Haskell (programming language)
Haskell // is a standardized, general-purpose purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing. It is named after logician Haskell Curry. The latest standard of Haskell is Haskell 2010. As of May 2016[update], a group is working on the next version, Haskell 2020.
Haskell features a type system with type inference and lazy evaluation. Type classes first appeared in the Haskell programming language. Its main implementation is the Glasgow Haskell Compiler.
Haskell is based on the semantics, but not the syntax, of the language Miranda, which served to focus the efforts of the initial Haskell working group. Haskell is used widely in academia and industry.
Following the release of Miranda by Research Software Ltd, in 1985, interest in lazy functional languages grew. By 1987, more than a dozen non-strict, purely functional programming languages existed. Miranda was the most widely used, but it was proprietary software. At the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA '87) in Portland, Oregon, there was a strong consensus that a committee be formed to define an open standard for such languages. The committee's purpose was to consolidate existing functional languages into a common one to serve as a basis for future research in functional-language design.
Haskell 1.0 to 1.4Edit
The first version of Haskell ("Haskell 1.0") was defined in 1990. The committee's efforts resulted in a series of language definitions (1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4).
In late 1997, the series culminated in Haskell 98, intended to specify a stable, minimal, portable version of the language and an accompanying standard library for teaching, and as a base for future extensions. The committee expressly welcomed creating extensions and variants of Haskell 98 via adding and incorporating experimental features.
In February 1999, the Haskell 98 language standard was originally published as The Haskell 98 Report. In January 2003, a revised version was published as Haskell 98 Language and Libraries: The Revised Report. The language continues to evolve rapidly, with the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) implementation representing the current de facto standard.
In early 2006, the process of defining a successor to the Haskell 98 standard, informally named Haskell Prime, began. This was intended to be an ongoing incremental process to revise the language definition, producing a new revision up to once per year. The first revision, named Haskell 2010, was announced in November 2009 and published in July 2010.
Haskell 2010 adds the foreign function interface (FFI) to Haskell, allowing bindings to other programming languages; fixes some syntax issues (changes in the formal grammar); and bans so-called n-plus-k-patterns (definitions of the form
fact (n+1) = (n+1) * fact n are no longer allowed). It introduces the Language-Pragma-Syntax-Extension which allows code designating a Haskell source as Haskell 2010 or requiring certain extensions to the Haskell language. The names of the extensions introduced in Haskell 2010 are DoAndIfThenElse, HierarchicalModules, EmptyDataDeclarations, FixityResolution, ForeignFunctionInterface, LineCommentSyntax, PatternGuards, RelaxedDependencyAnalysis, LanguagePragma and NoNPlusKPatterns.
Haskell features lazy evaluation, pattern matching, list comprehension, type classes and type polymorphism. It is a purely functional language, which means that functions generally have no side effects. A distinct construct exists to represent side effects, orthogonal to the type of functions. A pure function may return a side effect which is subsequently executed, modeling the impure functions of other languages.
Haskell has a strong, static type system based on Hindley–Milner type inference. Its principal innovation in this area is type classes, originally conceived as a principled way to add overloading to the language, but since finding many more uses.
The construct that represents side effects is an example of a monad. Monads are a general framework that can model different kinds of computation, including error handling, nondeterminism, parsing and software transactional memory. Monads are defined as ordinary datatypes, but Haskell provides some syntactic sugar for their use.
Haskell has an open, published specification, and multiple implementations exist. Its main implementation, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC), is both an interpreter and native-code compiler that runs on most platforms. GHC is noted for its rich type system incorporating recent innovations such as generalized algebraic data types and type families. The Computer Language Benchmarks Game also highlights its high-performance implementation of concurrency and parallelism.
An active, growing community exists around the language, and more than 5,400 third-party open-source libraries and tools are available in the online package repository Hackage.
module Main where main :: IO () main = putStrLn "Hello, World!"
The factorial function in Haskell, defined in a few different ways (the type annotation is optional):
-- Type annotation (optional, same for each implementation) factorial :: (Integral a) => a -> a -- Using recursion (with the "ifthenelse" expression) factorial n = if n < 2 then 1 else n * factorial (n - 1) -- Using recursion (with pattern matching) factorial 0 = 1 factorial n = n * factorial (n - 1) -- Using recursion (with guards) factorial n | n < 2 = 1 | otherwise = n * factorial (n - 1) -- Using a list and the "product" function factorial n = product [1..n] -- Using fold (implements "product") factorial n = foldl (*) 1 [1..n] -- Point-free style factorial = foldr (*) 1 . enumFromTo 1
-- Type annotation (optional, same for each implementation) fib :: Int -> Integer -- With self-referencing data fib n = fibs !! n where fibs = 0 : scanl (+) 1 fibs -- 0,1,1,2,3,5,... -- Same, coded directly fib n = fibs !! n where fibs = 0 : 1 : next fibs next (a : t@(b:_)) = (a+b) : next t -- Similar idea, using zipWith fib n = fibs !! n where fibs = 0 : 1 : zipWith (+) fibs (tail fibs) -- Using a generator function fib n = fibs (0,1) !! n where fibs (a,b) = a : fibs (b,a+b)
The Int type refers to a machine-sized integer (used as a list subscript with the !! operator), while Integer is an arbitrary-precision integer. For example, using Integer, the factorial code above easily computes
factorial 100000 as a number of 456,574 digits, with no loss of precision.
An implementation of an algorithm similar to quick sort over lists, where the first element is taken as the pivot:
-- Type annotation (optional, same for each implementation) quickSort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a] -- Using list comprehensions quickSort  =  -- The empty list is already sorted quickSort (x:xs) = quickSort [a | a <- xs, a < x] -- Sort the left part of the list ++ [x] ++ -- Insert pivot between two sorted parts quickSort [a | a <- xs, a >= x] -- Sort the right part of the list -- Using filter quickSort  =  quickSort (x:xs) = quickSort (filter (<x) xs) ++ [x] ++ quickSort (filter (>=x) xs)
Implementations which comply fully, or very nearly, with the Haskell 98 standard, include:
- The Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) compiles to native code on many different processor architectures, and to ANSI C, via one of two intermediate languages: C--, or in more recent versions, LLVM (formerly Low Level Virtual Machine) bitcode. GHC has become the de facto standard Haskell dialect. There are libraries (e.g., bindings to OpenGL) that work only with GHC. GHC is also distributed with the Haskell platform.
- The Utrecht Haskell Compiler (UHC) is a Haskell implementation from Utrecht University. It supports almost all Haskell 98 features plus many experimental extensions. It is implemented using attribute grammars and is currently used mostly for research on generated type systems and language extensions.
- Jhc, a Haskell compiler written by John Meacham, emphasizes speed and efficiency of generated programs and exploring new program transformations.
- Ajhc is a fork of Jhc.
- LHC is a whole-program optimizing backend for GHC, based on Urban Boquist’s compiler intermediate language, GRIN. Older versions of LHC were based on Jhc rather than GHC.
Implementations no longer actively maintained include:
- The Haskell User's Gofer System (Hugs) is a bytecode interpreter. It used to be one of the implementations used most widely, alongside the GHC compiler, but has now been mostly replaced by GHCi. It also comes with a graphics library.
- nhc98 is a bytecode compiler focusing on minimizing memory use.
- HBC is an early implementation supporting Haskell 1.4. It was implemented by Lennart Augustsson in, and based on, Lazy ML. It has not been actively developed for some time.
Implementations not fully Haskell 98 compliant, and using a variant Haskell language, include:
- Gofer was an educational dialect of Haskell, with a feature called constructor classes, developed by Mark Jones. It was supplanted by Hugs (see above).
- Helium is a newer dialect of Haskell. The focus is on making learning easier via clearer error messages. It currently lacks full support for type classes, rendering it incompatible with many Haskell programs.
- Darcs is a revision control system written in Haskell, with several innovative features, such as more precise control of the patches to be applied.
- Cabal is a tool for building and packaging Haskell libraries and programs.
- Linspire GNU/Linux chose Haskell for system tools development.
- Xmonad is a window manager for the X Window System, written fully in Haskell.
- GHC is also often a testbed for advanced functional programming features and optimizations in other programming languages.
- Pandoc is a tool to convert one markup format into another.
- The Shake build system, aiming to be reliable, robust and fast.
- Facebook implements its anti-spam programs in Haskell, as open-source software.
- Bluespec SystemVerilog (BSV) is a language for semiconductor design that is an extension of Haskell. Also, Bluespec, Inc.'s tools are implemented in Haskell.
- Cryptol, a language and toolchain for developing and verifying cryptography algorithms, is implemented in Haskell.
- The first formally verified microkernel, seL4, used Haskell as a prototyping language for the OS developer.:p.2 At the same time the Haskell code defined an executable specification with which to reason, for automatic translation by the theorem-proving tool.:p.3 The Haskell code thus served as an intermediate prototype before final C refinement.:p.3
Jan-Willem Maessen, in 2002, and Simon Peyton Jones, in 2003, discussed problems associated with lazy evaluation while also acknowledging the theoretical motives for it, in addition to purely practical considerations such as improved performance. They note that, in addition to adding some performance overhead, lazy evaluation makes it more difficult for programmers to reason about the performance of their code (particularly its space use).
Bastiaan Heeren, Daan Leijen, and Arjan van IJzendoorn in 2003 also observed some stumbling blocks for Haskell learners: "The subtle syntax and sophisticated type system of Haskell are a double edged sword – highly appreciated by experienced programmers but also a source of frustration among beginners, since the generality of Haskell often leads to cryptic error messages." To address these, researchers from Utrecht University developed an advanced interpreter called Helium which improved the user-friendliness of error messages by limiting the generality of some Haskell features, and in particular removing support for type classes.
Ben Lippmeier designed Disciple as a strict-by-default (lazy by explicit annotation) dialect of Haskell with a type-and-effect system, to address Haskell's difficulties in reasoning about lazy evaluation and in using traditional data structures such as mutable arrays. He argues (p. 20) that "destructive update furnishes the programmer with two important and powerful tools... a set of efficient array-like data structures for managing collections of objects, and ... the ability to broadcast a new value to all parts of a program with minimal burden on the programmer."
Robert Harper, one of the authors of Standard ML, has given his reasons for not using Haskell to teach introductory programming. Among these are the difficulty of reasoning about resource use with non-strict evaluation, that lazy evaluation complicates the definition of data types and inductive reasoning, and the "inferiority" of Haskell's (old) class system compared to ML's module system.
It was consistently criticised by developers due to the lack of good management of different versions of a particular library by default build tool cabal. Although this has been addressed by the release of the Stack, cabal continues to be shipped as the default build tool.
A series of languages inspired by Haskell, but with different type systems, have been developed, including:
- Agda, a functional language with dependent types
- Idris, a general purpose functional language with dependent types, developed at the University of St Andrews
- Epigram, a functional language with dependent types suitable for proving properties of programs
- Cayenne, with dependent types
- Ωmega, strict and more
- Elm, a functional language to create web front-end apps, no support for higher-kinded types
Java virtual machine (JVM) based:
- Frege, a Haskell-like language with Java's scalar types and good Java integration.
- Jaskell, a functional scripting language that runs in Java VM.
- Eta-lang, which intends to be Haskell on the JVM
Other related languages include:
- Curry, a functional/logic programming language based on Haskell
Haskell has served as a testbed for many new ideas in language design. There have been many Haskell variants produced, exploring new language ideas, including:
- Parallel Haskell:
- Distributed Haskell (formerly Goffin) and Eden.
- Eager Haskell, based on speculative evaluation.
- Several object-oriented versions: Haskell++, and Mondrian.
- Generic Haskell, a version of Haskell with type system support for generic programming.
- O'Haskell, an extension of Haskell adding object-orientation and concurrent programming support which "has ... been superseded by Timber."
- Disciple, a strict-by-default (laziness available by annotation) dialect of Haskell which supports destructive update, computational effects, type directed field projections and allied functional aspects.
- Scotch, a kind of hybrid of Haskell and Python.
- Hume, a strict functional language for embedded systems based on processes as stateless automata over a sort of tuples of one element mailbox channels where the state is kept by feedback into the mailboxes, and a mapping description from outputs to channels as box wiring, with a Haskell-like expression language and syntax.
Conferences and workshopsEdit
The Haskell community meets regularly for research and development activities. The main events are:
- International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP)
- Haskell Symposium (formerly the Haskell Workshop)
- Haskell Implementors Workshop
- Commercial Users of Functional Programming (CUFP)
Since 2006, a series of organized hackathons has occurred, the Hac series, aimed at improving the programming language tools and libraries.
As Haskell separates domains (types) and behaviour (type classes) you may find correspondences with the algebra world that underlies the standard typeclasses of the Haskell basic library.
Operation laws like (+) and (*) associativity and addition conmutativity are not related with the typeclass, but rather proofs to be checked on the instances.
$ ghci Prelude> :type 0 0 :: Num a => a -- 0 belongs to any type that has a Num instance, a Ring Prelude> :type 1 1 :: Num a => a -- neutral for the product of a type that implements Num
- The Word data types (Word, WordN) implement the Num type class with Modular arithmetic whereas the data types (Int, IntN) use two's complement arithmetic that doesn't match the decimal arithmetic with shocking results for big values, in which case unlimited precision types Integer and Natural (from Numeric.Natural) is the way to go:
Prelude> maxBound::Int 9223372036854775807 Prelude> (maxBound::Int) +1 -- two's complement Int addition (it doesn't throw exceptions) -9223372036854775808 Prelude> (maxBound::Int) *2 -- two's complement Int product (no exceptions either) -2
- Possible workarounds to make it match with regular arithmetic, throwing Overflow on displicent outcomes is
The exponentiation comes in three flavours:
- A positive integer exponent requires that the base domain has the product (specified in Num, signature of a Ring)
(^) :: (Num a, Integral ex) => a -> ex -> a -- (^) admits non-negative exponents of an euclidean domain, throws an error if the exponent is negative
- A negative integer exponent requires that the base domain has the multiplicative inverse (specified in Fractional, signature of a Field)
(^^) :: (Fractional a, Integral ex) => a -> ex -> a -- (^^) admits all exponents of an euclidean domain
- A floating point exponent requires that the base domain has the floating point exponentiation and logarithm functions, as specified in the Floating type class.
(**) :: (Floating a, Floating ex) => a -> ex -> a
Conversions between euclidean types preserve the representation, not the value. Numeric type downcasting does not throw overflow:
$ ghci Prelude> import Data.Int Prelude Data.Int> fromIntegral (32767 :: Int16) :: Int8 -1 Prelude Data.Int> fromInteger (2^64 :: Integer) :: Int32 0
- 'Hello world' is meant as the introductory prototype of a read-eval-print loop. The IO tool putStrLn prints a string, which is the only essential line of this example. The second line of this example is a type definition, which is unnecessary for Haskell, because the compiler infers the type; instead, the second line serves to communicate the programmer's intention to the reader. The first line of the example isn't needed, either, because the start symbol
mainin this simple example makes the module
Maina nicety, which instead would have been a necessity in a multi-module example. Rather, the first two lines are provided for consistency with larger examples.
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- Syme, Don; Granicz, Adam; Cisternino, Antonio (2007). Expert F#. Apress. p. 2.
F# also draws from Haskell particularly with regard to two advanced language features called sequence expressions and workflows.
- Wechsung, Ingo. "The Frege Programming Language" (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Facebook Introduces 'Hack,' the Programming Language of the Future". WIRED. 20 March 2014.
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- Kuchling, A. M. "Functional Programming HOWTO". Python v2.7.2 documentation. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- "The Rust Reference: Appendix: Influences". Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- Fogus, Michael (6 August 2010). "MartinOdersky take(5) toList". Send More Paramedics. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
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The Swift language is the product of tireless effort from a team of language experts, documentation gurus, compiler optimization ninjas, and an incredibly important internal dogfooding group who provided feedback to help refine and battle-test ideas. Of course, it also greatly benefited from the experiences hard-won by many other languages in the field, drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and far too many others to list.
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- Type inference originally using Hindley-Milner type inference
- This allows finer control over the expression evaluation strategy
- "Type classes, first proposed during the design of the Haskell programming language, ..." —John Garrett Morris (2013), "Type Classes and Instance Chains: A Relational Approach"
- Edward Kmett, Edward Kmett - Type Classes vs. the World
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- Computer Language Benchmarks Game
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- Utrecht Haskell Compiler
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- Shake Build System
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- Simon Marlow (2014), Open-sourcing Haxl
- A formal proof of functional correctness was completed in 2009. Klein, Gerwin; Elphinstone, Kevin; Heiser, Gernot; Andronick, June; Cock, David; Derrin, Philip; Elkaduwe, Dhammika; Engelhardt, Kai; Kolanski, Rafal; Norrish, Michael; Sewell, Thomas; Tuch, Harvey; Winwood, Simon (October 2009). "seL4: Formal verification of an OS kernel" (PDF). 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles. Big Sky, MT, USA.
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- Simon Peyton Jones. Wearing the hair shirt: a retrospective on Haskell. Invited talk at POPL 2003.
- "Lazy evaluation can lead to excellent performance, such as in The Computer Language Benchmarks Game".
- Heeren, Bastiaan; Leijen, Daan; van IJzendoorn, Arjan (2003). "Helium, for learning Haskell" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGPLAN workshop on Haskell.
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- The Num type class
- Num typeclass signum function
- SchoolOfHaskell.com - Safe Int addition and product
- The Fractional type class
- The Real type class
- The Rational numbers module
- The Float data type
- The Integral type class
- The Floating type class
- The Complex data type
- Peyton Jones, Simon, ed. (2003). Haskell 98 Language and Libraries: The Revised Report. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521826144.
- Marlow, Simon, ed. (2010). Haskell 2010 Language Report (PDF). Haskell.org.
- Davie, Antony (1992). An Introduction to Functional Programming Systems Using Haskell. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25830-8.
- Bird, Richard (1998). Introduction to Functional Programming using Haskell (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-13-484346-0.
- Hudak, Paul (2000). The Haskell School of Expression: Learning Functional Programming through Multimedia. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521643384.
- Hutton, Graham (2007). Programming in Haskell. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521692695.
- O'Sullivan, Bryan; Stewart, Don; Goerzen, John (2008). Real World Haskell. Sebastopol: O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-51498-0 (full text)
- Thompson, Simon (2011). Haskell: The Craft of Functional Programming (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0201882957.
- Lipovača, Miran (April 2011). Learn You a Haskell for Great Good!. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-283-8. (full text)
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- Yet Another Haskell Tutorial, by Hal Daumé III; assumes far less prior knowledge than official tutorial
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|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Haskell|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Write Yourself a Scheme in 48 Hours|
- Official website
- Haskell Wiki
- Planet Haskell an aggregator of Haskell related blogs and other Haskell-related news sites
- Hackage – central package archive
- Hoogle – API search engine
- Try Haskell! – in-browser interactive tutorial
- School of Haskell – online tutorials
- Functors, Applicatives, And Monads In Pictures
- Real World Haskell - free to read online