consideration.[33]

The following fonts display a double-bar dollar sign for code point 0024:[citation needed] regular-weight Baskerville, Big Caslon, Bodoni MT, Bradley Hand ITC, Brush Script MT, Garamond, STFangsong, STKaiti, and STSong ($). In LaTeX, with the textcomp package installed, the cifrão (${\displaystyle \mathrm {S} \!\!\!\Vert }$ ) can be input using the command \textdollaroldstyle. However, because of font substitution and the lack of a dedicated code point, the author of an electronic document who uses one of these fonts intending to represent a cifrão cannot be sure that every reader will see a double-bar glyph rather than the single barred version. Because of the continued lack of support in Unicode, a single bar dollar sign is frequently employed in its place even for official purposes.[28][34] Where there is any risk of misunderstanding, the ISO 4217 three letter acronym is used. ### Programming languages • $ was used for defining string variables in older versions of the BASIC language, e.g. CHR$ ($ was often pronounced "string" instead of "dollar" in this use).
• $ is prefixed to names to define variables in the PHP language and the AutoIt automation script language, scalar variables in the Perl language (see sigil (computer programming)), and global variables in the Ruby language. In Perl programming this includes scalar elements of arrays $array[7] and hashes $hash{foo}. • In most shell scripting languages, $ is used to indicate the insertion into strings of environment variables, special variables, input data fields, previous commands, arithmetic computations, and special characters, and for performing translation of localised strings. In the shell script languages of CP/M, DOS, and several Unix-like systems, it is used to insert variable information (such as the current working directory, user name, or sequential command number) in the command prompt.
• $ is used for defining hexadecimal constants in Pascal-like languages such as Delphi, and in some variants of assembly language. • $ is used in the ALGOL 68 language to delimit transput format regions.
• $ is used in the TeX typesetting language to delimit mathematical regions. • In many versions of FORTRAN 66, $ could be used as an alternative to a quotation mark for delimiting strings.
• In PL/M, $ can be used to put a visible separation between words in compound identifiers. For example, Some$Name refers to the same thing as 'SomeName'.
• In Haskell, $ is used as a function application operator. • In an AutoHotkey script, a hotkey declared with $ is not triggered by a 'Send' command elsewhere in the script.
• In several JavaScript frameworks such as Prototype.js and jQuery, $ is a common utility class, and is often referred to as the buck.[citation needed] Otherwise, it's a character allowed in identifiers. • In JavaScript from ES6 onward it is used inside template literals to insert the value of a variable. For example, if var word = "such" then as${word} would equal 'as such'
• In C#, $ marks a string literal as an interpolated string. • In ASP.NET, the dollar sign used in a tag in the web page indicates an expression will follow it. The expression that follows is .NET language-agnostic, as it will work with C#, VB.NET, or any CLR supported language. • In Erlang, the dollar sign precedes character literals. The dollar sign as a character can be written $$. • In COBOL the $ sign is used in the Picture clause to depict a floating currency symbol as the left most character. The default symbol is $; however, if the CURRENCY= or CURRENCY SIGN clause is specified, many other symbols can be used. • In some assembly languages, such as MIPS, the $ sign is used to represent registers.
• In Honeywell 6000 series assembler, the $ sign, when used as an address, meant the address of the instruction in which it appeared. • In CMS-2, the $ sign is used as a statement terminator.
• In R, the $ sign is used as a subsetting operator. • In Q (programming language from Kx Systems), the $ sign is used as a casting/padding/enumeration/conditional operator.
• In Sass, the $ sign is prefixed to define a variable. ### Operating systems • In CP/M and subsequently in all versions of DOS (86-DOS, MS-DOS, PC DOS, more) and derivatives, $ is used as a string terminator (Int 21h with AH=09h).
• In Microsoft Windows, $ is appended to the share name to hide a shared folder or resource. For example, \\server\share will be visible to other computers on a network, while \\server\share$ will be accessible only by explicit reference. Hiding a shared folder or resource will not alter its access permissions but may render it inaccessible to programs or other functions which rely on its visibility. Most administrative shares are hidden in this way.
• In the LDAP directory access protocol, $ is used as a line separator in various standard entry attributes such as postalAddress. • In the UNIVAC EXEC 8 operating system, $ means "system". It is appended to entities such as the names of system files, the "sender" name in messages sent by the operator, and the default names of system-created files (like compiler output) when no specific name is specified (e.g., TPF$, NAME$, etc.)
• In RISC OS, $ is used in system variables to separate the application name from the variables specific to that application. For example Draw$Dir specifies the directory where the !Draw application is located. It is also used to refer to the root directory of a file system.

## Other uses

The symbol is sometimes used derisively, in place of the letter S, to indicate greed or excess money such as in "Micro$oft", "Di$ney", "Chel$ea" and "GW$"; or supposed overt Americanisation as in "$ky". The dollar sign is also used intentionally to stylize names such as A$AP Rocky, Ke$ha, and Ty Dolla$ign or words such as ¥€$. In 1872, Ambrose Bierce referred to California governor Leland Stanford as$tealand Landford.[36]

In Scrabble notation, a dollar sign is placed after a word to indicate that it is valid according to the North American word lists, but not according to the British word lists.[37]

A dollar symbol is used as unit of reactivity for a nuclear reactor, $being the threshold of slow criticality, meaning a steady reaction rate, while 1$ is the threshold of prompt criticality, which means a nuclear excursion or explosion.[38][39]

The dollar sign was used as a letter in the Turkmen alphabet from 1993 to 1999.[citation needed]

The dollar sign plays an important role in the plot of Ayn Rand's novel Atlas Shrugged, with the book's radical Free Market activists adopting it as their insignia.[citation needed]

## Explanatory notes

1. ^ As of April 2022, HTML5 is the only version of HTML that has a named entity for the dollar sign.[30][31]

## References

### Citations

1. ^ Kinnaird, Lawrence (July 1976). "The Western Fringe of Revolution". The Western Historical Quarterly. 7 (3): 259. doi:10.2307/967081. JSTOR 967081.
2. ^ Popular Science (February 1930). "Origin of Dollar Sign is Traced to Mexico". Popular Science: 59. ISSN 0161-7370.
3. ^ "Section 9 of the Coinage Act of 1792". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
4. ^
5. ^
6. ^ a b c d Hephzibah Anderson (2019): "The curious origins of the dollar symbol". Online article at the BBC website, dated 29 May 2019. Accessed on 2021-08-12.
7. ^ Reverse of $1 United States Note (Greenback), series of 1869 8. ^ Cajori, Florian (1993) [1929]. A History of Mathematical Notations. Vol. 2. pp. 15–29. ISBN 9780486677668. 9. ^ Aiton, Arthur S.; Wheeler, Benjamin W. (May 1931). "The First American Mint". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 11 (2): 198. doi:10.1215/00182168-11.2.198. JSTOR 2506275. 10. ^ a b Nussbaum, Arthur (1957). A History of the Dollar. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 56. The foreign coins remained in circulation [in the United States], and the more important among them, especially the Spanish (including the Mexican) dollars, were declared by Congress on February 9, 1793, to be legal tender. The dollar sign,$, is connected with the peso, contrary to popular belief, which considers it to be an abbreviation of 'U.S.' The two parallel lines represented one of the many abbreviations of 'P,' and the 'S' indicated the plural. The abbreviation '$.' was also used for the peso, and is still used in Argentina. 11. ^ Riesco Terrero, Ángel (1983). Diccionario de abreviaturas hispanas de los siglos XIII al XVIII: Con un apendice de expresiones y formulas juridico-diplomaticas de uso corriente. Salamanca: Imprenta Varona. p. 350. ISBN 84-300-9090-8. 12. ^ Bureau of Engraving and Printing. "What is the origin of the$ sign?". Resources: FAQs. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
13. ^ a b João Joseph Du Beux (1775): Receipt of 270 000 Rs. for purchase by of 50 volumes of the Acta Santorum by the College of the Carmo of Coimbra. Quote: "Recebemos [...] a quantia de Duzentos Settenta mil reis[...] por Clareza passamos este Coimbra 15 de Março de 1775. São 270 000 Rs". Cartório do Colégio do Carmo, Maço 35, n.o 17. apud ALMEIDA, Manuel Lopes in "Livro, livreiros, impressores em documentos da Universidade", Arquivo de Bibliografia Portuguesa, ano X-XII, Atlântida, Coimbra, 1964-66, n o 37-48.
14. ^ a b Seijas, Tatiana and Jake Frederick (2017). Spanish Dollars and Sister Republics: The Money That Made Mexico and the United States. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9781538100462.
15. ^ Ulrich Theobald (2016): "Qing Period Money: Foreign Silver 'Dollars'". Online article in the website ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art, dated Apr 13, 2016. Accessed on 2021-08-14.
16. ^ Sandra Choron and Harry Choron (2011): Money Everything You Never Knew About Your Favorite Thing to Find, Save, Spend & Covet. Chronicle Books LLC 336 pages. ISBN 9781452105598
17. ^ Florence Edler de Roover. Concerning the Ancestry of the Dollar Sign. - Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. Vol. 19, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 63-64
18. ^ a b c Joshua D. Rothman (2018): "The Curious Origins of the Dollar Sign" Online article on the We're History website, dated 2018-04-01. Accessed on 2021-08-12.
19. ^ James, James Alton (1970) [1937]. Robert Morris: The Life and Times of an Unknown Patriot. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-8369-5527-9.
20. ^ James, James Alton (1929). "'Robert Morris, Financier of the Revolution in the West'". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review.
21. ^ Larson, Henrietta M. (October 1939). "Note on Our Dollar Sign". Bulletin of the Business Historical Society. 13 (4): 57–58. doi:10.2307/3111350. JSTOR 3111350.
22. ^ (2018): "Where did the dollar sign come from?" Online article of the History channel website, dated 2018-08-22. Accessed on 2021-08-12.
23. ^ (2015): "Origem do Cifrão". Note on the website of the Casa da Moeda do Brasil (Brazilian Mint). Accessed on 2021-08-12.
24. ^ "Banque de dépannage linguistique - Somme d'argent". Office québécois de la langue française. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
25. ^ a b Eduardo Marín Silva (22 July 2019). "Currency signs missing in Unicode" (PDF). Unicode Consortium.
26. ^ (1960): Price "Cr$15,00" on the front cover of the 1960-05-07 issue of O Cruzeiro magazine, reproduced on the Muzeez website on 2016-12-105. Accessed on 2021-08-14. 27. ^ Lisbon-tourist-guide.com. "Portuguese Escudo." 2008. 28. ^ a b Banco de Cabo Verde. "Moedas Archived 2011-01-22 at the Wayback Machine." Accessed 25 Feb 2011. 29. ^ Casa da Moeda. "Origem do Cifrão". Casadamoeda.gov.br. Retrieved 11 March 2018. 30. ^ "24 Character entity references in HTML 4". www.w3.org. The following sections present the complete lists of character entity references 31. ^ "8.5 Named character references". dollar; U+00024$
32. ^ "Proposed New Characters: The Pipeline". Unicode Consortium. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
33. ^ Eduardo Marín Silva (22 July 2019). "Currency signs missing in Unicode" (PDF). Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
34. ^ Banco Central do Brasil. "Currency table." Accessed 24 Feb 2011.
35. ^
36. ^ Roy Morris (1995). Ambrose Bierce: Alone in Bad Company. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780195126280.
37. ^ "Scrabble Glossary". Tucson Scrabble Club. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
38. ^ Weinberg, Alvin M.; Wigner, Eugene P. (1958). The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 595.
39. ^ "DOE Fundamentals: Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory: Module 4: Reactor Theory (Reactor Operations)" (PDF). U. S. Department of Energy. n.d. p. 16. Retrieved 25 July 2022.