United States diplomatic cables leak
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world. Dated between December 1966 and February 2010, the cables contain diplomatic analysis from world leaders, and the diplomats' assessment of host countries and their officials.
|Description||Release of 251,287 United States diplomatic cables|
|Dates of cables||1966–2010|
|Period of release||18 February 2010 – 1 September 2011|
|Key publishers||El País, Der Spiegel, Le Monde, The Guardian, The New York Times, WikiLeaks|
|Related articles||Afghan War documents leak, Iraq War documents leak|
|Subject||Data protection, First Amendment, freedom of information, freedom of speech|
According to WikiLeaks, the 251,287 cables consist of 261,276,536 words, making Cablegate "the largest set of confidential documents ever to be released into the public domain." Today, more recent leaks have surpassed that amount. On 30 July 2013, Chelsea Manning was convicted for theft of the cables and violations of the Espionage Act in a court martial proceeding and sentenced to thirty-five years imprisonment. She was released on 17 May 2017, after seven years total confinement, after her sentence had been commuted by President Barack Obama earlier that year.
Sequence of leaksEdit
The first document, the so-called Reykjavik 13 cable, was released by WikiLeaks on 18 February 2010, and was followed by the release of State Department profiles of Icelandic politicians a month later. Later that year, Julian Assange, WikiLeaks' editor-in-chief, reached an agreement with media partners in Europe and the United States to publish the rest of the cables in redacted form, removing the names of sources and others in vulnerable positions. On 28 November, the first 220 cables were published under this agreement by El País (Spain), Der Spiegel (Germany), Le Monde (France), The Guardian (United Kingdom) and The New York Times (United States). WikiLeaks had planned to release the rest over several months, and as of 11 January 2011, 2017 had been published.
The remaining cables were published in September 2011 after a series of events compromised the security of a WikiLeaks file containing the cables. This included WikiLeaks volunteers placing an encrypted file containing all WikiLeaks data online as "insurance" in July 2010, in case something happened to the organization. In February 2011 David Leigh of The Guardian published the encryption passphrase in a book; he had received it from Assange so he could access a copy of the Cablegate file, and believed the passphrase was a temporary one, unique to that file. In August 2011, German weekly Der Freitag published some of these details, enabling others to piece the information together and decrypt the Cablegate files. The cables were then available online, fully unredacted. In response, WikiLeaks decided on 1 September 2011 to publish all 251,287 unedited documents.
The publication of the cables was the third in a series of U.S. classified document "mega-leaks" distributed by WikiLeaks in 2010, following the Afghan War documents leak in July, and the Iraq War documents leak in October. Over 130,000 of the cables are unclassified, some 100,000 are labeled "confidential", around 15,000 have the higher classification "secret", and none are classified as "top secret" on the classification scale.
Reactions to the leak in 2010 varied. Western governments expressed strong disapproval, while the material generated intense interest from the public and journalists. Some political leaders referred to Assange as a criminal, while blaming the U.S. Department of Defense for security lapses. Supporters of Assange referred to him in November 2010 as a key defender of free speech and freedom of the press. Reaction to the release in September 2011 of the unredacted cables attracted stronger criticism, and was condemned by the five newspapers that had first published the cables in redacted form in November 2010.
|Wikinews has news on this topic|
In June 2010, the magazine Wired reported that the U.S. State Department and embassy personnel were concerned that Chelsea (then Bradley) Manning, a United States Army soldier charged with the unauthorized download of classified material while stationed in Iraq, had leaked diplomatic cables. WikiLeaks rejected the report as inaccurate: "Allegations in Wired that we have been sent 260,000 classified U.S. embassy cables are, as far as we can tell, incorrect".
However, during that same month (June 2010), The Guardian had been offered "half a million military dispatches from the battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq. There might be more after that, including an immense bundle of confidential diplomatic cables", and Alan Rusbridger, the editor of The Guardian had contacted Bill Keller, editor of The New York Times, to see if he would be interested in sharing the dissemination of the information.
Manning was suspected to have uploaded all that was obtained to WikiLeaks, which chose to release the material in stages so as to have the greatest possible impact.
According to The Guardian, all the diplomatic cables were marked "Sipdis", denoting "secret internet protocol distribution", which means they had been distributed via the closed U.S. SIPRNet, the U.S. Department of Defense's classified version of the civilian internet. More than three million U.S. government personnel and soldiers have access to this network. Documents marked "top secret" are not included in the system. Such a large quantity of secret information was available to a wide audience because, as The Guardian alleged, after the 11 September attacks an increased focus had been placed on sharing information since gaps in intra-governmental information sharing had been exposed. More specifically, the diplomatic, military, law enforcement and intelligence communities would be able to do their jobs better with this easy access to analytic and operative information. A spokesman said that in the previous weeks and months additional measures had been taken to improve the security of the system and prevent leaks.
On 22 November, an announcement was made via WikiLeaks' Twitter feed that the next release would be "7× the size of the Iraq War Logs". U.S. authorities and the media had speculated, at the time, that they could contain diplomatic cables. Prior to the expected leak, the government of the United Kingdom (UK) sent a DA-Notice to UK newspapers, which requested advance notice from newspapers regarding the expected publication. Index on Censorship pointed out that "there is no obligation on [the] media to comply". Under the terms of a DA-Notice, "[n]ewspaper editors would speak to [the] Defence, Press and Broadcasting Advisory Committee prior to publication". The Guardian was revealed to have been the source of the copy of the documents given to The New York Times in order to prevent the British government from obtaining any injunction against its publication. The Pakistani newspaper Dawn stated that the U.S. newspapers The New York Times and The Washington Post were expected to publish parts of the diplomatic cables on 28 November, including 94 Pakistan-related documents.
On 26 November, Assange sent a letter to the U.S. Department of State, via his lawyer Jennifer Robinson, inviting them to "privately nominate any specific instances (record numbers or names) where it considers the publication of information would put individual persons at significant risk of harm that has not already been addressed". Harold Koh, the Legal Adviser of the Department of State, rejected the proposal, stating: "We will not engage in a negotiation regarding the further release or dissemination of illegally obtained U.S. Government classified materials". Assange responded by writing back to the U.S. State Department that "you have chosen to respond in a manner which leads me to conclude that the supposed risks are entirely fanciful and you are instead concerned to suppress evidence of human rights abuse and other criminal behaviour". Ahead of the leak, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and other American officials contacted governments in several countries about the impending release.
November 2010 release of redacted cablesEdit
The five newspapers that had obtained an advance copy of all leaked cables began releasing the cables on 28 November 2010, and WikiLeaks made the cables selected by these newspapers and redacted by their journalists available on its website. "They are releasing the documents we selected", Le Monde's managing editor, Sylvie Kauffmann, said in an interview.
WikiLeaks aimed to release the cables in phases over several months due to their global scope and significance. The first batch of leaks released comprised 220 cables. Further cables were subsequently made available on the WikiLeaks website. The full set of cables published by WikiLeaks can be browsed and searched by a variety of websites.
|External political relations||145,451|
|Internal government affairs||122,896|
|Terrorists and terrorism||28,801|
|UN Security Council||6,532|
The contents of the U.S. diplomatic cables leak describe in detail events and incidents surrounding international affairs from 274 embassies dating from 28 December 1966 to 28 February 2010. The diplomatic cables revealed numerous unguarded comments and revelations: US diplomats gathering personal information about Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, and other top UN officials; critiques and praises about the host countries of various U.S. embassies, discussion and resolutions towards ending ongoing tension in the Middle East, efforts for and resistance against nuclear disarmament, actions in the War on Terror, assessments of other threats around the world, dealings between various countries, U.S. intelligence and counterintelligence efforts, U.S. support of dictatorship and other diplomatic actions.
The leaked cables revealed that diplomats of the U.S. and Britain eavesdropped on Secretary General Kofi Annan in the weeks before the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, in apparent violation of international treaties prohibiting spying at the UN.
The Guardian released its coverage of the leaked cables in numerous articles, including an interactive database, starting on 28 November.
The New York Times initially covered the story in a nine-part series spanning nine days, with the first story published simultaneously with the other outlets. The New York Times was not originally intended to receive the leak, allegedly due to its unflattering portrayal of the site's founder, but The Guardian decided to share coverage, citing earlier cooperation while covering the Afghan and Iraqi war logs.
The Washington Post reported that it also requested permission to see the documents, but was rejected for undisclosed reasons.
El País released its report saying there was an agreement between the newspapers for simultaneous publication of the "internationally relevant" documents, but that each newspaper was free to select and treat those documents that primarily relate to its own country.
Several of the newspapers coordinating with WikiLeaks have published some of the cables on their own websites.
The Swedish newspapers Svenska Dagbladet and Aftonbladet started reporting on the leaks early December. In Norway Verdens Gang (VG) brought the first leaks concerning the United States and the Norwegian government on 7 December.
Aftenposten, a Norwegian daily newspaper, reported on 17 December 2010 that it had gained access to the full cable set of 251,287 documents. While it is unclear how it received the documents, they were apparently not obtained directly from WikiLeaks. Aftenposten started releasing cables that are not available in the official WikiLeaks distribution. As of 5 January 2011[ref], it had released just over one hundred cables unpublished by WikiLeaks, with about a third of these related to Sri Lanka, and many related to Norway.
NRC, a Dutch daily newspaper, and RTL Nieuws, a Dutch television news service, announced on 14 January 2011 that they had gained access to the about 3,000 cables sent from The Hague, via Aftenposten. NOS announced on the same day that it had obtained these same cables from Wikileaks.
Australian-based Fairfax Media obtained access to the cables under a separate arrangement. Fairfax newspapers began releasing their own stories based on the leaked cables on 7 December 2010. Unlike other newspapers given access, Fairfax originally had not posted any of the original cables online, citing the need to maintain its competitive advantage over other Australian newspapers. However, on 16 December 2010, Fairfax reversed its position, and began publishing the cables used in its stories.
The Costa Rican newspaper La Nación announced on 1 March 2011 it had received 827 cables from WikiLeaks which it started publishing the next day. 764 of these were sent from the U.S. Embassy in San José while 63 were sent from other embassies and deal with Costa Rican affairs.
CNN was originally supposed to receive an advance copy of the documents as well, but did not after it refused to sign a confidentiality agreement with WikiLeaks. The Wall Street Journal also refused advance access, apparently for similar reasons as CNN.
The Ecuadorian newspaper El Universo started releasing 343 cables related to the Ecuadorian government or institutions on 6 April 2011. The publication was done the day after the Spanish newspaper El País published a cable in which the ambassador Heather Hodges showed concerns regarding corruption in the Ecuadorian National Police, especially of Gral. Jaime Hurtado Vaca, former Police commander. The ambassador was later declared persona non grata and requested to leave the country as soon as possible.
September 2011 release of mostly unredacted cablesEdit
In August 2010, Assange gave Guardian journalist David Leigh an encryption key and a URL where he could locate the full Cablegate file. In February 2011, shortly before Domscheit-Berg's book appeared, Leigh and Luke Harding, another Guardian journalist, published WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy via Guardian Books. In it, Leigh revealed the encryption key Assange had given him.
It is not absolutely clear how or when the encrypted file itself was released inadvertently. It appears that it was released to bittorrent in December 2010 as part of a mirror file (including mirror of the torrent file by Cryptome and as it was DHT and not a private torrent, anybody could search for it and download with a simple magnet link) for the WikiLeaks web server (on http://188.8.131.52/file/xyz/z.gpg) on which it had been placed to aid in transferring the file from WikiLeaks to Leigh, and either not removed due to oversight, or mirrored by other WikiLeaks staff and other people before it could be removed. The password leaked in Leigh's book is not the password for the all other "insurance files" in xyz folder (x.gpg, y-docs.gpg, y.gpg) or other .aes256 files, which WikiLeaks published in a separate event. It also remains unclear if during the transfer process the file was exposed publicly under the assumption that it is acceptable to transfer an encrypted file in plain sight so long as the key remains secret (as it is a normal gpg file).
On 25 August 2011, the German magazine Der Freitag published an article about it, and while it left out the crucial details, there was enough to allow others to piece the information together. The story was also published in the Danish newspaper Dagbladet Information the same day. By 1 September, the encrypted Cablegate file had been decrypted and published by a Twitter user (md5 sum of that 7z archive e8a229b55ea2814591030e5eb6d467ad), and WikiLeaks therefore decided to publish all new diplomatic cables unredacted in cablegate-201108300212.7z archive. But some already published cables like 01PRETORIA1173 were still redacted there (though unredacted in decrypted file). Later Wikileaks unredacted everything. Their reasoning, according to Glenn Greenwald in Salon, was that government intelligence agencies were able to find and read the files, while ordinary people-including journalists, whistleblowers, and those directly affected-were not. WikiLeaks took the view that sources could better protect themselves if the information were equally available. The archive includes 34,687 files on Iraq, 8,003 on Kuwait, 9,755 on Australia, and 12,606 on Egypt. According to The Guardian, it includes more than 1,000 cables containing the names of individual activists, and around 150 identifying whistleblowers.
Leigh disclaimed responsibility for the release, saying Assange had assured him the password would expire hours after it was disclosed to him. The Guardian wrote that the decision to publish the cables was made by Assange alone, a decision that it-and its four previous media partners-condemned. The partners released a joint statement saying the uncensored publication put sources at risk of dismissal, detention and physical harm, while other commentators have agreed with WikiLeaks' rationale for the release of unredacted cables. Leigh was criticized by several commentators, including Glenn Greenwald, who called the publication of the password "reckless", arguing that, even if it had been a temporary one, publishing it divulged the type of passwords WikiLeaks was using. WikiLeaks said it was pursuing pre-litigation action against The Guardian for an alleged breach of a confidentiality agreement.
Consequences of the releaseEdit
An investigation into two senior Zimbabwe army commanders who communicated with US Ambassador Charles A. Ray was launched, with the two facing a possible court martial. On 14 September the Committee to Protect Journalists said that an Ethiopian journalist named in the cables was forced to flee the country but WikiLeaks accused the CPJ of distorting the situation "for marketing purposes". Al Jazeera replaced its news director, Wadah Khanfar, on 20 September after he was identified in the cables. The naming of mainland China residents reportedly "sparked an online witch-hunt by Chinese nationalist groups, with some advocating violence against those now known to have met with U.S. Embassy staff."
2010 reactions to the releasesEdit
About an hour prior to the planned release of the initial documents, WikiLeaks announced it was experiencing a massive distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS), but vowed to still release the cables and documents via pre-agreed prominent media outlets El País, Le Monde, Der Spiegel, The Guardian, and The New York Times.
According to Arbor Networks, an Internet-analyst group, the DDoS attack accounted for between two and four gigabits per second (Gbit/s) of additional traffic to the WikiLeaks host network, compared to an average traffic of between twelve and fifteen Gbit/s under ordinary conditions. The attack was slightly more powerful than ordinary DDoS attacks, though well below the maximum of 60 to 100 Gbit/s of other major attacks during 2010. The attack was claimed to have been carried out by a person by the name of "Jester", who describes himself as a "hacktivist". Jester took credit for the attack on Twitter, stating that WikiLeaks "threaten[ed] the lives of our troops and 'other assets'".
On 2 December 2010, EveryDNS, who provide a free DNS hosting service, dropped WikiLeaks from its entries, citing DDoS attacks that "threatened the stability of its infrastructure", but the site was copied and made available at many other addresses, an example of the Streisand effect.
Dropping of hosting, finance services, and accessibilityEdit
Amazon.com removed WikiLeaks from its servers on 1 December 2010 at 19:30 GMT, and the latter website was unreachable until 20:17 GMT when the site had defaulted to its Swedish servers, hosted by Bahnhof.
U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman, among the members of the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee who had questioned Amazon in private communication on the company's hosting of WikiLeaks and the illegally obtained documents, commended Amazon for the action; WikiLeaks, however, responded by stating on its official Twitter page that "WikiLeaks servers at Amazon ousted. Free speech the land of the free—fine our $ are now spent to employ people in Europe", and later that "If Amazon are so uncomfortable with the first amendment, they should get out of the business of selling books".
On 6 December, the Swiss bank PostFinance announced that it had frozen the assets of Assange; on the same day, MasterCard stopped payments to WikiLeaks, with Visa following them on 7 December.
Official efforts by the U.S. government to limit access to, conversation about, and general spread of the cables leaked by WikiLeaks were revealed by leading media organizations. A 4 December 2010 article by MSNBC, reported that the Obama administration has warned federal government employees and students in educational institutions studying towards careers in public service that they must refrain from downloading or linking to any WikiLeaks documents. However, State Department spokesman P.J. Crowley denied ordering students, stating, "We do not control private networks. We have issued no authoritative instructions to people who are not employees of the Department of State." He said the warning was from an "overzealous employee." According to a 3 December 2010 article in The Guardian, access to WikiLeaks has been blocked for federal workers. The U.S. Library of Congress, the U.S. Commerce Department and other government agencies have confirmed that the ban is already in place.
A spokesman for Columbia University confirmed on 4 December that its Office of Career Services sent an e-mail warning students at Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs to refrain from accessing WikiLeaks cables and discussing this subject on the grounds that "discourse about the documents would call into question your ability to deal with confidential information". However, this was quickly retracted on the following day. SIPA Dean John Henry Coatsworth wrote that "Freedom of information and expression is a core value of our institution, ... thus, SIPA's position is that students have a right to discuss and debate any information in the public arena that they deem relevant to their studies or to their roles as global citizens, and to do so without fear of adverse consequences."
On 18 December, the Bank of America stopped handling payments for WikiLeaks. Bank of America is also blocking access to WikiLeaks from its internal network preventing employees from accessing WikiLeaks.
Anonymous and anti-censorshipEdit
In response to perceived federal and corporate censorship of the cable leaks, internet group Anonymous attacked several of such websites via DDOS attacks. So far, the websites of the Swedish prosecutor, PostFinance (the Swiss post-office banking company), MasterCard and Visa have all been targeted.
The websites of the government of Zimbabwe were targeted by Anonymous with DDoS attacks due to censorship of the WikiLeaks documents. The websites of the government of Tunisia were targeted by Anonymous due to censorship of the WikiLeaks documents and the Tunisian revolution. Tunisians were reported to be assisting in these denial-of-service attacks launched by Anonymous. Anonymous's role in the DDoS attacks on the Tunisian government's websites have led to an upsurge of internet activism among Tunisians against the government. Anonymous released an online message denouncing the government clampdown on recent protests and posted it on the Tunisian government website. Anonymous has named their attacks as "Operation Tunisia". Anonymous successfully DDoSsed eight Tunisian government websites. They plan attacks in Internet Relay Chat networks. Someone attacked Anonymous's website with a DDoS on 5 January.
Manipulation of news based on WikiLeaks cablesEdit
On 9 December 2010, major Pakistani newspapers (such as The News International, The Express Tribune and the Daily Jang) and television channels carried stories that claimed to detail U.S. diplomats' assessments of senior Indian generals as "vain, egotistical and genocidal", also saying "India's government is secretly allied with Hindu fundamentalists", and that "Indian spies are covertly supporting Islamist militants in Pakistan's tribal belt and Balochistan." However, none of the cables revealed any such assessments. The claims were credited to an Islamabad-based news service agency that frequently ran pro-Pakistan Army stories.
Later, The News International admitted the story "was dubious and may have been planted", and The Express Tribune offered "profuse" apologies to readers. Urdu-language papers such as the Daily Jang, however, declined to retract the story.
On 14 December 2010, a U.S. federal court subpoenaed Twitter for extensive information regarding WikiLeaks, but also put on a gagging order. The order was said to be part of an "ongoing criminal investigation", and required information regarding the Twitter accounts of WikiLeaks, Assange, Manning, Rop Gonggrijp, Jacob Appelbaum and Birgitta Jonsdottir. According to Salon.com journalist Glenn Greenwald, the court "gave Twitter three days to respond and barred the company from notifying anyone, including the users, of the existence of the Order." Twitter requested that it be allowed to notify the users, giving them ten days to object. The court order was unsealed on 5 January 2011, and Jonsdottir decided to publicly fight the order.
Elected representatives of Iceland have declared such actions by the U.S. government "serious", "peculiar", "outlandish", and akin to heavy breathing on the telephone. The published subpoena text demands "you are to provide ... subscriber names, user names ... mailing addresses, residential addresses, business addresses ... telephone number[s] ... credit card or bank account number[s] ... billing records", "as well as 'destination email addresses and IP addresses". As of 10 January 2011, there were 636,759 followers of the WikiLeaks Twitter feed with destination email addresses and IP addresses.
Tunisian revolution and Arab SpringEdit
The cable leaks have been pointed to as a catalyst for the 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution and government overthrow. Foreign Policy magazine said, "We might also count Tunisia as the first time that WikiLeaks pushed people over the brink." Additionally, The New York Times said, "The protesters ... found grist for the complaints in leaked cables from the United States Embassy in Tunisia, released by WikiLeaks, that detailed the self-dealing and excess of the president's family."
- Wikileaks "Secret US Embassy Cables"
- Welch, Dylan. "US red-faced as 'CABLEGATE' sparks global diplomatic crisis, courtesy of WikiLeaks", Sydney Morning Herald, 29 November 2010.
- "Secret US Embassy Cables", undated, accessed 5 September 2011.
- Myers, Steven Lee. "Charges for Soldier Accused of Leak", The New York Times, 6 July 2010.
- Shane, Scott and Lehren, Andrew W. "Leaked Cables Offer Raw Look at U.S. Diplomacy" The New York Times, 28 November 2010.
- Domscheit-Berg, Daniel. Inside WikiLeaks. Doubleday 2011, pp. 192–195.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "Facts and myths in the WikiLeaks/Guardian saga", Salon, 2 September 2011. Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine from the original on 7 March 2012.
- Stöcker, Christian. "A Dispatch Disaster in Six Acts", Der Spiegel, 1 September 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.
- Mackey, Robert et al. "All Leaked U.S. Cables Were Made Available Online as WikiLeaks Splintered", The New York Times, 1 September 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.
- Sanburn, Josh. "Julian Assange—Who Will Be Time's 2010 Person of the Year?", Time magazine, 10 November 2010.
- "Julian Assange & WikiLeaks Are Doing The Right Thing! Carl Bernstein", The Joy Behar Show, CNN, 1 December 2011; courtesy of YouTube, accessed 11 January 2011.
- "Joy Behar Show—WikiLeaks Founder Placed on Interpol`s Most Wanted List for Alleged Sex Crimes; Scarborough Goes After Palin". The Joy Behar Show, CNN, 1 December 2011.
- "In Defence of WikiLeaks", The Economist, 29 November 2010.
- Jenkins, Simon. "US embassy cables: The job of the media is not to protect the powerful from embarrassment", The Guardian, 28 November 2010.
- Naureckas, Jim. "WikiLeaks Hasn't 'Leaked' Anything". Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, 1 December 2010.
- "Release of full archive draws fury", Vancouver Sun, 3 September 2011.
- Also see "No case, no need", The Guardian, 2 September 2011.
- Zetter, Kim; Poulsen, Kevin (8 June 2010). "State Department Anxious About Possible Leak of Cables to Wikileaks". Wired. Retrieved 29 November 2010.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Staff writer (6 June 2010). "Allegations in Wired that we have been sent 260,000 classified US embassy cables are, as far as we can tell, incorrect.". WikiLeaks (via Twitter). Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- Keller, Bill (26 January 2011). "The Times's Dealings With Julian Assange". The New York Times.
- "Cable Viewer". wikileaks.dd19.de. Archived from the original on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Tisdall, Simon (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks Cables Reveal China 'Ready To Abandon North Korea' – Leaked Dispatches Show Beijing Is Frustrated with Military Actions of 'Spoiled Child' and Increasingly Favours Reunified Korea". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- Borger, Julian; Leigh, David. (28 November 2010). "Siprnet: Where America Stores Its Secret Cables – Defence Department's Hidden Internet Is Meant To Be Secure, But Millions of Officials and Soldiers Have Access". The Guardian. Accessed 12 December 2010.
"The US general accounting office identified 3,067,000 people cleared to "secret" and above in a 1993 study."
- "WikiLeaks Twitter Status". WikiLeaks (via Twitter). 22 November 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- Petrou, Andrea (22 November 2010). "WikiLeaks Promises Leak 'Seven Times Bigger than Iraq' – Coming Months Will See 'History Redefined'". TechEye. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Staff writer (23 November 2010). "Telegraph: WikiLeaks To Release Three Million Secret US Documents". Focus Information Agency. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Butselaar, Emily (26 November 2010). "Wikileaks: UK Issues DA-Notice as US Briefs Allies on Fresh Leak". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Calderone, Michael (28 November 2010). "The Guardian Gave State Dept. Cables to the NY Times" Yahoo! News. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Iqbal, Anwar (27 November 2010). "WikiLeaks Plans To Release 94 Papers about Pakistan". Dawn. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
- "Letters between Wikileaks and the U.S. Government". Documents.nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "US Rejects Talks with WikiLeaks". The Sydney Morning Herald. Agence France-Presse. 28 November 2010. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Koh, Harold Hongju (27 November 2010). "Dear Ms. Robinson and Mr. Assange" (PDF). The Washington Post. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- "Letters between Wikileaks and the U.S. Government". Documents.nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "U.S. Tries To Suppress Evidence of Human Rights: Assange". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Press Trust of India. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Harnden, Toby (28 November 2010). "WikiLeaks: Julian Assange Could Face 'Grave Consequences'". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Staff writer (3 December 2010). "Respected Media Outlets Collaborate with WikiLeaks". Associated Press (via Fox News). Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- "The embassy cables will be released in stages over the next few months. The subject matter of these cables is of such importance, and the geographical spread so broad, that to do otherwise would not do this material justice". See: "Secret US Embassy Cables". WikiLeaks. 28 November 2010. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- The history of the release can be viewed at Cablegatesearch.net and Cablegate torrent release history.
- See Greenwald, Glenn (10 December 2010). "The Media's Authoritarianism and WikiLeaks". Salon.com. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- WikiLeaks (30 November 2010). "Secret US Embassy Cables". Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "WikiLeaks Torrents".
- "Cable Search BETA". Cablesearch.org. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "FAQ « Cable Search BETA". Cablesearch.org. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- "900 more cables".
- (registration required) "U.S. Expands Role of Diplomats in Spying". The New York Times. 28 November 2010.
- Staff writer (portal to database) (28 November 2010). "US Embassy Cables: Browse the Database". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Staff writer (28 November 2010). "The US Diplomatic Leaks: A Superpower's View of the World". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- (Image of 29 November 2010 Der Spiegel cover) Archived 28 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine (undated posting). Gawker (blog). Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- (registration required) Shane, Scott; Lehren, Andrew W. (28 November 2010). "Cables Obtained by WikiLeaks Shine Light Into Secret Diplomatic Channels". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Farhi, Paul (29 November 2010). "WikiLeaks Spurned New York Times, but Guardian Leaked State Department Cables". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- Jiménez, Vicente; Caño, Antonio (14 July 2010). "La Mayor Filtración de la Historia Deja al Descubierto los Secretos de la Política Exterior de EE UU" [The Biggest Infiltration in History Leaves U.S. Foreign Policy Secrets Out in the Open]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Staff writer (28 November 2010). "Preguntas y Respuestas Sobre los Papeles del Departamento de Estado". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (5 January 2011). "Todos Los Cables". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "Al Akhbar Newspaper publishes US cables not found on WikiLeaks". Ya Libnan. 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/soc/wl/al-akhbar/al-akhbar.html (portal page in Arabic language; abstracts of diplomatic cables (in English language) behind various country-flag links on portal page; each abstract links to entire respective underlying diplomatic cable). These are copies rescued from Google cache.
- "S bad USA om PR-hjälp | Inrikes | SvD" (in Swedish). Svd.se. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "USA slakter PSTs terrorberedskap – VG Nett om WikiLeaks". Vg.no. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Staff writer (17 December 2010). "250.000 Nye Wikileaks-Dokumenter til Aftenposten – Aftenposten Har Fått Tilgang til 250.000 Nye Wikileaks-Dokumenter. Nyhetsredaktør Ole Erik Almlid Sier Avisen Kan Bruke Dokumentene uten Betingelser". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- "Ambassade-dokumente". Aftenposten. 5 January 2011. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- Lindqvist, Andreas (8 January 2011). "Politiken Får Adgang til Alle WikiLeaks-Dokumenterne". (in Danish). Politiken. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- door Ernst-Jan Pfauth. "RTL Nieuws en NRC publiceren om 16:00 Nederlandse WikiLeaks documenten". nrc.nl. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "NOS Nieuws – NOS, RTL en NRC hebben Nederlandse WikiLeaks-cables". Nos.nl. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Hinrichs, Per (17 January 2011). ""Welt Online" bricht das Wikileaks-Kartell". Die Welt. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Dorling, Philip (11 December 2010). "How I Met Julian Assange and Secured the American Embassy Cables". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Holmes, Jonathan (14 December 2010). "WikiLeaks, Journalists and That Elusive Public Interest". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- Massola, James (16 December 2010). "Fairfax Publishes Diplomatic Cables in WikiLeaks Row". The Australian. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- rusrep.ru. Home URL of newspaper. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Staff writer (undated). "PP/WikiLeaks" (portal page to newspaper's coverage of the U.S. diplomatic cables leak; primarily in Russian – some links lead to pages with text of diplomatic cables in both Russian and English languages). Russky Reporter. retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "razonesdecuba.cubadebate.cu". razonesdecuba.cubadebate.cu. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- Oppmann, Patrick (24 December 2010). "Cuba Begins To Publish Leaked U.S. Documents". CNN. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Segnini, Giannina (1 March 2011). "'La Nación' publicará cables de WikiLeaks sobre Costa Rica" ['La Nación' will publish cables from WikiLeaks about Costa Rica]. La Nación (in Spanish).
- Staff writer (29 November 2010). "U.S. Documents Obtained by WikiLeaks Posted Despite Site Problem". CNN. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Lindsay, James (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks Cables Expose World Leaders' Sensitive Diplomacy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Staff writer (6 April 2011). "Wikileaks dio a este Diario 343 cables de Ecuador". El Universo. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- Staff writer (5 April 2011). "La Embajada de EE.UU. pidió retirar la visa al excomandante de Policía". El Universo. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- "Schneier on Security: Unredacted U.S. Diplomatic WikiLeaks Cables Published". Schneier.com. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Simpson, Connor (31 August 2011). "Wikileaks Is Suing the Guardian Over a Security Breach". The Atlantic Wire. Archived from the original on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Unredacted Wikileaks archive leaked - story". aebr.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Kraft, Steffen (25 August 2011). "Leck bei Wikileaks" [Leak at Wikileaks]. Der Freitag (in German). Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- Gjerding, Sebastian (25 August 2011). "Lækage skader Wikileaks' troværdighed". Dagbladet Information (in Danish). Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Anger as Wikileaks releases all US cables unredacted". BBC News. 2 September 2011.
- Ball, James (2 September 2011). "Julian Assange faces arrest in Australia over unredacted WikiLeaks cables". The Guardian. London.
- Satter, Raphael (31 August 2011). "WikiLeaks: Breach has exposed unredacted US cables". Forbes. Associated Press.
- Ball, James (2 September 2011). "WikiLeaks publishes full cache of unredacted cables". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Marks, Paul (6 September 2011). "Assange: Why WikiLeaks was right to release raw cables". New Scientist. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Gunter, Joel (1 September 2011). "WikiLeaks accuses Guardian over unredacted cables leak". Journalism.co.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Ray Ndlovu, WikiLeaks puts Zim generals in firing line Mail & Guardian 23 September 2011
- "Ethiopian journalist ID'd in WikiLeaks cable flees country" Committee to Protect Journalists 14 September 2011
- Rachel McAthy, WikiLeaks and CPJ in dispute after journalist 'flees' Ethiopia, Journalism.co.uk, 16 September 2011
- David D. Kirkpatrick, After Disclosures by WikiLeaks, Al Jazeera Replaces Its Top News Director The New York Times 20 September 2011
- Mark MacKinnon, Leaked cables spark witch-hunt for Chinese 'rats' The Globe and Mail, 24 September 2011
- "Wikileaks 'Hacked Ahead of Secret US Document Release'". BBC News. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- "Twitter / WikiLeaks: El País, Le Monde, Speigel". WikiLeaks (via Twitter). Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Poulsen, Kevin (29 November 2010). "Cyber Attack Against WikiLeaks Was Weak". Wired. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "Twitter / Jester: www.wikileaks.org – TANGO ..." Twitter. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- "WikiLeaks fights to stay online amid attacks". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Associated Press. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Agence France-Presse (5 December 2010). "How the Barbra Streisand Effect keeps WikiLeaks online". INQUIRER.net.
- Satter, Raphael G.; Svensson, Peterand (3 December 2010). "WikiLeaks Fights To Stay Online Amid Attacks"[dead link]. Associated Press (via The Washington Post). Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (1 December 2010). "Internet Company Had Hosted Wikileaks Website". Office of U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "WikiLeaks servers at Amazon ousted. Free speech the land of the free—fine our $ are now spent to employ people in Europe". WikiLeaks (via Twitter). 1 December 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (1 December 2010). "If Amazon are so uncomfortable with the first amendment, they should get out of the business of selling books". WikiLeaks (via Twitter). Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Arthur, Charles; Halliday, Josh (3 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables visualisation pulled after pressure from Joe Lieberman". The Guardian. London.
- Fink, Elissa (2 December 2010). "Why we removed the WikiLeaks visualizations". Tableau Software.
- Staff writer (4 December 2010). PayPal Turns Off Tap for WikiLeaks Donations – Online Payment Service Cuts Whistleblower Site From Money Flow, Making Donations More Difficult". Associated Press (via CBS News). Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (6 December 2010). "Wikileaks: Swiss Bank Shuts Julian Assange's Account". BBC News. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- McCullagh, Declan (6 December 2010). "MasterCard Pulls Plug on WikiLeaks Payments". CBS News. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (7 December 2010). "Wikileaks' Visa Payments Suspended". BBC News. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (4 December 2010). "Fed Workers Told: Stay Away from Those Leaked Cables – Directive Notes the Content 'Remains Classified'; Columbia U. Also Warns Future Diplomats". NBC News. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Staff writer (7 December 2010). "State Dept Denies Warning Students about WikiLeaks". The Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- MacAskill, Ewen (3 December 2010). "US Blocks Access to WikiLeaks for Federal Workers – Employees Unable To Call Up WikiLeaks on Government Computers as Material Is Still Formally Classified, Says US". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
- Staff writer (4 December 2010). "Fed Workers Told: Stay Away from Those Leaked Cables". NBC News. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- Gustin, Sam (6 December 2010). "Columbia University Reverses Anti-WikiLeaks Guidance". Wired. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- (registration required) Air Force Blocks Sites That Posted Secret Cables – NYTimes.com. The New York Times.
- Staff writer (18 December 2010). "Bank of America Stops Handling Wikileaks Payments". BBC News. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- Satter, Raphael G.; Lawless, Jill (10 December 2010). "Protests, Cyber-Skirmishes Rage over WikiLeaks". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- Staff writer (4 January 2011). "Anonymous Activists Target Tunisian Government Sites". BBC News. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Hill, Evan (3 January 2011). "Hackers Hit Tunisian Websites – Amid Anti-Government Protests, Attack Blocks Access to Stock Exchange and Ministry of Foreign Relations". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Randeree, Bilal (4 January 2011). "Violent Clashes Continue in Tunisia – Protests over Unemployment Continue To Spread across the Country as the Government Forces Try To Curb Growing Unrest". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Screenshot of the message". Pm.gov.tn. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- Rifai, Ryan (4 January 2011). "Timeline: Tunisia's Civil Unrest – Chronicle of Nationwide Demonstrations over the Country's Unemployment Crisis". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Ryan, Yasmine (6 January 2011). "Tunisia's Bitter Cyberwar – Anonymous Has Joined Tunisian Activists To Call for End to the Government's Stifling of Online Dissent". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Walsh, Declan (9 December 2010). "Pakistani Media Publish Fake WikiLeaks Cables Attacking India – Comments Alleged To Be from WikiLeaks US Embassy Cables Say Indian Generals Are Genocidal and New Delhi Backs Militants". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Walsh, Declan (10 December 2010). "WikiLeaks Fake Cables – Pakistani Newspapers Admit They Were Hoaxed – Papers Apologise to Readers for Publishing Anti-Indian Comments Alleged To Have Been Said by US Officials". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Greenwald, Glenn (7 January 2011). "DOJ Subpoenas Twitter Records of Several WikiLeaks Volunteers". Salon.com. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Rushe, Dominic (8 January 2011). "Icelandic MP Fights US Demand for Her Twitter Account Details – Birgitta Jonsdottir Brands Efforts by US Justice Department To Access Her Private Information 'Completely Unacceptable'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Connor, Richard (9 January 2011). "Iceland Blasts US Demand for Lawmaker's Details in WikiLeaks Probe". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Twitter Subpoena" (PDF). Salon.com. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "WikiLeaks on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- Larson, Erik (10 January 2011). "US Twitter Subpoena on WikiLeaks Is 'Harassment,' Lawyer Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Dickinson, Elizabeth (13 January 2011). "The First WikiLeaks Revolution?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David A. (14 January 2011). "Tunisia Leader Flees and Prime Minister Claims Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Wikileaks Real Impact in Tunisia". The Atlantic. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Black, Ian (15 January 2011). "Tunisia: The WikiLeaks connection". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts' | World news. The Guardian. Retrieved on 22 August 2013.
|Look up Cablegate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Secret US Embassy Cables by WikiLeaks
- The US embassy cables by The Guardian
- State's Secrets by The New York Times
- WikiLeaks Diplomatic Cables FAQ by Der Spiegel
- The Arrest of Julian Assange and the U.S. "War on WikiLeaks" – video report by Democracy Now!
- cabledrum.net, cablegate search engine (full text, dates and attributes)
- Cablegatesearch, full-text search by topic
- Dazzlepod.com/cable, full-text search of released diplomatic cables
- cables.csv at the Internet Archive, everything unredacted
- "Wikileaked – Inside the State Department's Secret Cables". A journal run by Foreign Policy devoted to contents of WikiLeaks' U.S. diplomatic cables release (retrieved 10 December 2010)
- (German) WikiLeaks-Enthüllungen: Codename Projekt 8 – Der Spiegel's background on the strained negotiations between Wikileaks and the newspapers it chose to publish the cables