Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of the Microsoft Office suite of software.
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows|
Excel for Mac 2016
|Initial release||September 30, 1985|
16.25 (Build 19051201) / May 14, 2019
|License||Proprietary commercial software|
16.0.11601.20074 / April 22, 2019
|Operating system||Android Marshmallow and later|
|License||Proprietary commercial software|
2.25 / May 13, 2019
|License||Proprietary commercial software|
Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives (using pivot tables and the scenario manager). It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differential equations of mathematical physics, and then reporting the results back to the spreadsheet. It also has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-called application, or decision support system (DSS), via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the user questions and provides answers and reports. In a more elaborate realization, an Excel application can automatically poll external databases and measuring instruments using an update schedule, analyze the results, make a Word report or PowerPoint slide show, and e-mail these presentations on a regular basis to a list of participants. Excel was not designed to be used as a database.
Microsoft allows for a number of optional command-line switches to control the manner in which Excel starts.
Excel 2016 has 484 functions. Of these, 360 existed prior to Excel 2010. Microsoft classifies these functions in 14 categories. Of the 484 current functions, 386 may be called from VBA as methods of the object "WorksheetFunction" and 44 have the same names as VBA functions.
The Windows version of Excel supports programming through Microsoft's Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is a dialect of Visual Basic. Programming with VBA allows spreadsheet manipulation that is awkward or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques. Programmers may write code directly using the Visual Basic Editor (VBE), which includes a window for writing code, debugging code, and code module organization environment. The user can implement numerical methods as well as automating tasks such as formatting or data organization in VBA and guide the calculation using any desired intermediate results reported back to the spreadsheet.
VBA was removed from Mac Excel 2008, as the developers did not believe that a timely release would allow porting the VBA engine natively to Mac OS X. VBA was restored in the next version, Mac Excel 2011, although the build lacks support for ActiveX objects, impacting some high level developer tools.
A common and easy way to generate VBA code is by using the Macro Recorder. The Macro Recorder records actions of the user and generates VBA code in the form of a macro. These actions can then be repeated automatically by running the macro. The macros can also be linked to different trigger types like keyboard shortcuts, a command button or a graphic. The actions in the macro can be executed from these trigger types or from the generic toolbar options. The VBA code of the macro can also be edited in the VBE. Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompt by their own properties, and some graphical display items, cannot be recorded but must be entered into the VBA module directly by the programmer. Advanced users can employ user prompts to create an interactive program, or react to events such as sheets being loaded or changed.
Macro Recorded code may not be compatible with Excel versions. Some code that is used in Excel 2010 cannot be used in Excel 2003. Making a Macro that changes the cell colours and making changes to other aspects of cells may not be backward compatible.
VBA code interacts with the spreadsheet through the Excel Object Model, a vocabulary identifying spreadsheet objects, and a set of supplied functions or methods that enable reading and writing to the spreadsheet and interaction with its users (for example, through custom toolbars or command bars and message boxes). User-created VBA subroutines execute these actions and operate like macros generated using the macro recorder, but are more flexible and efficient.
From its first version Excel supported end user programming of macros (automation of repetitive tasks) and user defined functions (extension of Excel's built-in function library). In early versions of Excel these programs were written in a macro language whose statements had formula syntax and resided in the cells of special purpose macro sheets (stored with file extension .XLM in Windows.) XLM was the default macro language for Excel through Excel 4.0. Beginning with version 5.0 Excel recorded macros in VBA by default but with version 5.0 XLM recording was still allowed as an option. After version 5.0 that option was discontinued. All versions of Excel, including Excel 2010 are capable of running an XLM macro, though Microsoft discourages their use.
These displays are dynamically updated if the content of cells change. For example, suppose that the important design requirements are displayed visually; then, in response to a user's change in trial values for parameters, the curves describing the design change shape, and their points of intersection shift, assisting the selection of the best design.
Additional features are available using add-ins. Several are provided with Excel, including:
- Analysis ToolPak: Provides data analysis tools for statistical and engineering analysis (includes analysis of variance and regression analysis)
- Analysis ToolPak VBA: VBA functions for Analysis ToolPak
- Euro Currency Tools: Conversion and formatting for euro currency
- Solver Add-In: Tools for optimization and equation solving
Data storage and communication
Number of rows and columns
Versions of Excel up to 7.0 had a limitation in the size of their data sets of 16K (214 = 16384) rows. Versions 8.0 through 11.0 could handle 64K (216 = 65536) rows and 256 columns (28 as label 'IV'). Version 12.0 onwards, including the current Version 16.x, can handle over 1M (220 = 1048576) rows, and 16384 (214 as label 'XFD') columns.
|Internet media type|
|Uniform Type Identifier (UTI)||com.microsoft.excel.xls|
|Type of format||Spreadsheet|
Microsoft Excel up until 2007 version used a proprietary binary file format called Excel Binary File Format (.XLS) as its primary format. Excel 2007 uses Office Open XML as its primary file format, an XML-based format that followed after a previous XML-based format called "XML Spreadsheet" ("XMLSS"), first introduced in Excel 2002.
Although supporting and encouraging the use of new XML-based formats as replacements, Excel 2007 remained backwards-compatible with the traditional, binary formats. In addition, most versions of Microsoft Excel can read CSV, DBF, SYLK, DIF, and other legacy formats. Support for some older file formats was removed in Excel 2007. The file formats were mainly from DOS-based programs.
The XML Spreadsheet format introduced in Excel 2002 is a simple, XML based format missing some more advanced features like storage of VBA macros. Though the intended file extension for this format is .xml, the program also correctly handles XML files with .xls extension. This feature is widely used by third-party applications (e.g. MySQL Query Browser) to offer "export to Excel" capabilities without implementing binary file format. The following example will be correctly opened by Excel if saved either as Book1.xml or Book1.xls:
<?xml version="1.0"?> <Workbook xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:spreadsheet" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:x="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:excel" xmlns:ss="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:spreadsheet" xmlns:html="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <Worksheet ss:Name="Sheet1"> <Table ss:ExpandedColumnCount="2" ss:ExpandedRowCount="2" x:FullColumns="1" x:FullRows="1"> <Row> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">Name</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">Example</Data></Cell> </Row> <Row> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">Value</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">123</Data></Cell> </Row> </Table> </Worksheet> </Workbook>
Current file extensions
Microsoft Excel 2007, along with the other products in the Microsoft Office 2007 suite, introduced new file formats. The first of these (.xlsx) is defined in the Office Open XML (OOXML) specification.
|Excel Workbook||.xlsx||The default Excel 2007 and later workbook format. In reality a Zip compressed archive with a directory structure of XML text documents. Functions as the primary replacement for the former binary .xls format, although it does not support Excel macros for security reasons.|
|Excel Macro-enabled Workbook||.xlsm||As Excel Workbook, but with macro support.|
|Excel Binary Workbook||.xlsb||As Excel Macro-enabled Workbook, but storing information in binary form rather than XML documents for opening and saving documents more quickly and efficiently. Intended especially for very large documents with tens of thousands of rows, and/or several hundreds of columns.|
|Excel Macro-enabled Template||.xltm||A template document that forms a basis for actual workbooks, with macro support. The replacement for the old .xlt format.|
|Excel Add-in||.xlam||Excel add-in to add extra functionality and tools. Inherent macro support because of the file purpose.|
Old file extensions
|Spreadsheet||.xls||Main spreadsheet format which holds data in worksheets, charts, and macros|
|Add-in (VBA)||.xla||Adds custom functionality; written in VBA|
|Toolbar||.xlb||The file extension where Microsoft Excel custom toolbar settings are stored.|
|Chart||.xlc||A chart created with data from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that only saves the chart. To save the chart and spreadsheet save as .XLS. XLC is not supported in Excel 2007 or in any newer versions of Excel.|
|Dialog||.xld||Used in older versions of Excel.|
|Archive||.xlk||A backup of an Excel Spreadsheet|
|Add-in (DLL)||.xll||Adds custom functionality; written in C++/C, Visual Basic, Fortran, etc. and compiled in to a special dynamic-link library|
|Macro||.xlm||A macro is created by the user or pre-installed with Excel.|
|Template||.xlt||A pre-formatted spreadsheet created by the user or by Microsoft Excel.|
|Module||.xlv||A module is written in VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) for Microsoft Excel|
|Library||.DLL||Code written in VBA may access functions in a DLL, typically this is used to access the Windows API|
|Workspace||.xlw||Arrangement of the windows of multiple Workbooks|
Using other Windows applications
Windows applications such as Microsoft Access and Microsoft Word, as well as Excel can communicate with each other and use each other's capabilities. The most common are Dynamic Data Exchange: although strongly deprecated by Microsoft, this is a common method to send data between applications running on Windows, with official MS publications referring to it as "the protocol from hell". As the name suggests, it allows applications to supply data to others for calculation and display. It is very common in financial markets, being used to connect to important financial data services such as Bloomberg and Reuters.
OLE Object Linking and Embedding: allows a Windows application to control another to enable it to format or calculate data. This may take on the form of "embedding" where an application uses another to handle a task that it is more suited to, for example a PowerPoint presentation may be embedded in an Excel spreadsheet or vice versa.
Using external data
Excel users can access external data sources via Microsoft Office features such as (for example)
.odc connections built with the Office Data Connection file format. Excel files themselves may be updated using a Microsoft supplied ODBC driver.
Excel can accept data in real time through several programming interfaces, which allow it to communicate with many data sources such as Bloomberg and Reuters (through addins such as Power Plus Pro).
- DDE : "Dynamic Data Exchange" uses the message passing mechanism in Windows to allow data to flow between Excel and other applications. Although it is easy for users to create such links, programming such links reliably is so difficult that Microsoft, the creators of the system, officially refer to it as "the protocol from hell". In spite of its many issues DDE remains the most common way for data to reach traders in financial markets.
- Network DDE Extended the protocol to allow spreadsheets on different computers to exchange data. Starting with Windows Vista, Microsoft no longer supports the facility.
- Real Time Data : RTD although in many ways technically superior to DDE, has been slow to gain acceptance, since it requires non-trivial programming skills, and when first released was neither adequately documented nor supported by the major data vendors.
Export and migration of spreadsheets
Microsoft Excel protection offers several types of passwords:
- Password to open a document 
- Password to modify a document 
- Password to unprotect worksheet
- Password to protect workbook
- Password to protect the sharing workbook 
All passwords except password to open a document can be removed instantly regardless of Microsoft Excel version used to create the document. These types of passwords are used primarily for shared work on a document. Such password-protected documents are not encrypted, and a data sources from a set password is saved in a document’s header. Password to protect workbook is an exception – when it is set, a document is encrypted with the standard password “VelvetSweatshop”, but since it is known to public, it actually does not add any extra protection to the document. The only type of password that can prevent a trespasser from gaining access to a document is password to open a document. The cryptographic strength of this kind of protection depends strongly on the Microsoft Excel version that was used to create the document.
In Microsoft Excel 95 and earlier versions, password to open is converted to a 16-bit key that can be instantly cracked. In Excel 97/2000 the password is converted to a 40-bit key, which can also be cracked very quickly using modern equipment. As regards services which use rainbow tables (e.g. Password-Find), it takes up to several seconds to remove protection. In addition, password-cracking programs can brute-force attack passwords at a rate of hundreds of thousands of passwords a second, which not only lets them decrypt a document, but also find the original password.
In Excel 2003/XP the encryption is slightly better – a user can choose any encryption algorithm that is available in the system (see Cryptographic Service Provider). Due to the CSP, an Excel file can't be decrypted, and thus the password to open can't be removed, though the brute-force attack speed remains quite high. Nevertheless, the older Excel 97/2000 algorithm is set by the default. Therefore, users who do not change the default settings lack reliable protection of their documents.
The situation changed fundamentally in Excel 2007, where the modern AES algorithm with a key of 128 bits started being used for decryption, and a 50,000-fold use of the hash function SHA1 reduced the speed of brute-force attacks down to hundreds of passwords per second. In Excel 2010, the strength of the protection by the default was increased two times due to the use of a 100,000-fold SHA1 to convert a password to a key.
Microsoft Excel Viewer
Microsoft Excel Viewer was a freeware program for viewing and printing spreadsheet documents created by Excel.. The Microsoft Excel Viewer was retired in April, 2018 in lieu of Excel Online. Excel Viewer is similar to Microsoft Word Viewer in functionality. (There is not a current version for the Mac.) Excel Viewer is available for Microsoft Windows and Windows CE handheld PCs, such as the NEC MobilePro. It is also possible to open Excel files using certain online tools and services.Online excel viewers do not require users to have Microsoft Excel installed.
In addition to issues with spreadsheets in general, other problems specific to Excel include numeric precision, misleading statistics functions, mod function errors, date limitations and more.
Despite the use of 15-figure precision, Excel can display many more figures (up to thirty) upon user request. But the displayed figures are not those actually used in its computations, and so, for example, the difference of two numbers may differ from the difference of their displayed values. Although such departures are usually beyond the 15th decimal, exceptions do occur, especially for very large or very small numbers. Serious errors can occur if decisions are made based upon automated comparisons of numbers (for example, using the Excel If function), as equality of two numbers can be unpredictable.
In the figure the fraction 1/9000 is displayed in Excel. Although this number has a decimal representation that is an infinite string of ones, Excel displays only the leading 15 figures. In the second line, the number one is added to the fraction, and again Excel displays only 15 figures. In the third line, one is subtracted from the sum using Excel. Because the sum in the second line has only eleven 1's after the decimal, the difference when 1 is subtracted from this displayed value is three 0's followed by a string of eleven 1's. However, the difference reported by Excel in the third line is three 0's followed by a string of thirteen 1's and two extra erroneous digits. This is because Excel calculates with about half a digit more than it displays.
Excel works with a modified 1985 version of the IEEE 754 specification. Excel's implementation involves conversions between binary and decimal representations, leading to accuracy that is on average better than one would expect from simple fifteen digit precision, but that can be worse. See the main article for details.
Besides accuracy in user computations, the question of accuracy in Excel-provided functions may be raised. Particularly in the arena of statistical functions, Excel has been criticized for sacrificing accuracy for speed of calculation.
The accuracy and convenience of statistical tools in Excel has been criticized, as mishandling missing data, as returning incorrect values due to inept handling of round-off and large numbers, as only selectively updating calculations on a spreadsheet when some cell values are changed, and as having a limited set of statistical tools. Microsoft has announced some of these issues are addressed in Excel 2010.
Excel MOD function error
Fictional leap day in the year 1900
Excel includes February 29, 1900, incorrectly treating 1900 as a leap year, even though e.g. 2100 is correctly treated as a non-leap year. The bug originated from Lotus 1-2-3 (deliberately implemented to save computer memory), and was also purposely implemented in Excel, for the purpose of bug compatibility. This legacy has later been carried over into Office Open XML file format.
Thus a (not necessarily whole) number greater than or equal to 61 interpreted as a date and time is the (real) number of days after December 30, 1899, 0:00, a non-negative number less than 60 is the number of days after December 31, 1899, 0:00, and numbers with whole part 60 represent the fictional day.
Excel supports dates with years in the range 1900-9999, except that December 31, 1899 can be entered as 0 and is displayed as 0-jan-1900.
Converting a fraction of a day into hours, minutes and days by treating it as a moment on the day January 1, 1900, does not work for a negative fraction.
Entering text that happens to be in a form that is interpreted as a date, the text can be unintentionally changed to a standard date format. A similar problem occurs when a text happens to be in the form of a floating point notation of a number. In these cases the original exact text cannot be recovered from the result.
This issue has caused a well known problem in the analysis of DNA, for example in bioinformatics. As first reported in 2004, genetic scientists found that Excel automatically and incorrectly converts certain gene names into dates. A follow-up study in 2016 found many peer reviewed scientific journal papers had been affected and that "Of the selected journals, the proportion of published articles with Excel files containing gene lists that are affected by gene name errors is 19.6 %." Excel parses the copied and pasted data and sometimes changes them depending on what it thinks they are. For example, MARCH1 (Membrane Associated Ring-CH-type finger 1) gets converted to the date March 1 (1-Mar) and SEPT2 (Septin 2) is converted into September 2 (2-Sep) etc. While some secondary news sources reported this as a fault with Excel, the original authors of the 2016 paper placed the blame with the researchers mis-using Excel.
Errors with large strings
The following functions return incorrect results when passed a string longer than 255 characters:
- "type()" incorrectly returns 16, meaning "Error value"
- "IsText()", when called as a method of the VBA object "WorksheetFunction" (i.e., "WorksheetFunction.IsText()" in VBA), incorrectly returns "false".
Microsoft Excel will not open two documents with the same name and instead will display the following error:
- A document with the name '%s' is already open. You cannot open two documents with the same name, even if the documents are in different folders. To open the second document, either close the document that is currently open, or rename one of the documents.
The reason is for calculation ambiguity with linked cells. If there is a cell ='[Book1.xlsx]Sheet1'!$G$33, and there are two books named "Book1" open, there is no way to tell which one the user means.
Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in 1982. Multiplan became very popular on CP/M systems, but on MS-DOS systems it lost popularity to Lotus 1-2-3. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Macintosh on September 30, 1985, and the first Windows version was 2.05 (to synchronize with the Macintosh version 2.2) in November 1987. Lotus was slow to bring 1-2-3 to Windows and by the early 1990s Excel had started to outsell 1-2-3 and helped Microsoft achieve its position as a leading PC software developer. This accomplishment solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing GUI software. Microsoft maintained its advantage with regular new releases, every two years or so.
Excel 2.0 is the first version of Excel for the Intel platform. Versions prior to 2.0 were only available on the Apple Macintosh.
Excel 2.0 (1987)
The first Windows version was labeled "2" to correspond to the Mac version. This included a run-time version of Windows.
BYTE in 1989 listed Excel for Windows as among the "Distinction" winners of the BYTE Awards. The magazine stated that the port of the "extraordinary" Macintosh version "shines", with a user interface as good as or better than the original.
Excel 3.0 (1990)
Included toolbars, drawing capabilities, outlining, add-in support, 3D charts, and many more new features.
Excel 4.0 (1992)
Excel 5.0 (1993)
With version 5.0, Excel has included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), a programming language based on Visual Basic which adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user-defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets. VBA is a powerful addition to the application and includes a fully featured integrated development environment (IDE). Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions, thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. VBA allows the creation of forms and in‑worksheet controls to communicate with the user. The language supports use (but not creation) of ActiveX (COM) DLL's; later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic object-oriented programming techniques.
The automation functionality provided by VBA made Excel a target for macro viruses. This caused serious problems until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely, to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate.
Versions 5.0 to 9.0 of Excel contain various Easter eggs, including a "Hall of Tortured Souls", although since version 10 Microsoft has taken measures to eliminate such undocumented features from their products.
5.0 was released in a 16-bit x86 version for Windows 3.1 and later in a 32-bit version for NT 3.51 (x86/Alpha/PowerPC)
Excel 95 (v7.0)
Released in 1995 with Microsoft Office for Windows 95, this is the first major version after Excel 5.0, as there is no Excel 6.0 with all of the Office applications standardizing on the same major version number.
Internal rewrite to 32-bits. Almost no external changes, but faster and more stable.
Excel 97 (v8.0)
Included in Office 97 (for x86 and Alpha). This was a major upgrade that introduced the paper clip office assistant and featured standard VBA used instead of internal Excel Basic. It introduced the now-removed Natural Language labels.
This version of Excel includes a flight simulator as an Easter Egg.
Excel 2000 (v9.0)
Included in Office 2000. This was a minor upgrade, but introduced an upgrade to the clipboard where it can hold multiple objects at once. The Office Assistant, whose frequent unsolicited appearance in Excel 97 had annoyed many users, became less intrusive.
Excel 2002 (v10.0)
Included in Office XP. Very minor enhancements.
Excel 2003 (v11.0)
Included in Office 2003. Minor enhancements, most significant being the new Tables.
Excel 2007 (v12.0)
Included in Office 2007. This release was a major upgrade from the previous version. Similar to other updated Office products, Excel in 2007 used the new Ribbon menu system. This was different from what users were used to, and was met with mixed reactions. One study reported fairly good acceptance by users except highly experienced users and users of word processing applications with a classical WIMP interface, but was less convinced in terms of efficiency and organisation. However, an online survey reported that a majority of respondents had a negative opinion of the change, with advanced users being "somewhat more negative" than intermediate users, and users reporting a self-estimated reduction in productivity.
Added functionality included the SmartArt set of editable business diagrams. Also added was an improved management of named variables through the Name Manager, and much improved flexibility in formatting graphs, which allow (x, y) coordinate labeling and lines of arbitrary weight. Several improvements to pivot tables were introduced.
Specifically, many of the size limitations of previous versions were greatly increased. To illustrate, the number of rows was now 1,048,576 (220) and columns was 16,384 (214; the far-right column is XFD). This changes what is a valid A1 reference versus a named range. This version made more extensive use of multiple cores for the calculation of spreadsheets; however, VBA macros are not handled in parallel and XLL add‑ins were only executed in parallel if they were thread-safe and this was indicated at registration.
Excel 2010 (v14.0)
Minor enhancements and 64-bit support, including the following:
- Multi-threading recalculation (MTR) for commonly used functions
- Improved pivot tables
- More conditional formatting options
- Additional image editing capabilities
- In-cell charts called sparklines
- Ability to preview before pasting
- Office 2010 backstage feature for document-related tasks
- Ability to customize the Ribbon
- Many new formulas, most highly specialized to improve accuracy
Excel 2013 (v15.0)
Included in Office 2013, along with a lot of new tools included in this release:
- Improved Multi-threading and Memory Contention
- Power View
- Power Pivot
- Timeline Slicer
- Windows App
- 50 new functions
Excel 2016 (v16.0)
Included in Office 2016, along with a lot of new tools included in this release:
- Power Query integration
- Read-only mode for Excel
- Keyboard access for Pivot Tables and Slicers in Excel
- New Chart Types
- Quick data linking in Visio
- Excel forecasting functions
- Support for multi-selection of Slicer items using touch
- Time grouping and Pivot Chart Drill Down
- Excel data cards
- 1985 Excel 1.0
- 1988 Excel 1.5
- 1989 Excel 2.2
- 1990 Excel 3.0
- 1992 Excel 4.0
- 1993 Excel 5.0 (part of Office 4.x—Final Motorola 680x0 version and first PowerPC version)
- 1998 Excel 8.0 (part of Office 98)
- 2000 Excel 9.0 (part of Office 2001)
- 2001 Excel 10.0 (part of Office v. X)
- 2004 Excel 11.0 (part of Office 2004)
- 2008 Excel 12.0 (part of Office 2008)
- 2011 Excel 14.0 (part of Office 2011)
- 2015 Excel 15.0 (part of Office 2016— Office 2016 for Mac brings the Mac version much closer to parity with its Windows cousin, harmonizing many of the reporting and high-level developer functions, while bringing the ribbon and styling into line with its PC counterpart.)
- 1989 Excel 2.2
- 1990 Excel 2.3
- 1991 Excel 3.0
|Legend:||Old version, no support||Older version, still supported||Current stable version||Latest preview version||Future release|
|1987||Excel 2||Old version, no longer supported: 2.0||Renumbered to 2 to correspond with contemporary Macintosh version|
|1990||Excel 3||Old version, no longer supported: 3.0||Added 3D graphing capabilities|
|1992||Excel 4||Old version, no longer supported: 4.0||Introduced auto-fill feature|
|1993||Excel 5||Old version, no longer supported: 5.0||Included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and various object-oriented options|
|1995||Excel 95||Old version, no longer supported: 7.0||Renumbered for contemporary Word version. Both programs were packaged in Microsoft Office by this time.|
|1997||Excel 97||Old version, no longer supported: 8.0|
|2000||Excel 2000||Old version, no longer supported: 9.0||Part of Microsoft Office 2000, which was itself part of Windows Millennium (also known as "Windows ME").|
|2002||Excel 2002||Old version, no longer supported: 10.0|
|2003||Excel 2003||Old version, no longer supported: 11.0||Released only 1 year later to correspond better with the rest of Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, etc.).|
|2007||Excel 2007||Old version, no longer supported: 12.0|
|2010||Excel 2010||Older version, yet still supported: 14.0||Due to superstitions surrounding the number 13, Excel 13 was skipped in version counting.|
|2013||Excel 2013||Older version, yet still supported: 15.0||Introduced 50 more mathematical functions (available as pre-packaged commands, rather than typing the formula manually).|
|2016||Excel 2016||Current stable version: 16.0||Part of Microsoft Office 2016|
|1985||Excel 1||Old version, no longer supported: 1.0||Initial version of Excel|
|1988||Excel 1.5||Old version, no longer supported: 1.5|
|1989||Excel 2||Old version, no longer supported: 2.2|
|1990||Excel 3||Old version, no longer supported: 3.0|
|1992||Excel 4||Old version, no longer supported: 4.0|
|1993||Excel 5||Old version, no longer supported: 5.0||Only available on PowerPC-based Macs. First PowerPC version.|
|1998||Excel 98||Old version, no longer supported: 8.0||Excel 6 and Excel 7 were skipped to correspond with the rest of Microsoft Office at the time.|
|2000||Excel 2000||Old version, no longer supported: 9.0|
|2001||Excel 2001||Old version, no longer supported: 10.0|
|2004||Excel 2004||Old version, no longer supported: 11.0|
|2008||Excel 2008||Old version, no longer supported: 12.0|
|2011||Excel 2011||Old version, no longer supported: 14.0||As with the Windows version, version 13 was skipped for superstitious reasons.|
|2016||Excel 2016||Current stable version: 16.0||As with the rest of Microsoft Office, so it is for Excel: Future release dates for the Macintosh version are intended to correspond better to those for the Windows version, from 2016 onward.|
|1989||Excel 2.2||Old version, no longer supported: 2.2||Numbered in between Windows versions at the time|
|1990||Excel 2.3||Old version, no longer supported: 2.3|
|1991||Excel 3||Old version, no longer supported: 3.0||Last OS/2 version. Discontinued subseries of Microsoft Excel, which is otherwise still an actively developed program.|
Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets; however, the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet software, VisiCalc: the program displays cells organized in rows and columns, and each cell may contain data or a formula, with relative or absolute references to other cells.
Excel 2.0 for Windows, which was modeled after its Mac GUI-based counterpart, indirectly expanded the installed base of the then-nascent Windows environment. Excel 2.0 was released a month before Windows 2.0, and the installed base of Windows was so low at that point in 1987 that Microsoft had to bundle a runtime version of Windows 1.0 with Excel 2.0. Unlike Microsoft Word, there never was a DOS version of Excel.
Excel became the first spreadsheet to allow the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets (fonts, character attributes and cell appearance). It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation, where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated (previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command). Excel introduced auto-fill, the ability to drag and expand the selection box to automatically copy cell or row contents to adjacent cells or rows, adjusting the copies intelligently by automatically incrementing cell references or contents. Excel also introduced extensive graphing capabilities.
Because Excel is widely used, it has been attacked by hackers. While Excel is not directly exposed to the Internet, if an attacker can get a victim to open a file in Excel, and there is an appropriate security bug in Excel, then the attacker can get control of the victim's computer. UK's GCHQ has a tool named TORNADO ALLEY with this purpose.
- "Release notes for Monthly Channel releases in 2019". Microsoft Docs. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Tom Warren (September 24, 2018). "Microsoft launches Office 2019 for Windows and Mac". The Verge. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- "Microsoft Office Excel 2010". Download.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- "Update history for Office for Mac". Microsoft Docs. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- "Microsoft Excel APKs". APKMirror. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
- "Microsoft Excel". App Store. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Harvey, Greg (2006). Excel 2007 For Dummies. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-03737-9.
- Harvey, Greg (2007). Excel 2007 Workbook for Dummies (2nd ed.). Wiley. p. 296 ff. ISBN 978-0-470-16937-7.
- de Levie, Robert (2004). Advanced Excel for scientific data analysis. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515275-3.
- Bourg, David M. (2006). Excel scientific and engineering cookbook. O'Reilly. ISBN 978-0-596-00879-6.
- Şeref, Michelle M. H. & Ahuja, Ravindra K. (2008). "§4.2 A portfolio management and optimization spreadsheet DSS". In Burstein, Frad & Holsapple, Clyde W. (eds.). Handbook on Decision Support Systems 1: Basic Themes. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-48712-8.
- Wells, Eric & Harshbarger, Steve (1997). Microsoft Excel 97 Developer's Handbook. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-1-57231-359-0. Excellent examples are developed that show just how applications can be designed.
- Harnett, Donald L. & Horrell, James F. (1998). Data, statistics, and decision models with Excel. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-13398-8.
- Şeref, Michelle M. H.; Ahuja, Ravindra K. & Winston, Wayne L. (2007). Developing spreadsheet-based decision support systems: using Excel and VBA. Dynamic Ideas. ISBN 978-0-9759146-5-6. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Some form of data acquisition hardware is required. See, for example, Austerlitz, Howard (2003). Data acquisition techniques using PCs (2nd ed.). Academic Press. p. 281 ff. ISBN 978-0-12-068377-2.
"Description of the startup switches for Excel". Microsoft Help and Support. Microsoft Support. May 7, 2007. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
Microsoft Excel accepts a number of optional switches that you can use to control how the program starts. This article lists the switches and provides a description of each switch.
- "Excel functions (alphabetical)". Microsoft. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- "WorksheetFunction Object (Excel)". Office VBA Reference. Microsoft. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- "Functions (Visual Basic for Applications)". Office VBA Reference. Microsoft. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- For example, by converting to Visual Basic the recipes in Press, William H. Press; Teukolsky, Saul A.; Vetterling, William T. & Flannery, Brian P. (2007). Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. Code conversion to Basic from Fortran probably is easier than from C++, so the 2nd edition (ISBN 0521437210) may be easier to use, or the Basic code implementation of the first edition: Sprott, Julien C. (1991). Numerical recipes: routines and examples in BASIC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40689-5.
- "Excel". Office for Mac. OfficeforMacHelp.com. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Using Excel - PC or Mac? | Excel Lemon". www.excellemon.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- However an increasing proportion of Excel functionality is not captured by the Macro Recorder leading to largely useless macros. Compatibility among multiple versions of Excel is also a downfall of this method. A macro recorder in Excel 2010 may not work in Excel 2003 or older. This is most common when changing colours and formatting of cells. Walkenbach, John (2007). "Chapter 6: Using the Excel macro recorder". Excel 2007 VBA Programming for Dummies (Revised by Jan Karel Pieterse ed.). Wiley. p. 79 ff. ISBN 978-0-470-04674-6.
- "More than 100 Excel Keyboard Shortcuts". AllTop9.com.
- Walkenbach, John (February 2, 2007). "Chapter 4: Introducing the Excel object model". cited work. p. 53 ff. ISBN 978-0-470-04674-6.
- "The Spreadsheet Page for Excel Users and Developers". J-Walk & Associates, Inc. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Working with Excel 4.0 macros". Microsoft Office Support. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "The "Big Grid" and Increased Limits in Excel 2007". microsoft.com. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
- "Mac Developer Library".
- "How to extract information from Office files by using Office file formats and schemas". Microsoft. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "XML Spreadsheet Reference". Microsoft Excel 2002 Technical Articles. MSDN. August 2001. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "Deprecated features for Excel 2007". Microsoft — David Gainer. August 24, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- "OpenOffice.org's documentation of the Microsoft Excel File Format" (PDF). August 2, 2008.
- "Microsoft Office Excel 97 - 2007 Binary File Format Specification (*.xls 97-2007 format)". Microsoft Corporation. 2007.
- "Faking DDE with Private Servers".
- Schmalz, Michael (2006). "Chapter 5: Using Access VBA to automate Excel". Integrating Excel and Access. O'Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN 978-0-596-00973-1.Schmalz, Michael (2006). "Chapter 5: Using Access VBA to automate Excel". Integrating Excel and Access. O'Reilly Media, Inc. ISBN 978-0-596-00973-1.
- Cornell, Paul (2007). "Chapter 5: Connect to other databases". Excel as Your Database. Apress. p. 117 ff. ISBN 978-1-59059-751-4.
- DeMarco, Jim (2008). "Excel's data import tools". Pro Excel 2007 VBA. Apress. p. 43 ff. ISBN 978-1-59059-957-0.
- Harts, Doug (2007). "Importing Access data into Excel 2007". Microsoft Office 2007 Business Intelligence: Reporting, Analysis, and Measurement from the Desktop. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-149424-3.
- "About Network DDE (Windows)".
- How to set up RTD in Excel
DeMarco, Jim (2008). Pro Excel 2007 VBA. Berkeley, CA: Apress. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-59059-957-0.
External data is accessed through a connection file, such as an Office Data Connection (ODC) file (.odc)
Bullen, Stephen; Bovey, Rob & Green, John (2009). Professional Excel Development (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. p. 665. ISBN 978-0-321-50879-9.
To create a robust solution, we always have to include some VBA code ...
- William, Wehrs (2000). "An Applied DSS Course Using Excel and VBA: IS and/or MS?" (PDF). The Proceedings of ISECON (Information System Educator Conference). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
Microsoft Query is a data retrieval tool (i.e. ODBC browser) that can be employed within Excel 97. It allows a user to create and save queries on external relational databases for which an ODBC driver is available.
- Use Microsoft Query to retrieve external data Archived March 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Password protect documents, workbooks, and presentations - Word - Office.com". Office.microsoft.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Password protect documents, workbooks, and presentations - Word - Office.com". Office.microsoft.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Password protect worksheet or workbook elements - Excel - Office.com". Office.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "How safe is Word encryption. Is it really secure?". Oraxcel.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Description of the Excel Viewer; Microsoft Support; accessed April 2014.
- New Features in Windows CE .NET 4.1; Microsoft DN; ; accessed April 2014.
- Microsoft's overview is found at: "Floating-point arithmetic may give inaccurate results in Excel". Revision 8.2 ; article ID: 78113. Microsoft support. June 30, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Altman, Micah; Gill, Jeff; McDonald, Michael (2004). "§2.1.1 Revealing example: Computing the coefficient standard deviation". Numerical issues in statistical computing for the social scientist. Wiley-IEEE. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-471-23633-7.
- de Levie, Robert (2004). cited work. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-19-515275-3.
- Walkenbach, John (2010). "Defining data types". Excel 2010 Power Programming with VBA. Wiley. pp. 198 ff and Table 8–1. ISBN 978-0-470-47535-5.
- McCullough, Bruce D.; Wilson, Berry (2002). "On the accuracy of statistical procedures in Microsoft Excel 2000 and Excel XP". Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. 40 (4): 713–721. doi:10.1016/S0167-9473(02)00095-6.
- McCullough, Bruce D.; Heiser, David A. (2008). "On the accuracy of statistical procedures in Microsoft Excel 2007". Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. 52 (10): 4570–4578. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.455.5508. doi:10.1016/j.csda.2008.03.004.
- Yalta, A. Talha (2008). "The accuracy of statistical distributions in Microsoft Excel 2007". Computational Statistics & Data Analysis. 52 (10): 4579–4586. doi:10.1016/j.csda.2008.03.005.
- Goldwater, Eva. "Using Excel for Statistical Data Analysis — Caveats". University of Massachusetts School of Public Health. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- Heiser, David A. (2008). "Microsoft Excel 2000, 2003 and 2007 faults, problems, workarounds and fixes". Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- Function improvements in Excel 2010 Archived April 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Comments are provided from readers that may illuminate some remaining problems.
- "XL: MOD() Function Returns #NUM! Error Value". Microsoft. January 19, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "The MOD bug". Byg Software. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "Days of the week before March 1, 1900 are incorrect in Excel". Microsoft. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "Excel 2000 incorrectly assumes that the year 1900 is a leap year". Microsoft. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- Spolsky, Joel (June 16, 2006). "My First BillG Review". Joel on Software. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
- "The Contradictory Nature of OOXML". ConsortiumInfo.org.
- "Negative date and time value are displayed as pound signs (###) in Excel". Microsoft. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
- Zeeberg, Barry R; Riss, Joseph; Kane, David W; Bussey, Kimberly J; Uchio, Edward; Linehan, W Marston; Barrett, J Carl; Weinstein, John N (2004). "Mistaken Identifiers: Gene name errors can be introduced inadvertently when using Excel in bioinformatics". BMC Bioinformatics. 5 (1): 80. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-5-80. PMC 459209. PMID 15214961.
- Ziemann, Mark; Eren, Yotam; El-Osta, Assam (2016). "Gene name errors are widespread in the scientific literature". Genome Biology. 17 (1): 177. doi:10.1186/s13059-016-1044-7. PMC 4994289. PMID 27552985.
- Anon (2016). "Microsoft Excel blamed for gene study errors". bbc.co.uk. London: BBC News.
- Cimpanu, Catalin (August 24, 2016). "One in Five Scientific Papers on Genes Contains Errors Because of Excel". Softpedia. SoftNews.
- Ziemann, Mark (2016). "Genome Spot: My personal thoughts on gene name errors". genomespot.blogspot.co.uk. Archived from the original on August 30, 2016.
- "Excel: type() and WorksheetFunction.IsText() fail for long strings". Stack Overflow. November 3, 2018.
- Rajah, Gary (August 2, 2004). "Trouble with macros". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- Chirilov, Joseph (January 8, 2009). "Microsoft Excel - Why Can't I Open Two Files With the Same Name?". MSDN Blogs. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- Infoworld Media Group, Inc. (July 7, 1986). InfoWorld First Look: Supercalc 4 challenging 1-2-3 with new tactic.
- "The Spreadsheet Page - John Walkenbach".
- "The BYTE Awards". BYTE. January 1989. p. 327.
- Lewallen, Dale (1992). PC/Computing guide to Excel 4.0 for Windows. Ziff Davis. p. 13. ISBN 9781562760489. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- Lake, Matt (April 6, 2009). "Easter Eggs we have loved: Excel 4". crashreboot.blogspot.com. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
- Osterman, Larry (October 21, 2005). "Why no Easter Eggs?". Larry Osterman's WebLog. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
- Dostál, M (December 9, 2010). User Acceptance of the Microsoft Ribbon User Interface (PDF). Palacký University of Olomouc. ISBN 978-960-474-245-5. ISSN 1792-6157. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Kyd, Charley (May 2009). "Ribbon survey results". ExcelUser.com. ExcelUser.
- Dodge, Mark; Stinson, Craig (2007). "Chapter 1: What's new in Microsoft Office Excel 2007". Microsoft Office Excel 2007 inside out. Microsoft Press. p. 1 ff. ISBN 978-0-7356-2321-7.
- "What's New in Excel 2010 - Excel".
- Walkenbach, John (2010). "Some Essential Background". Excel 2010 Power Programming with VBA. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 9780470475355.
- Harris, Steven (October 1, 2013). "Excel 2013 - Flash Fill". Experts-Exchange.com. Experts Exchange. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "What's new in Excel 2013". Office.com. Microsoft. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- K., Gasper (October 10, 2013). "Does a PowerPivot Pivot Table beat a regular Pivot Table". Experts-Exchange.com. Experts Exchange. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- Barresse, Zack (October 3, 2013). "Excel 2013: Tables, PivotTables, Slicers, and Timelines". Experts-Exchange.com. Experts Exchange. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- K., Gasper (May 20, 2013). "Inquire Add-In for Excel 2013". Experts-Exchange.com. Experts Exchange. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "New functions in Excel 2013". Office.com. Microsoft. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "What's new in Office 2016". Office.com. Microsoft. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- "Microsoft Announces March Availability of Office 98 Macintosh Edition". Microsoft. January 6, 1998. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- "Office for Mac Is Finally a 'First-Class Citizen'". Re/code. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- Perton, Marc (November 20, 2005). "Windows at 20: 20 things you didn't know about Windows 1.0". switched.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Keizer, Gregg (February 24, 2009). "Attackers exploit unpatched Excel vulnerability". Computerworld. IDG Communications, Inc. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- "JTRIG Tools and Techniques". The Intercept. First Look Productions, Inc. July 14, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- Cook, John. "JTRIG Tools and Techniques". The Intercept. p. 4. Retrieved March 19, 2019 – via DocumentCloud.
- Bullen, Stephen; Bovey, Rob; Green, John (2009). Professional Excel development: The definitive guide to developing applications using Microsoft Excel and VBA (2nd ed.). Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-321-50879-9.
- Dodge, Mark; Stinson, Craig (2007). Microsoft Office Excel 2007 inside out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2321-7.