A vaccine passport or proof of vaccination is an immunity passport employed as a credential in countries and jurisdictions as part of efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic via vaccination. A vaccine passport is typically issued by a government or health authority, and usually consists of a digital or printed record. Some credentials may include a scannable QR code, which can also be provisioned via mobile app. It may or may not use a COVID-19 vaccine card as a basis of authentication.
The use of vaccine passports is based on the general presumption that a vaccinated individual would be less likely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others, and less likely to experience a severe outcome (hospitalization or death) if they were to be infected, thus making it relatively safer for them to congregate. A vaccine passport is typically coordinated with policies enforced by individual businesses, or enforceable public health orders, that require patrons to present proof of vaccination for COVID-19 as a condition of entry or service.
Government-mandated use of vaccine passports typically applies to discretionary public spaces and events (such as indoor restaurants, bars, or large-scale in-person events, such as concerts and sports), and not essential businesses, such as retail stores or health care. In France, Italy, Ireland, and Canada, vaccine uptake increased after various levels of governments announced plans to introduce vaccine passports. An intention by some jurisdictions is to prevent future lockdowns.
Despite evidence that vaccination improves economic and social problems caused by the pandemic, vaccine passports are controversial and have raised scientific, ethical and legal concerns. Critics have also argued that vaccine passports violate civil liberties. In the United States, there is no vaccine passport at a federal level, and some US states have preemptively banned vaccine passports in certain public and private sector contexts, citing discrimination and privacy concerns. England cancelled a planned vaccine passport program in September 2021 due to worries that discrimination and economic harm would occur.
History and background
Many governments including Finland, and Germany, expressed early interest in the concept. Vaccine passports were seen as a potential way to permit a faster economic recovery from large-scale lockdowns that apply to all residents (especially within the travel and tourism industries), improve the confidence of patrons concerned for their health and safety, and to incentivize vaccination in order for a population to potentially reach "herd immunity".
In May 2020, Chile started issuing "release certificates" to patients who had recovered from COVID-19, but "the documents will not yet certify immunity". Many governments including Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States expressed interest in the concept.
The Royal Society published a report on 19 February 2021 where a lead author of the report, Professor Melinda Mills, Director of the Leverhulme Centre for Demographic Science at the University of Oxford said: “Understanding what a vaccine passport could be used for is a fundamental question – is it literally a passport to allow international travel or could it be used domestically to allow holders greater freedoms? The intended use will have significant implications across a wide range of legal and ethical issues that need to be fully explored and could inadvertently discriminate or exacerbate existing inequalities.” The report lists 12 essential criteria for an international standard.
On 12 March 2021, Ecma International announced its intention to create an international standard which prevents counterfeits and protects private data as much as possible in a "Call for Participation on Vaccine Passports International Standardization"  that referenced the earlier report from the UK's Royal Society. In August 2021, Ecma International announced revisions to Ecma-417 (Architectures for distributed real-time access systems) relevant to standards for vaccine passports.
An early advocate of immunity passports during the COVID-19 pandemic was Sam Rainsy, the Cambodian opposition leader. In exile and under confinement in Paris, he proposed immunity passports as a way to help restart the economy in a series of articles which he began in March 2020 and published in The Geopolitics and The Brussels Times. The proposals were also published in French. The idea became increasingly relevant as evidence of lasting acquired immunity became clear.
Proponents of the idea such as Sam Rainsy, co-founder of the opposition Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) have argued that immunity, whether acquired naturally or through vaccination, is a resource which needs to be used to limit the impact of the pandemic on the global economy. Many people in Cambodia depend entirely for their living on a tourism industry which has been wiped out. Poor countries can also benefit from recording immunological status as this will reduce wastage of scarce vaccines. The immunity passport proposed by Rainsy was effectively adopted in the EU under the name of "health pass".
As of 4 April 2021,[update] it was not yet clear whether vaccinated people that remain asymptomatic are still contagious and are thus silent spreaders of the virus putting unvaccinated people at risk. "A lot of people are thinking that once they get vaccinated, they’re not going to have to wear masks anymore," said Michal Tal, an immunologist at Stanford University. "It’s really going to be critical for them to know if they have to keep wearing masks, because they could still be contagious."
In January 2021, Israel announced that Israelis who had received their second vaccination and those who had proof of recovery from infection would be eligible for a "green passport", exempting them from isolation requirements and mandatory COVID-19 tests, including those on arrival from overseas. In February 2021, Israel became one of the first countries to implement a vaccine passport system, dubbed the Green Pass. They are required in order to access venues such as gyms, hotels, bars, and restaurants. In October 2021, Israel announced an update to its guidelines, requiring that the most recent vaccine dose (or proof of recovery) to have been during the past six months. This change made Israel the first country to make a booster shot a requirement for its vaccine passport system.
Azerbaijan requires proof of vaccination for people over 18 to enter virtually all public spaces. This policy began on 1 September 2021. A federal mandate has also required all state-regulated workers to be vaccinated as of 1 October 2021. Despite this effort, a report suggested there was evidence of fraudulent vaccine passports created by bribing healthcare workers.
In February 2020, China started to use digital "health codes", available on a variety of platforms including WeChat and Alipay with scannable QR barcodes displaying a "traffic light" system of colours to enter public transport, shops, restaurants and malls. It was used 40 billion times between February and March.
In March 2021, an "International Travel Health Certificate" was created. In March 2021, the government of China rolled out the world's first COVID-19 vaccine passport system through a partnership with Alipay and WeChat. The system provides a health certificate that includes an individual's vaccine status and the results of COVID-19 testing. Initially, the system would only indicate that an individual had been vaccinated if they received a Chinese-made coronavirus vaccine, leading to criticism, though by April 2021 the system began to accept records of receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen vaccines. As of March 2021, the app was optional and its use was restricted to Chinese citizens. The digital health passport is intended to better facilitate travel. Privacy advocates and Chinese netizens have expressed concerns regarding the potential invasive data collection and the use of data for non-health monitoring purposes.
Indonesia issued an application, named PeduliLindungi for contact tracing and vaccine passport use in public area setting, include travel.
Israel was one of the first countries to issue what is known as a Green Pass in February 2021. The pass was discontinued on 1 June 2021, but following a surge of new infections, it was reinstated on 29 July 2021. In October 2021, all existing Green Passes were voided if the most recent shot was administered more than 6 months ago. To obtain a new valid pass and to be considered "fully vaccinated" in Israel, the holder would need to show proof of a third (or booster) dose of a vaccine or show proof of a recovery within the past 6 months. This change affected more than a million residents who had previously been regarded as "fully vaccinated". A temporary Green Pass can be obtained with a negative viral test, but must be paid for by the individual unless they are not eligible for vaccination.
On 19 July 2021, Japan began accepting applications for its COVID-19 vaccination passport program. When issued, the passports will be in paper form in both Japanese and English, showing the holder's date(s) of inoculation and the vaccine type, and are available free of charge. As of 22 July 2021, Japan vaccine passport holders are exempt from entry restrictions in Austria, Bulgaria, Italy, Poland, and Turkey. South Korea will also exempt those travelling for specific business, academic, or humanitarian reasons. Entry is also facilitated by Germany; Honduras; Hong Kong; Lithuania; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Vincent and the Grenadines; and Thailand's islands of Phuket, Samui, Ko Pha-Ngan, and Ko Tao. Japan is in negotiation with other countries (including China and the United States) to accept the passport.
Residents attending restaurants, cafes and public spaces like malls, shopping centres and markets must be fully vaccinated. The country uses the Tawakkalna app which includes information for health appointments, vaccination status and alerts users to COVID-19 exposure for contact tracing purposes.
Since August 10, 2021, all residents dining out must be fully vaccinated by showing proof of vaccination using the TraceTogether or HealthHub app, or use the TraceTogether token. Proof of vaccination has been progressively implemented in almost all public venues since October 13, 2021, starting with shopping malls, retail shops, entertainment venues except bars, nightclubs and karaoke parlours, attractions, cruises and eateries. It has since been expanded to include large events, public libraries, selected events at community buildings and will be expanded to tertiary institutions, places of lodging, small events and workplaces from January 2022.
On November 1, 2021, a vaccine passport system went into effect in South Korea as part of a "living with COVID-19" strategy. Residents wishing to access high-risk areas such as bars, restaurants, gyms and saunas must be vaccinated. All COVID-19 restrictions are planned to end in February 2022.
On 25 October 2021, the Taiwanese government announced that the digital COVID certificate system in the country had been completed. In December 2021, the system was also recognised by the EU as an equivalent of the EU Digital Covid Certificate. On 20 January 2022, Taiwan officially released the certificate and implemented rules that it be required before entering bars or karaoke alike.
The European Union offers an EU Digital COVID Certificate (EUDCC), a digitally-signed proof of vaccination, proof of a recent recovery, or a recent negative test, for use when travelling within the Schengen area with fewer restrictions. It launched in July 2021, and is applicable for citizens of the EU, and also for travellers from outside of the region.
In October 2021, Johannes Bahrke, the European Commission's digital spokesman, said the EUDCC "set a global standard by being the only system currently in operation internationally". Since the July 2021 launch more than 591 million certificates had been issued, 438 million of them on the basis of vaccination.
The EUDCC is also issued and recognized by 33 non-EU countries and territories, which includes Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Switzerland, El Salvador, the Faroe Islands, Georgia, Israel, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Norway, Panama, San Marino, Serbia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the Vatican.
Denmark introduced a Coronapas on 21 April 2021. Those unvaccinated with a recently negative test of 72 hours or previous infection of COVID-19 of up to 12 weeks prior were included in the pass system. Due to the high uptake of vaccines, Denmark retired their system on 10 September 2021.
France issued a Health Pass (or Pass Sanitaire in French) on 9 August 2021, for use in non-essential settings for those 18 and older. To obtain the pass people must be fully vaccinated or undertake a test within 72 hours of attending a non-essential space or have recovered recently from an infection of the virus. The initial announcement of the pass system is believed to have encouraged an additional one million people to sign up for vaccination the day following the announcement, and is credited to encouraging a further 3.7 million people to sign up for vaccination in the following week. Starting 1 October 2021, those age 12 and older will require a Pass Sanitaire to enter public sites like restaurants, cinemas, and sporting events.
In July 2021, Ireland introduced a vaccine certificate program (EU Digital COVID Certificate) which allowed vaccinated individuals to attend cafes, bars and restaurants. Due to one of the highest uptakes of COVID-19 vaccines in the world, the Republic of Ireland (but not Northern Ireland) had plans to retire their vaccine passport program on 22 October 2021 however this was postponed to February 2022 at the earliest due to increased COVID-19 cases and hospital numbers.
In August 2021 the Italian government extended the requirement of the EU Digital COVID Certificate, also known as a "Green Pass", to the participation in sports events and music festivals, but also to access to indoor places like bars, restaurants and gyms, as well as to long-distance public transportation. On 15 October, Italy became the first country in the world to require its entire workforce, public and private, to have a government-issued health pass.
From 1st December 2021 the Swedish government introduced vaccine passports for indoor events with more than 100 people. Indoor events with more than 100 participants who do not use vaccination certificates must follow specific guidelines to avoid spreading the disease.
In early September 2021, the NHS proposed the Covid Pass vaccine passport in England, Scotland, and Wales. It was proposed for those who had received either two doses of the Pfizer, Moderna, or AstraZeneca vaccines; one dose of the Janssen vaccine; or "proof of natural immunity shown by a positive PCR test result for COVID-19, lasting for 180 days after the date of the positive test and following completion of the self-isolation period".
England cancelled the Covid Pass program on 12 September 2021 following pushback from Conservative members of parliament and business leaders over potential discrimination and economic harm, while Scotland and Wales have retained the program.
Northern Irish citizens who have been fully vaccinated for COVID-19 in Northern Ireland can apply for a certification that they are vaccinated through an automated method administered by the Department of Health.
Residents wishing to attend events, bars, restaurants, and other dining establishments must present proof of vaccination.
The implementation of digital proof of vaccination in Canada has largely been conducted at the provincial and territorial level, with the federal government specifying a standard document and QR code designed to be suitable for international travel. This standard came ahead of new regulations requiring proof of vaccination for all passengers aged 12 and older boarding domestic and/or international commercial airplanes departing from most Canada-based airports, and those riding on Via Rail and Rocky Mountaineer trains effective 30 October 2021.
As of November 2021, all 10 provinces in Canada, and two of the three territories, had implemented or announced plans to implement a provincially-regulated vaccine passport.
With the re-establishment of a state of emergency in September 2021, a proof of vaccination mandate for eligible businesses and events known as Restrictions Exemption Program was introduced. It is described by the government as an opt-in system allowing them to operate with fewer restrictions. If a facility does not participate, or is prohibited from participating, they are required to comply with all public health orders, which restricts maximum capacity to one-third, and prohibits the operation of dine-in restaurants.
Manitoba was the first province to introduce a passport system in Canada on 17 July 2021. The passport requirement was removed for movie theatres, museums and galleries on 7 August 2021, only to be reinstated on 3 September 2021, upon Manitoba expanding its passport system. The province utilized physical Immunization Cards which faced supply shortages in production.
- British Columbia has created a Proof of vaccination system which utilises a QR code. The system initially relied on paper receipts of the BC vaccine receipt and gradually migrated to a digital system. The QR code can also be physically printed out.
- New Brunswick requires a Proof of Vaccination system using original immunisation records.
- Newfoundland and Labrador has plans to release a QR code based system for their vaccine passport.
- Nova Scotia has a Proof of Full Vaccination Policy using original government issued proof of vaccination.
- Ontario introduced a vaccine passport system on 22 September 2021. The system initially relied on original vaccine paper receipts, but gradually began switching over to verifiable QR codes along with the introduction of the "Verify Ontario" mobile app on 22 October 2021. As of January 4, 2022, only vaccine receipts with verifiable QR codes and the "Verify Ontario" mobile app will be accepted at venues where proof of vaccine is required.
- Prince Edward Island uses the PEI Vax Pass Program using original government issued vaccination information.
- Saskatchewan has a Proof of vaccination mandate effective October 2021, using either the government-issued vaccination receipts, or a digital or printed health record with QR code.
- Yukon territory will implement a passport system on 30 November 2021 to access non-essential indoor facilities.
Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issues a COVID-19 vaccine card that may be accepted as proof of vaccination (but is vulnerable to forgery and counterfeiting, and thus not a verifiable proof of vaccination), the United States does not and will not have a federal framework for a digital vaccine passport. Federal officials have cited privacy and human rights concerns in its decision. This leaves their implementations up to individual states and territories.
Prior to the issue becoming politicised, public views on vaccine passports were evenly split and the divide crossed, rather than followed, political and ideological lines. Since then, criticism and conspiracy theories surrounding the vaccines in general, and in turn vaccine mandates, have largely come from the political right; for example, U.S. representative for Georgia's 14th congressional district Marjorie Taylor Greene, a Republican, asserted that requesting the disclosure of one's vaccine status was a violation of data privacy rules for the health care industry, even though said rules only apply to entities such as health insurers.
The state governments of California, Hawaii, Louisiana, New York, North Carolina, Delaware, and Virginia have each rolled out mechanisms where residents can choose to receive proof of COVID-19 vaccination in the form of a scannable QR code by linking to records within each state's immunization registry. Illinois has a Vax Verify website, where residents can download proof of COVID-19 vaccination for businesses that require it. In New Jersey, residents can obtain a digital COVID-19 vaccination record through its mobile app Docket; Governor Phil Murphy has specifically avoided using the term "vaccine passport" to describe the service.
Each state credential has varying degrees of interoperability with other state and foreign governments; some states have closed systems, with QR codes that are only usable within the issuing state, and others have broad interoperability, with New York offering both types of credentials for its residents. Arizona, Maryland, Mississippi, North Dakota, Washington, West Virginia, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia have contracted with an organization[which?] that interfaces with governmental vaccination records to produce a PDF proof of vaccination, but has also moved toward scannable QR codes. Health departments in Indiana, Colorado, and Georgia can provide proof of vaccination in PDF form but not via a QR code.
At least 20 states have prohibited public agencies from issuing or requiring a vaccine passport, while Alabama, Florida, Iowa, Montana, and Texas also made it illegal for any private entity to request proof of vaccination as a condition of service, under the assertion that they discriminate against those who have made a personal choice to not receive the vaccine.
Los Angeles County
New York City
In December 2020, the Brazilian Senate approved a document giving digital proof of all vaccinations – not just those in respect of COVID-19. However, the urgency for creating such a digital proof of vaccination came from the COVID-19 pandemic.
On 17 November 2021, the New Zealand Government launched a vaccine certificate called My Vaccine Pass for individuals who have been vaccinated against COVID-19. The vaccine pass will be required to enter hospitality venues, community, sport and faith-based gatherings once the COVID-19 Protection Framework comes into force on 29 November 2021. On 23 November, the New Zealand Government launched a new app called the NZ Pass Verifier to scan "My Vaccine passes."
Arguments and controversy
As of September 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged that mandatory COVID-19 vaccine passports would be discriminatory against countries with little access to vaccinations, but could eventually be considered for international travel when vaccine access improves.
Effect on vaccine uptake
The ethical issues that arise in the acceptability of vaccine passports revolve around the policy objectives and the intended use. The public health restriction on implementing vaccine passports limits the freedom of an individual to perform social activities.
People who are privileged to receive the vaccination will have gained access to going back to normal life while low-income populations will remain disproportionately low on vaccinations which hinders their ability to participate in non-essential activities.
Due to the imbalance in the distribution of vaccines in the developing world, there are concerns about the inequity of vaccine passports for travellers. On 15 April 2021, the World Health Organization's emergency committee opposed vaccination passports, saying, "States parties are strongly encouraged to acknowledge the potential for requirements of proof of vaccination to deepen inequities and promote differential freedom of movement".
However, many countries may increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers when deciding to allow them entry or whether to require them to quarantine. "Some sort of vaccine certificate will be important" to reboot travel and tourism, according to Dr. David Nabarro, special envoy on COVID-19 for the WHO, in February 2021.
In March 2021, Bernardo Mariano, the WHO's Director of Digital Health and Innovation, said that "We don't approve the fact that a vaccination passport should be a condition for travel." Lawmakers in several US states are also considering legislation to prohibit COVID-19 vaccination passports.
Ethical concerns about vaccine passports have been raised by Human Rights Watch (HRW). According to HRW, requiring vaccine passports for work or travel could force people into taking tests or risk losing their jobs, create a perverse incentive for people to intentionally infect themselves to acquire immunity certificates, and risk creating a black market of forged or otherwise falsified vaccine cards.
By restricting social, civic, and economic activities, vaccine passports may "compound existing gender, race, ethnicity, and nationality inequities." Immunity certificates also face privacy and human rights concerns.
A security vulnerability in the app used by New Jersey and Utah briefly made it possible to request the QR codes of other users, containing encoded name, date of birth, and vaccination history information. On 24 September 2021, Saskatchewan Health Authority stated that digital vaccine records obtained in the province between 19 and 24 September may have accidentally contained the wrong QR code for the specific user.
People may acquire a degree of natural immunity from SARS-CoV-2 when they are exposed to the live virus, and develop a primary immune response which produces antibodies that can recognize specific variants. As of May 2021, the WHO reported that more than 90% of individuals established recognizable antibodies in a within four weeks after an infection. For most people, these detectable antibodies roughly stay for at least 6–8 months. However, antibodies may not guarantee immunity from novel variants and mutations of SARS-CoV-2. The uncertainty of the science behind immunity to SARS-CoV-2 has raised issues over their applicability within passport frameworks.
It has been argued that the primary difference is that vaccination certificates such as the Carte Jaune incentivize individuals to obtain vaccination against a disease, while immunity passports incentivize individuals to get infected with and recover from a disease.
- "FAQ: What Is A Vaccine 'Passport,' And What Are These Credentials Used For?". Georgia Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
- Hart, Robert. "Vaccine Passports Spur Explosion In Vaccinations—And Protests—As Europe Cracks Down On Vaccine Holdouts". Forbes.
- "Covid-19: Irish vaccine passports 'accelerated' jab uptake". BBC News. 2 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- "With vaccine passports around the corner, Niagara sees increase in vaccination appointments; 55 new COVID cases Sunday". stcatharinesstandard.com. 4 September 2021.
- Ali Raza (30 August 2021). "Vaccine passports crucial to prevent future COVID-19 lockdowns, hospitality industry says". CBC News. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
- Pasteur, Sanofi (12 August 2015). "The Economic Value of Vaccination: Why Prevention is Wealth". Journal of Market Access & Health Policy. 3: 10.3402/jmahp.v3.29414. doi:10.3402/jmahp.v3.29414. PMC 4802700. PMID 27123186.
- Rodrigues, Charlene M. C.; Plotkin, Stanley A. (1 November 2020). "Impact of Vaccines; Health, Economic and Social Perspectives". Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 1526. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.01526. PMC 7371956. PMID 32760367.
- Voo TC, Reis AA, Thomé B, Ho CW, Tam CC, Kelly-Cirino C, et al. (February 2021). "Immunity certification for COVID-19: ethical considerations". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 99 (2): 155–161. doi:10.2471/blt.20.280701. PMC 7856365. PMID 33551509.
- Dada, Sara; Battles, Heather; Pilbeam, Caitlin; Singh, Bhagteshwar; Solomon, Tom; Gobat, Nina (27 September 2021). "Learning from the past & present: social science implications for COVID-19 immunity-based documentation". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1057/s41599-021-00898-4. ISSN 2662-9992.
- "Covid: US rules out federal vaccine passports". BBC News. 6 April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "Vaccine passports: 10 states with digital credentials & 20 states with bans". beckershospitalreview.com.
- Jackson, Marie (12 September 2021). "England vaccine passport plans ditched, Sajid Javid says". BBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- Mutanen A. "Suomalaiset tutkijat kehittivät vasta-ainetestin, joka paljastaa, kuka on jo sairastanut koronaviruksen". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- Day, Joel (1 April 2020). "Coronavirus breakthrough: Germany roll outs promising antibody test to end lockdown". Daily Express. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Travelling this summer? You will likely need a vaccine passport". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- Asi, Yara M. (13 March 2021). "The pros and cons of vaccine passports". Fast Company. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- "In reversal, Chile says coronavirus release certificates will not prove immunity". Reuters. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Britain looking at COVID-19 immunity certificates but more research needed". Channel NewsAsia. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- Lofgren K (10 April 2020). "Anthony Fauci Says Government Is Discussing Immunity Cards For Coronavirus Survivors". Inquistr. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "12 challenges for vaccine passports". The Royal Society. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
“International standardisation is one of the criteria we believe essential, but we have already seen some countries introducing vaccine certificates related to travel or linked to quarantine or attending events. We need a broader discussion about multiple aspects of a vaccine passport, from the science of immunity through to data privacy, technical challenges and the ethics and legality of how it might be used.” The report sets out 12 criteria that need to be satisfied in order to deliver a vaccine passport. A vaccine passport should: 1) Meet benchmarks for COVID-19 immunity 2) Accommodate differences between vaccines in their efficacy, and changes in vaccine efficacy against emerging variants 3) Be internationally standardised 4) Have verifiable credentials 5) Have defined uses 6) Be based on a platform of interoperable technologies 7) Be secure for personal data 8) Be portable 9) Be affordable to individuals and governments 10) Meet legal standards 11) Meet ethical standards 12) Have conditions of use that are understood and accepted by the passport holders
- "Call for participation on vaccine passport international standardization". Ecma International. 12 April 2021.
- "Standard on vaccine passport" (PDF). Ecma International. 9 August 2021.
- Rainsy S (27 March 2020). "How to Prevent COVID-19 From Paralysing the World's Economy". The Geopolitics. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- Rainsy S (12 April 2020). "Immunity Passports: A proposal to revive tourism, international trade and transport". The Brussels Times. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "International Immunity Passports Can Help Restore Freedom of Movement". The Geopolitics. 8 April 2020.
- "CAMBODGE – CORONAVIRUS: L'appel de Sam Rainsy pour des passeports «immunitaires afin de combattre l'épidémie mondiale de Covid 19". gavroche-thailande.com (in French).
- Mandavilli A (17 November 2020). "Immunity to the Coronavirus May Last Years, New Data Hint". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "Opinion | Covid-19 recoveries: From immunity passport to health pass". The Brussels Times. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
- "Immunity Passports Arrive Under a Different Name". 21 May 2021.
- Mandavilli A (8 December 2020). "Here's Why Vaccinated People Still Need to Wear a Mask". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
In most respiratory infections, including the new coronavirus, the nose is the main port of entry. The virus rapidly multiplies there, jolting the immune system to produce a type of antibodies that are specific to mucosa, the moist tissue lining the nose, mouth, lungs and stomach. If the same person is exposed to the virus a second time, those antibodies, as well as immune cells that remember the virus, rapidly shut down the virus in the nose before it gets a chance to take hold elsewhere in the body. The coronavirus vaccines, in contrast, are injected deep into the muscles and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. This appears to be enough protection to keep the vaccinated person from getting ill. Some of those antibodies will circulate in the blood to the nasal mucosa and stand guard there, but it’s not clear how much of the antibody pool can be mobilized, or how quickly. If the answer is not much, then viruses could bloom in the nose — and be sneezed or breathed out to infect others. “It’s a race: It depends whether the virus can replicate faster, or the immune system can control it faster,” said Marion Pepper, an immunologist at the University of Washington in Seattle. “It’s a really important question.” This is why mucosal vaccines, like the nasal spray FluMist or the oral polio vaccine, are better than intramuscular injections at fending off respiratory viruses, experts said.
- Turak N (15 January 2021). "Israel is launching Covid immunity passports. Here's what they allow you to do". CNBC.
- "Israel's green passport provides vaccination incentive". Globes. March 2021.
- Kershner, Isabel (18 February 2021). "As Israel Reopens, 'Whoever Does Not Get Vaccinated Will Be Left Behind'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- Gold, Hadas (11 March 2021). "Israel vaccination 'Green Pass' may offer a glimpse of a post-Covid future". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- Fauzia, Miriam (2 March 2021). "Fact check: Israel launching 'Green Pass' for citizens vaccinated against COVID-19". USA Today. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
- The Associated Press. "Israel tightens COVID 'green pass' rules, sparking protest". ABC News. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
- "Morocco: Authorities extend health state of emergency through Sept. 10 to combat COVID-19 and its variants /update 69". Morocco: Authorities extend health state of emergency through 10 Sep to combat COVID-19 and its variants /update 69 | Crisis24.
- "COVID vaccination to become virtually compulsory in Azerbaijan | Eurasianet". eurasianet.org. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
- "Azerbaijan COVID certificates for public spaces". covidpasscertificate.com. 4 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
- Cockerell I (12 March 2021). "China's new vaccine passport could expand the state's already vast surveillance program". Coda Story.
- "China's Digital Health Certificates —".
- Liu R, Munroe T (9 March 2021). "China launches COVID-19 vaccine passport for cross-border travel". Global News. Reuters.
- "China introduces world's first 'virus passport' programme". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 10 March 2021.
- Duo E (20 April 2021). "China to recognize Western shots for its vaccine passports, as it seeks to reopen". The Washington Post.
- Gan N, Griffiths J (21 April 2021). "China's vaccine nationalism softens as country signals it may approve foreign-made shots". CNN.
- Davidson H, Wu PL (1 April 2020). "China's coronavirus health code apps raise concerns over privacy". The Guardian.
- "Tentang PeduliLindungi". Retrieved 2 November 2021.
- "First In First Out: The Rise and Fall of Israel's Green Pass". Lex-Atlas: Covid-19. 2 June 2021.
- "Israel to reinstate coronavirus 'Green Pass' as Delta variant hits". NBC News.
- "Israel adds COVID-19 booster shot requirement to its vaccine passport – National | Globalnews.ca". Global News.
- Srivastava, Mehul (3 October 2021). "Israelis face losing vaccine passport without Covid boosters". Financial Times.
- "More than 1 million Israelis who haven't gotten booster will lose quarantine exemption". MSN. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- Osumi, Magdalena (22 July 2021). "Japan's vaccine passports: Here's what you need to know". The Japan Times. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
- "Germany and Hong Kong now recognize Japan's vaccine passports". 3 August 2021.
- "Saudi Vaccine Certificate for Saudi Arabia now live". covidpasscertificate.com. 13 September 2021.
- Smith, Josh; An, Sunghyuk (1 November 2021). "S.Korea eases curbs, imposes vaccine passports in 'living with COVID-19' campaign". Reuters.com.
- "South Korea loosens restrictions in first step toward 'living with Covid-19'". CNBC. 29 October 2021.
- "Taiwan has completed digital COVID certificate system: Minister – Focus Taiwan". focustaiwan.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- News, Taiwan (20 January 2022). "Taiwan's adult entertainment venues to require vaccination proof for entry on Jan. 21 | Taiwan News | 2022-01-20 18:33:00". Taiwan News. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
- Arnaud Siad and Sharon Braithwaite. "EU digital Covid-19 certificates will be open to non-EU international travelers". CNN. Retrieved 1 October 2021.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Grünes Licht für Schweizer Covid-Zertifikat" (in German). Blick. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "The EU's COVID Certificate goes live today but how does it work?". euronews. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
- "7.6 million Covid certificates issued in Portugal". theportugalnews.com. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
- "EU Digital COVID Certificate". European Commission. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- "Denmark to lift all remaining Covid restrictions on 10 September". The Guardian. 27 August 2021.
- "'Stark contrast': how Covid pass is helping Denmark open up". The Guardian. 2 May 2021.
- Ledsom, Alex. "French Vaccine Passports: Warning For Fall Family Holidays". Forbes.
- "COVID-19 cases down after France introduced its vaccine passport — will the same happen in Canada?". Global News. 2 September 2021.
- "France's vaccine passport worked – sort of". Wired.
- "France extends Covid-19 health pass rule to teens, lifts mask mandate for some schools". The Straits Times. 30 September 2021. ISSN 0585-3923. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
- "Hungary Becomes First Country in EU to Recognize Kazakhstan's Vaccination Passports". bm.ge. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
- "Not just UK, over 30 nations now recognise India's Covid-19 vaccine certificate". Hindustan Times. 15 October 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/ireland-drop-almost-all-covid-19-restrictions-october-2021-08-31/ 'From 22 October 2021 the requirement for vaccine certificates in bars and restaurants will be dropped, as will all restrictions on the numbers attending indoor and outdoor events. As part of a phased easing of restrictions, the government is recommending the reopening of theatres and cinemas at 60% capacity next week and a return of non-essential workers to offices from 20 September 2021. "Because of the effort of our vaccination team and because you have stepped up to the mark and taken the vaccine when it was offered, we are now entering a whole new phase of the pandemic," Martin said in a televised address. Almost 90% of adults in Ireland are fully vaccinated as are 80% of those over 12 years old.'
- "At a glance: What are the new reopening plans?". The Journal. 19 October 2021.
- Giuffrida, Angela (22 July 2021). "Italy imposes 'green pass' restrictions on unvaccinated people". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- Workers across Italy face a new reality: No health pass, no paycheck., The New York Times
- * "VerificaC19". Apps on Google Play.
official app of the Italian government... to verify the validity and authenticity of COVID-19 Green Certificates
- "Immuni". Apps on Google Play. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
Immuni is the official exposure notification app of the Italian government...The system is based on Bluetooth Low Energy technology, which is designed to be especially energy-efficient, and it doesn’t collect any geolocation data, including GPS data.
- "Immuni". Apps on Google Play. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
- Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (24 November 2021). "Beslut om vaccinationsbevis för allmänna sammankomster och offentliga tillställningar gäller från 1 december 2021". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish).
- "Sweden to introduce vaccine passes for events of over 100 people". The Local Sweden. 17 November 2021.
- "Ukrainian government announces vaccine passports". Reuters.com. Reuters. 13 September 2021.
- "Ukrainian government announces vaccine passports". India Today. 14 September 2021.
- "NHS COVID Pass". NHS. 21 June 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- "Get a record of your coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination status". NHS Inform. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- "Get the NHS COVID Pass to show your vaccination status for travel". Welsh Government. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- "NHS COVID Pass". GOV.UK. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- "England vaccine passport plans ditched, Sajid Javid says". BBC News. 12 September 2021.
- Lukpat, Alyssa (12 September 2021). "Amid cries of tyranny, England cancels plans to require vaccine passports". The New York Times.
- "Covid-19: Vaccine passports and children urged to get jabs in hotspot county". BBC News. 4 October 2021.
- Morris, Stephen (5 October 2021). "Wales introduces compulsory Covid pass for nightclubs and sports events". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- Bradley, Jane (22 September 2021). "Covid Scotland: How vaccine passports have 'become normal' around the world". The Scotsman. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- "Coronavirus (COVID-19): COVID certificate for NI residents". nidirect. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- Howell, Beth (23 April 2021). "Which Countries Are Using COVID-19 Vaccine Passports?". MoveHub. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
- Rachel Gilmore (22 October 2021). "Trudeau unveils Canada's international proof-of-vaccination for COVID-19". Global News. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
- "About the Canadian COVID-19 proof of vaccination". Government of Canada. 25 October 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- Tumilty, Ryan (7 October 2021). "Sweeping federal vaccine mandate goes into force Oct. 30 and targets last holdouts". National Post. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
- "Alberta to launch proof-of-vaccination program, declares health emergency amid surge in COVID-19 cases". CBC News. 15 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
- "New Calgary COVID-19 bylaw will make vaccine passport program mandatory". CTV News Calgary. 22 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
- "Public Health Order Changes to Come into Effect Aug. 7; Many Sectors to Fully Open with No Restrictions". Province of Manitoba. 3 August 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
- "Manitoba pausing printing of immunization cards due to 'overwhelming demand'". Global News. 9 July 2021.
- "COVID-19 vaccination passport". quebec.ca.
- "N.W.T. voluntary vaccine passport program set to launch Oct. 22, as COVID-19 cases trend downward – CBC News". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 October 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
- "Proof of vaccination". www2.gov.bc.ca.
- "REVISED / New regulations introduced to increase vaccination rates and slow the spread of COVID-19". www2.gnb.ca. 15 September 2021.
- "N.L. government reveals draft vaccine passport plan to St. John's business community – CBC News". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
- "Coronavirus (COVID-19): Nova Scotia COVID-19 Proof of Vaccination". Coronavirus (COVID-19). 30 January 2020.
- "Proof of COVID-19 vaccination". COVID-19 (coronavirus) in Ontario.
- "Ontario Newsroom".
- "PEI Vax Pass Program". princeedwardisland.ca.
- "Businesses And Venues Requiring Proof Of Vaccination Or Negative Tests Starting October 1, 2021". Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
- "New Sask. public health order will include proof of vaccination requirements for more businesses". Global News. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- "Yukon premier announces vaccine mandate, passport program starting Nov. 30 – CBC News". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 15 October 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
- Davis E. "These States Have Banned Vaccine Passports".
- Mlot S (29 March 2021). "New York Launches First Digital COVID-19 Vaccine Passport". PC Magazine.
- Lonas L (14 April 2021). "Tennessee Senate passes ban on government issued 'vaccine passports'". The Hill.
- Sameuls I (14 April 2021). "Governor bans use of vaccine passports in Montana". Associated Press.
- "Utah law blocks government agencies from requiring COVID-19 Vaccines". Salt Lake Tribune. 6 April 2021.
- "Texas governor bans mandated COVID-19 "vaccine passports"". CBS News. 7 April 2021.
- Kelleher RK (Oct 21, 2021). "5 Ways To Get Digital Proof Of Covid Vaccination Status—Even If You Live In A Red State". Forbes. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
- Hall MA, Studdert DM (31 March 2021). "Public Views about COVID-19 "Immunity Passports"". medRxiv: 2021.01.26.21250184. doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250184. S2CID 231719316.
- Kavi, Aishvarya (22 July 2021). "How the HIPAA Law Works and Why People Get It Wrong". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- Chiu, Allyson (22 May 2021). "Explaining HIPAA: No, it doesn't ban questions about your vaccination status". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- "Lawmaker Marjorie Taylor Greene, in Ten Words or Less, Gets HIPAA All Wrong". Law & Crime. 21 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- Bursztynsky, Jessica (4 August 2021). "How to get New York's Excelsior Pass so you can show your proof of vaccination from your phone". CNBC. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- Littlehales, Alex (17 August 2021). "Digital Vaccine Cards: How to get them in Virginia, North Carolina". WVEC TV 13. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- "DPH Launches QR Tool Giving Delawareans Convenient Access to Their COVID-19 Vaccine Record". State of Delaware News. 21 December 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
- "Illinois Launches Online COVID Vaccine Verification Portal 'Vax Verify'". 12 August 2021.
- Fallon, Scott. "Is NJ vaccine app for COVID records really a passport?". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
- "Governor Cuomo Announces Launch of Excelsior Pass Plus to Support the Safe, Secure Return of Tourism and Business Travel". Governor’s Press Office – Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. 5 August 2021. Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- "LA Wallet app will let you have digital copy of COVID-19 vaccine card". WDSU 6 News. 5 May 2021. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
- "MyIR Mobile". Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- Rowan Kelleher, Suzanne (28 July 2021). "5 Ways To Get Digital Proof Of Covid Vaccination Status—Even If You Live In A Red State". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- Cipriani, Jason (22 August 2021). "Stop carrying around your vaccination card. Here's how to keep a digital copy on your phone". CNET. Archived from the original on 22 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- Sakariassen, Alex (30 July 2021). "How to comply with Montana's new vaccine discrimination law". Montana Free Press. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
- Owens, Caitlin. "Republicans push to ban "discrimination" against unvaccinated people". Axios. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
- Richardson, Ian. "Iowa Senate gives final passage to 'vaccine passport' ban, sending it to Gov. Kim Reynolds". Des Moines Register. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
- Sarah Moon and Christina Maxouris. "The most populous county in the US issued a proof of vaccine requirement for indoor bars and nightclubs". CNN.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Duggan, Kevin. "NYC begins enforcing COVID-19 vaccine mandate for indoor businesses Monday. Here's what you need to know". amny.com.
- "COVID-19: Vaccine Key to NYC". www1.nyc.gov.
- Levenson, Eric. "New York City now enforcing Covid-19 vaccine requirement for most indoor activities". CNN.
- Aya Elamroussi and Rebekah Riess. "New Orleans to require proof of vaccination or a negative Covid-19 test to enter certain indoor venues". CNN.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Brazilian Senate approves new, digital vaccination card". The Brazilian Report. 16 December 2020.
- "'My Vaccine Pass' launched". Radio New Zealand. 17 November 2021. Archived from the original on 17 November 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
- "All you need to know about My Vaccine Pass". Otago Daily Times. Allied Press. 17 November 2021. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
- "Covid Pass verifier app now available for businesses". Radio New Zealand. 23 November 2021. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
- Cecelia Smith-Schoenwalder (14 September 2021). "WHO: COVID-19 vaccine passports could be considered when vaccine coverage improves". U.S. News. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
- Engel, Erika (10 September 2021). "New vaccine passport system leads to increase in first-dose appointments". BarrieToday.com. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
- Little, Simon (25 August 2021). "B.C. sees big boost in bookings after announcing vaccine passport program". Global News. Corus Entertainment Inc. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
- Hall MA, Studdert DM (March 2021). ""Vaccine Passport" Certification – Policy and Ethical Considerations". The New England Journal of Medicine. 385 (11): NEJMp2104289. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2104289. PMID 33789006.
- "WHO says against proof of Covid-19 vaccination for international travel". South China Morning Post. 20 April 2021.
- Hainey R, Otter S (15 February 2021). "Coronavirus LIVE updates with government lockdown review underway". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- Josephs J (20 March 2021). "Qantas boss: Governments 'to insist' on vaccines for flying". BBC. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- "Vaccine passports are latest flash point in Covid politics". The New Zealand Herald. NZME Publishing Limited. 4 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
- Roth K, Sparrow A (28 April 2020). "Should People Without Coronavirus Antibodies Be Second-Class Citizens?". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- Phelan AL (May 2020). "COVID-19 immunity passports and vaccination certificates: scientific, equitable, and legal challenges". Lancet. 395 (10237): 1595–1598. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31034-5. PMC 7198144. PMID 32380041.
- "Covid: US rules out federal vaccine passports". BBC News. 6 April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
"The government is not now, nor will be, supporting a system that requires Americans to carry a credential," she said. "Our interest is very simple from the federal government, which is Americans' privacy and rights should be protected.
- "A security bug in health app Docket exposed COVID-19 vaccine records". TechCrunch. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
- "QR codes removed from Sask. vaccination records due to privacy breach". CTV News Regina. 24 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
- Greely HT (25 July 2020). "COVID-19 immunity certificates: science, ethics, policy, and law". Journal of Law and the Biosciences. 7 (1): lsaa035. doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa035. PMC 7313854. PMID 32839671.
- "COVID-19 natural immunity". World Health Organization. 10 May 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- Phelan AL (May 2020). "COVID-19 immunity passports and vaccination certificates: scientific, equitable, and legal challenges". Lancet. 395 (10237): 1595–1598. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31034-5. PMC 7198144. PMID 32380041.