Mass killings under communist regimes
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Mass killings occurred under several twentieth-century communist regimes. Death estimates vary widely, depending on the definitions of deaths included. The higher estimates of mass killings account for crimes against civilians by governments, including executions, destruction of population through man-made hunger and deaths during forced deportations, imprisonment and through forced labor. Terms used to define these killings include "mass killing", "democide", "politicide", "classicide" and a broad definition of "genocide".
Several different terms are used to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants,[a][b][c][d] and, according to Professor Anton Weiss-Wendt, there is no consensus in the field of comparative genocide studies on a definition of "genocide".[e] The following terminology has been used by individual authors to describe mass killings of unarmed civilians by communist governments, individually or as a whole:
- Genocide – under the Genocide Convention, the crime of genocide generally applies to mass murder of ethnic rather than political or social groups. Protection of political groups was eliminated from the UN resolution after a second vote, because many states, including Stalin's USSR, anticipated that clause to apply unneeded limitations to their right to suppress internal disturbances. Genocide is also a popular term for mass political killing, which is studied academically as democide and politicide. Killing by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia has been labeled genocide or auto-genocide and, more controversially, the deaths under Leninism and Stalinism in the USSR and Maoism in China have been investigated as possible cases. In particular, the famines in the USSR in the 1930s and during the Great Leap Forward in China have been "depicted as instances of mass killing underpinned by genocidal intent."[f] According to historian Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine, "historians and philosophers close to politically liberal groups" in Europe, especially in Romania, have made the term Communist Genocide a part of the vocabulary.
- Politicide – the term politicide is used to describe the killing of groups that would not otherwise be covered by the Genocide Convention. Professor Barbara Harff studies "genocide and politicide", sometimes shortened as geno-politicide, in order to include the killing of political, economic, ethnic, and cultural groups.[g] Professor Manus I. Midlarsky uses the term politicide to describe an arc of large-scale killing from the western parts of the Soviet Union to China and Cambodia.[h] In his book The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Midlarsky raises similarities between the killings of Stalin and Pol Pot.
- Holocaust – the United States Congress has referred to the mass killings collectively as "an unprecedented imperial communist holocaust" and the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation established by the United States Congress has referred to this subject as the "communist holocaust". The term Red Holocaust has been used by historian Horst Möller and Professor Steven Rosefielde. According to historian Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine, "historians and philosophers close to politically liberal groups" in Europe, especially in Romania, have made the term Red Holocaust a part of the vocabulary. Professor George Voicu has condemned the usage of this metaphor as an attempt to usurp and undermine the history of European Jews.
- Democide – Professor R. J. Rummel defined democide as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command". His definition covers a wide range of deaths, including forced labor and concentration camp victims; killings by "unofficial" private groups; extrajudicial summary killings; and mass deaths due to the governmental acts of criminal omission and neglect, such as in deliberate famines, as well as killings by de facto governments, i.e. civil war killings.[i] This definition covers any murder of any number of persons by any government, and it has been applied to killings perpetrated by communist regimes.
- Mass killing – Professor Ervin Staub defined mass killing as "killing members of a group without the intention to eliminate the whole group or killing large numbers of people without a precise definition of group membership. In a mass killing the number of people killed is usually smaller than in genocide."[j] Referencing earlier definitions,[k] Professors Joan Esteban, Massimo Morelli, and Dominic Rohner have defined mass killings as "the killings of substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of military action against the military forces of an avowed enemy, under the conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims". The term has been defined by Professor Benjamin Valentino as "the intentional killing of a massive number of noncombatants", where a "massive number" is defined as at least 50,000 intentional deaths over the course of five years or less. This is the most accepted quantitative minimum threshold for the term. He applied this definition to the cases of Stalin's USSR, the PRC under Mao, and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, while admitting that "mass killings on a smaller scale" also appear to have been carried out by regimes in North Korea, Vietnam, Eastern Europe, and Africa. Professors Frank Wayman and Atsushi Tago used the term mass killing from Valentino and concluded that, even with a lower threshold (10,000 killed per year, 1,000 killed per year, or even 1 killed per year), "autocratic regimes, especially communist, are prone to mass killing generically, but not so strongly inclined (i.e. not statistically significantly inclined) toward geno-politicide."[l]
- Repression – Professor Stephen Wheatcroft notes that, in the case of the Soviet Union, terms such as the terror, the purges, and repression are used to refer to the same events. He believes the most neutral terms are repression and mass killings, although in Russian the broad concept of repression is commonly held to include mass killings and is sometimes assumed to be synonymous with it, which is not the case in other languages.
- Classicide – Professor Michael Mann has proposed the term classicide to mean the "intended mass killing of entire social classes".[m] Classicide is considered "premeditated mass killing" narrower than genocide in that it targets a part of a population defined by its social status, but broader than politicide in that the group is targeted without regard to their political activity.
- Crime against humanity – Professor Klas-Göran Karlsson uses the term crimes against humanity, which includes "the direct mass killings of politically undesirable elements, as well as forced deportations and forced labour". He acknowledges that the term may be misleading in the sense that the regimes targeted groups of their own citizens, but considers it useful as a broad legal term which emphasizes attacks on civilian populations and because the offenses demean humanity as a whole. Historian Jacques Sémelin and Professor Michael Mann believe that crime against humanity is more appropriate than genocide or politicide when speaking of violence by communist regimes.
Discussion of the number of victims of communist regimes has been "extremely extensive and ideologically biased". R.J. Rummel wrote in 1993 that "Even were we to have total access to all communist archives we still would not be able to calculate precisely how many the communists murdered. Consider that even in spite of the archival statistics and detailed reports of survivors, the best experts still disagree by over 40 percent on the total number of Jews killed by the Nazis. We cannot expect near this accuracy for the victims of communism. We can, however, get a probable order of magnitude and a relative approximation of these deaths within a most likely range." Although any attempt to estimate a total number of victims of communism depends greatly on definitions, several attempts to compile previously published data have been made.
- According to R. J. Rummel's book Death by Government (1994), about 110 million people, foreign and domestic, were killed by communist democide from 1900 to 1987.
- In his introduction to the Black Book of Communism (1999), Stéphane Courtois gave a "rough approximation, based on unofficial estimates" approaching 100 million killed.[n] In his foreword to the book, Martin Malia noted "a grand total of victims variously estimated by contributors to the volume at between 85 million and 100 million."[o]
- According to Benjamin Valentino in 2005, the estimates of the number of non-combatants killed by communist regimes in the Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, and Cambodia alone ranged from a low of 21 million to a high of 70 million, and the total number of people killed by communist regimes was up to 110 million.[p][q]
- In 2005, R. J. Rummel revised his estimate of total communist democide between 1900 and 1999 upward by 38 million to "about 148,000,000", due to recent publications about Mao's role in the Great Chinese Famine.
- In his book Red Holocaust (2010), Steven Rosefielde said that communism's internal contradictions "caused to be killed" approximately 60 million people and perhaps tens of millions more.
- In 2011, Matthew White published his rough total of 70 million "people who died under communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats", not counting those killed in wars.[r]
- In 2016, the "Dissident" blog of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation made an effort to compile updated ranges of estimates and concluded that the overall range "spans from 42,870,000 to 161,990,000" killed, with 100 million the most commonly cited figure.[s]
- In 2017, Professor Stephen Kotkin wrote in The Wall Street Journal that communism killed at least 65 million people between 1917 and 2017: "Though communism has killed huge numbers of people intentionally, even more of its victims have died from starvation as a result of its cruel projects of social engineering."[t]
The criticisms of some of the estimates were mostly focused on three aspects: (i) the estimates were based on sparse and incomplete data, when significant errors are inevitable, (ii) some critics said the figures were skewed to higher possible values,[u] and (iii) some critics argued that victims of Holodomor and other man-made famines created by communist governments should not be counted.
Klas-Göran Karlsson writes that "Ideologies are systems of ideas, which cannot commit crimes independently. However, individuals, collectives and states that have defined themselves as communist have committed crimes in the name of communist ideology, or without naming communism as the direct source of motivation for their crimes." Scholars such as R. J. Rummel, Daniel Goldhagen, Richard Pipes, and John N. Gray consider communism as a significant causative factor in mass killings. The Black Book of Communism claims an association between communism and criminality—"Communist regimes ... turned mass crime into a full-blown system of government"—and says that this criminality lies at the level of ideology rather than state practice.
Christopher J. Finlay has argued that Marxism legitimates violence, without any clear limiting principle, because it rejects moral and ethical norms as constructs of the dominant class and "states that it would be conceivable for revolutionaries to commit atrocious crimes in bringing about a socialist system, with the belief that their crimes will be retroactively absolved by the new system of ethics put in place by the proletariat."[v] Rustam Singh notes that Marx had alluded to the possibility of peaceful revolution but, after the failed Revolutions of 1848, he emphasized the need for violent revolution and "revolutionary terror".[w]
Literary historian George G. Watson cited an 1849 article written by Friedrich Engels called "The Hungarian Struggle" and published in Marx's journal Neue Rheinische Zeitung, stating that the writings of Engels and others show that "the Marxist theory of history required and demanded genocide for reasons implicit in its claim that feudalism, which in advanced nations was already giving place to capitalism, must in its turn be superseded by socialism. Entire nations would be left behind after a workers' revolution, feudal remnants in a socialist age, and since they could not advance two steps at a time, they would have to be killed. They were racial trash, as Engels called them, and fit only for the dung-heap of history."[x] Watson's claims have been criticized by Robert Grant for "dubious evidence", arguing that "what Marx and Engels are calling for is ... at the very least a kind of cultural genocide; but it is not obvious, at least from Watson's citations, that actual mass killing, rather than (to use their phraseology) mere 'absorption' or 'assimilation', is in question." Historian Andrzej Walicki, talking about Engels' 1849 article and citing Watson's book, has said, "It is difficult to deny that this was an outright call for genocide."
According to Rudolph Joseph Rummel, the killings committed by communist regimes can best be explained as the result of the marriage between absolute power and an absolutist ideology – Marxism. "Of all religions, secular and otherwise," Rummel positions Marxism as "by far the bloodiest – bloodier than the Catholic Inquisition, the various Catholic crusades, and the Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants. In practice, Marxism has meant bloody terrorism, deadly purges, lethal prison camps and murderous forced labor, fatal deportations, man-made famines, extrajudicial executions and fraudulent show trials, outright mass murder and genocide." He writes that in practice the Marxists saw the construction of their utopia as "a war on poverty, exploitation, imperialism and inequality – and, as in a real war, noncombatants would unfortunately get caught in the battle. There would be necessary enemy casualties: the clergy, bourgeoisie, capitalists, 'wreckers', intellectuals, counterrevolutionaries, rightists, tyrants, the rich and landlords. As in a war, millions might die, but these deaths would be justified by the end, as in the defeat of Hitler in World War II. To the ruling Marxists, the goal of a communist utopia was enough to justify all the deaths."
Benjamin Valentino writes that mass killings strategies are chosen by communists to economically dispossess large numbers of people.[y] "Social transformations of this speed and magnitude have been associated with mass killing for two primary reasons. First, the massive social dislocations produced by such changes have often led to economic collapse, epidemics, and, most important, widespread famines. ... The second reason that communist regimes bent on the radical transformation of society have been linked to mass killing is that the revolutionary changes they have pursued have clashed inexorably with the fundamental interests of large segments of their populations. Few people have proved willing to accept such far-reaching sacrifices without intense levels of coercion."
Daniel Chirot and Clark McCauley write that, especially in Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao's China, and Pol Pot's Cambodia, a fanatical certainty that socialism could be made to work motivated communist leaders in "the ruthless dehumanization of their enemies, who could be suppressed because they were 'objectively' and 'historically' wrong. Furthermore, if events did not work out as they were supposed to, then that was because class enemies, foreign spies and saboteurs, or worst of all, internal traitors were wrecking the plan. Under no circumstances could it be admitted that the vision itself might be unworkable, because that meant capitulation to the forces of reaction."[z] Michael Mann writes that communist party members were "ideologically driven, believing that in order to create a new socialist society, they must lead in socialist zeal. Killings were often popular, the rank-and-file as keen to exceed killing quotas as production quotas."[aa]
According to Jacques Sémelin, "communist systems emerging in the twentieth century ended up destroying their own populations, not because they planned to annihilate them as such, but because they aimed to restructure the 'social body' from top to bottom, even if that meant purging it and recarving it to suit their new Promethean political imaginaire."[ab]
Anne Applebaum asserts that, "without exception, the Leninist belief in the one-party state was and is characteristic of every communist regime," and "the Bolshevik use of violence was repeated in every communist revolution." Phrases said by Lenin and Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky were deployed all over the world. She notes that as late as 1976, Mengistu Haile Mariam unleashed a "Red Terror" in Ethiopia. Said Lenin to his colleagues in the Bolshevik government: "If we are not ready to shoot a saboteur and White Guardist, what sort of revolution is that?"
Robert Conquest stressed that Stalin's purges were not contrary to the principles of Leninism, but rather a natural consequence of the system established by Vladimir Lenin, who personally ordered the killing of local groups of class enemy hostages. Alexander Yakovlev, architect of perestroika and glasnost and later head of the Presidential Commission for the Victims of Political Repression, elaborates on this point, stating that "The truth is that in punitive operations Stalin did not think up anything that was not there under Lenin: executions, hostage taking, concentration camps, and all the rest." Historian Robert Gellately concurs, saying: "To put it another way, Stalin initiated very little that Lenin had not already introduced or previewed."
Stephen Hicks of Rockford College ascribes the violence characteristic of twentieth-century socialist rule to these collectivist regimes' abandonment of protections of civil rights and rejection of the values of civil society. Hicks writes that whereas "in practice every liberal capitalist country has a solid record for being humane, for by and large respecting rights and freedoms, and for making it possible for people to put together fruitful and meaningful lives", in socialism "practice has time and again proved itself more brutal than the worst dictatorships prior to the twentieth century. Each socialist regime has collapsed into dictatorship and begun killing people on a huge scale."
Eric D. Weitz says that the mass killing in communist states are a natural consequence of the failure of the rule of law, seen commonly during periods of social upheaval in the 20th century. For both communist and non-communist mass killings, "genocides occurred at moments of extreme social crisis, often generated by the very policies of the regimes." They are not inevitable but are political decisions. Steven Rosefielde writes that communist rulers had to choose between changing course and "terror-command" and more often than not chose the latter.[ac] Michael Mann argues that a lack of institutionalized authority structures meant that a chaotic mix of both centralized control and party factionalism were factors in the killing.[aa]
Martin Malia called Russian exceptionalism and the War Experience general reasons for barbarity. The University of Oklahoma political scientist Allen D. Hertzke focused on the ideas of British Catholic writer and historian Paul Johnson. According to him, "the attempt to live without God made idols of politics and produced the century's 'gangster statesmen' – Stalin, Hitler, Mao, Pol Pot – whose 'unappeasable appetite for controlling mankind' unleashed unimaginable horrors. Or as T.S. Eliot puts it, 'If you will not have God (and he is a jealous God) you should pay your respects to Hitler or Stalin.'"
The Russian and world history scholar John M. Thompson places personal responsibility directly on Joseph Stalin. According to him, "much of what occurred only makes sense if it stemmed in part from the disturbed mentality, pathological cruelty, and extreme paranoia of Stalin himself. Insecure, despite having established a dictatorship over the party and country, hostile and defensive when confronted with criticism of the excesses of collectivization and the sacrifices required by high-tempo industrialization, and deeply suspicious that past, present, and even yet unknown future opponents were plotting against him, Stalin began to act as a person beleaguered. He soon struck back at enemies, real or imaginary." Historian Helen Rappaport describes Nikolay Yezhov, the bureaucrat in charge of the NKVD during the Great Purge, as a physically diminutive figure of "limited intelligence" and "narrow political understanding.... Like other instigators of mass murder throughout history, [he] compensated for his lack of physical stature with a pathological cruelty and the use of brute terror."
States where mass killings have occurredEdit
Genocide scholar Adam Jones claims that "there is very little in the record of human experience to match the violence unleashed between 1917, when the Bolsheviks took power, and 1953, when Joseph Stalin died and the Soviet Union moved to adopt a more restrained and largely non-murderous domestic policy." He notes the exceptions being the Khmer Rouge (in relative terms) and Mao's rule in China (in absolute terms).
Estimates on the number of deaths brought about by Stalin's rule are hotly debated by scholars in the field of Soviet and communist studies. The published results vary depending on the time when the estimate was made, on the criteria and methods used for the estimates, and sources available for estimates. Some historians attempt to make separate estimates for different periods of the Soviet history, with casualties for the Stalinist period varying from 8 to 61 million. Several scholars, among them Stalin biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, former Politburo member Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev and the director of Yale's "Annals of Communism" series Jonathan Brent, put the death toll at about 20 million.[ad][ae][af][ag][n][ah][ai] Robert Conquest, in the latest revision (2007) of his book The Great Terror, estimates that while exact numbers will never be certain, the communist leaders of the USSR were responsible for no fewer than 15 million deaths.[aj]
According to historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Stalin's regime can be charged with causing the "purposive deaths" of about a million people. Wheatcroft excludes all famine deaths as "purposive deaths," and claims those that do qualify fit more closely the category of "execution" rather than "murder." Others posit that some of the actions of Stalin's regime, not only those during the Holodomor but also Dekulakization and targeted campaigns against particular ethnic groups, can be considered as genocide, at least in its loose definition. Modern data for the whole of Stalin's rule was summarized by Timothy Snyder, who concluded that Stalinism caused six million direct deaths and nine millions in total, including the deaths from deportation, hunger, and Gulag deaths.[ak] Michael Ellman attributes roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist regime, excluding excess mortality from famine, disease and war.
Wheatcroft asserts that prior to the opening of the archives for historical research, "our understanding of the scale and the nature of Soviet repression has been extremely poor" and that some scholars who wish to maintain pre-1991 high estimates are "finding it difficult to adapt to the new circumstances when the archives are open and when there are plenty of irrefutable data" and instead "hang on to their old Sovietological methods with round-about calculations based on odd statements from emigres and other informants who are supposed to have superior knowledge". After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.[al] However, official Soviet documentation of Gulag deaths is widely considered inadequate. Golfo Alexopoulos, Anne Applebaum, Oleg Khlevniuk and Michael Ellman write that the government frequently released prisoners on the edge of death in order to avoid officially counting them. A 1993 study of archival data by J. Arch Getty et al showed that a total of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag from 1934 to 1953. Subsequently, Steven Rosefielde asserted that this number has to be augmented by 19.4 percent in light of more complete archival evidence to 1,258,537, with the best estimate of Gulag deaths being 1.6 million from 1929 to 1953 when excess mortality is taken into account. Alexopolous estimates much higher totals, at least 6 million died in the Gulag or shortly after release. Jeffrey Hardy has criticized Alexopoulos as basing her assertions primarily on indirect and misinterpreted evidence, and Dan Healey has called her work a "challenge to the emergent scholarly consensus".[am]
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and executions carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918. During this period, the political police, the Cheka conducted summary executions of tens of thousands of "enemies of the people". Many victims were 'bourgeois hostages' rounded up and held in readiness for summary execution in reprisal for any alleged counter-revolutionary provocation. Many were put to death during and after the suppression of revolts, such as the Kronstadt rebellion and the Tambov Rebellion. Professor Donald Rayfield claims that "the repression that followed the rebellions in Kronstadt and Tambov alone resulted in tens of thousands of executions." A large number of Orthodox clergymen were also killed.
The policy of decossackization amounted to an attempt by Soviet leaders to "eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory," according to Nicolas Werth. In the early months of 1919, perhaps 10,000 to 12,000 Cossacks were executed and many more deported after their villages were razed to the ground. According to historian Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 1.5 million Don Cossacks, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000".
Soviet famine of 1932–1933Edit
Within the Soviet Union, forced changes in agricultural policies (collectivization), confiscations of grain and droughts caused the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. The famine was most severe in the Ukrainian SSR, where it is often referenced as the Holodomor. A significant portion of the famine victims (3.3 to 7.5 million) were Ukrainians. Another part of the famine was known as Kazakh catastrophe, when more than 1.3 million ethnic Kazakhs (38% of all indigenous population) died. Many scholars say that the Stalinist policies that caused the famine may have been designed as an attack on the rise of Ukrainian nationalism, and thus may fall under the legal definition of genocide (see Holodomor genocide question).
The famine was officially recognized as a genocide by the Ukraine and other governments[an] In a draft resolution, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe declared the famine was caused by the "cruel and deliberate actions and policies of the Soviet regime" and was responsible for the deaths of "millions of innocent people" in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Russia. Relative to its population, Kazakhstan is believed to have been the most adversely affected. Regarding the Kazakh catastrophe, Michael Ellman states that it "seems to be an example of ‘negligent genocide’ which falls outside the scope of the UN Convention of genocide."
Great Purge (Yezhovshchina)Edit
Stalin's attempts to solidify his position as leader of the Soviet Union lead to an escalation of detentions and executions, climaxing in 1937–38 (a period sometimes referred to as the "Yezhovshchina," or Yezhov era), and continuing until Stalin's death in 1953. Around 700,000 of these were executed by a gunshot to the back of the head; others perished from beatings and torture while in "investigative custody" and in the Gulag due to starvation, disease, exposure and overwork.[ao]
Modern historical studies estimate a total number of Stalinism repression deaths during the Great Purge (1937–38) as 950,000 - 1,200,000. These figures take into account the incompleteness of official archival data and include both execution deaths and Gulag deaths during that period.[ao] Former "kulaks" and their families made up the majority of victims, with 669,929 people arrested and 376,202 executed.
Arrests were typically made citing counter-revolutionary laws, which included failure to report treasonous actions and, in an amendment added in 1937, failing to fulfill one's appointed duties. In the cases investigated by the State Security Department of the NKVD (GUGB NKVD) from October 1936 to November 1938, at least 1,710,000 people were arrested and 724,000 people executed.
Citing church documents, Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev has estimated that over 100,000 priests, monks, and nuns were executed during this time. Regarding the persecution of clergy, Michael Ellman has stated that "the 1937–38 terror against the clergy of the Russian Orthodox Church and of other religions (Binner & Junge 2004) might also qualify as genocide".
National operations of the NKVDEdit
In 1930s, the NKVD conducted a series of national operations, which targeted some "national contingents" suspected of counter-revolutionary activity. A total of 350,000 were arrested and 247,157 were executed. Of these, the Polish operation, which targeted the members of Polska Organizacja Wojskowa appears to have been the largest, with 140,000 arrests and 111,000 executions. Although these operation might well constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention, or "a mini-genocide" according to Montefiore, there is as yet no authoritative ruling on the legal characterization of these events.
Great purge in MongoliaEdit
In the summer and autumn of 1937, Joseph Stalin sent NKVD agents to the Mongolian People's Republic and engineered a Mongolian Great Terror in which some 22,000 or 35,000 people were executed. Around 18,000 victims were Buddhist lamas.
Soviet killings during World War IIEdit
In September 1939, following the Soviet invasion of Poland, NKVD task forces started removing "Soviet-hostile elements" from the conquered territories. The NKVD systematically practiced torture, which often resulted in death. According to the Polish Institute of National Remembrance, 150,000 Polish citizens perished due to Soviet repression during the war. The most notorious killings occurred in the spring of 1940, when the NKVD executed some 21,857 Polish POWs and intellectual leaders in what has become known as the Katyn massacre.
During the initial phases of Operation Barbarossa, the NKVD and attached units of the Red Army massacred prisoners and political opponents by the tens of thousands before fleeing from the advancing Axis forces.
Mass deportations of ethnic minoritiesEdit
The Soviet government during Joseph Stalin's rule conducted a series of deportations on an enormous scale that significantly affected the ethnic map of the USSR. Deportations took place under extremely harsh conditions, often in cattle carriages, with hundreds of thousands of deportees dying en route. Some experts estimate that the proportion of deaths from the deportations could be as high as one in three in certain cases.[ap] Regarding the fate of the Crimean Tatars, Amir Weiner of Stanford University writes that the policy could be classified as "ethnic cleansing". In the book Century of Genocide, Lyman H Legters writes "We cannot properly speak of a completed genocide, only of a process that was genocidal in its potentiality.".
People's Republic of ChinaEdit
The Chinese Communist Party came to power in China in 1949, after a long and bloody civil war between communists and nationalists. There is a general consensus among historians that after Mao Zedong seized power, his policies and political purges caused directly or indirectly the deaths of tens of millions of people. Based on the Soviets' experience, Mao considered violence necessary to achieve an ideal society derived from Marxism and planned and executed violence on a grand scale.
The first large-scale killings under Mao took place during land reform and the counterrevolutionary campaign. In official study materials published in 1948, Mao envisaged that "one-tenth of the peasants" (or about 50,000,000) "would have to be destroyed" to facilitate agrarian reform. The actual number killed during land reform is believed to have been lower, but at least one million people. The suppression of counterrevolutionaries targeted mainly former Kuomintang officials and intellectuals suspected of disloyalty. At least 712,000 people were executed, while 1,290,000 were imprisoned in labor camps.
Benjamin Valentino says that the Great Leap Forward was a cause of the Great Chinese Famine, and that the worst effects of the famine were steered towards the regime's enemies. Those labeled as "black elements" (religious leaders, rightists, rich peasants, etc.) in earlier campaigns died in the greatest numbers because they were given the lowest priority in the allocation of food. In Mao's Great Famine, historian Frank Dikötter writes that "coercion, terror, and systematic violence were the very foundation of the Great Leap Forward" and it "motivated one of the most deadly mass killings of human history." Dikötter estimates that at least 2.5 million people were summarily killed or tortured to death during this period. His research in local and provincial Chinese archives indicates the death toll was at least 45 million, and that "In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death." In a secret meeting at Shanghai in 1959, Mao issued the order to procure one third of all grain from the countryside. He said: “When there is not enough to eat people starve to death. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.” In light of additional evidence of Mao's culpability, Rummel added those killed by the Great Famine to his total for Mao's democide, for a total of 77 million killed[aq]
Sinologists Roderick MacFarquhar and Michael Schoenhals estimate that between 750,000 and 1.5 million people were killed in the violence of the Cultural Revolution, in rural China alone. Mao's Red Guards were given carte blanche to abuse and kill the ones perceived to be enemies of the revolution. For example, in August 1966, over 100 teachers were murdered by their students in western Beijing.
According to Jean-Louis Margolin, writing in The Black Book of Communism, the Chinese communists carried out a cultural genocide against the Tibetans. Margolin states that the killings were proportionally larger in Tibet than China proper, and that "one can legitimately speak of genocidal massacres because of the numbers involved." According to the Dalai Lama and the Central Tibetan Administration, "Tibetans were not only shot, but also were beaten to death, crucified, burned alive, drowned, mutilated, starved, strangled, hanged, boiled alive, buried alive, drawn and quartered, and beheaded." Adam Jones, a scholar specializing in genocide, notes that after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Chinese authorized struggle sessions against reactionaries, during which "communist cadres denounced, tortured, and frequently executed enemies of the people." These sessions resulted in 92,000 deaths out of a population of about 6 million. These deaths, Jones stressed, may be seen not only as a genocide but also as 'eliticide' – "targeting the better educated and leadership oriented elements among the Tibetan population."
Cambodia (Democratic Kampuchea)Edit
The Killing Fields were a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the communist Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Vietnam War.
The results of a demographic study of the Cambodian genocide concluded that the nationwide death toll from 1975 to 1979 amounted to 1,843,000 to 1,871,000, or 21 to 24 percent of the Cambodian population before the Khmer Rouge took power. According to Ben Kiernan, the number of deaths caused by executions is still unknown because many victims died from starvation, disease, and overwork. Researcher Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia suggests that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching some 20,000 grave sites, he concluded that "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,112,829 victims of execution". A study by French demographer Marek Sliwinski calculated slightly fewer than 2 million unnatural deaths under the Khmer Rouge out of a 1975 Cambodian population of 7.8 million, with 33.5% of Cambodian men dying under the Khmer Rouge compared to 15.7% of Cambodian women. The number of suspected victims of execution found across 23,745 mass graves is estimated at 1.3 million according to a 2009 academic source; execution is believed to account for roughly 60% of the full death toll during the genocide, with other victims succumbing to starvation or disease.
Helen Fein, a genocide scholar, notes that, although Cambodian leaders declared adherence to an exotic version of agrarian communist doctrine, the xenophobic ideology of the Khmer Rouge regime resembles more a phenomenon of national socialism, or fascism. Henri Locard argues that the "fascist" label was applied to the Khmer Rouge by their enemy, the Vietnamese communists, as a form of "revisionism," but that repression under the Khmer Rouge was "similar (if significantly more lethal) to the repression in all communist regimes". Daniel Goldhagen explains that the Khmer Rouge were xenophobic because they believed the Khmer were "the one authentic people capable of building true communism". Sociologist Martin Shaw described the Cambodian genocide as "the purest genocide of the Cold War era". Steven Rosefielde claims that Democratic Kampuchea was the deadliest of all communist regimes on a per capita basis, primarily because it "lacked a viable productive core" and "failed to set boundaries on mass murder".
Mass killings have also occurred in Vietnam and North Korea. According to Benjamin Valentino, most regimes that described themselves as communist did not commit mass killings. He has suggested that there may also have been other mass killings (on a smaller scale than his standard of 50,000 killed within five years) in communist states such as Bulgaria, Romania and East Germany, although lack of documentation prevents definitive judgement about the scale of these events and the motives of the perpetrators.
According to Benjamin Valentino, available evidence suggests that between 50,000 and 100,000 people may have been killed in Bulgaria beginning in 1944 as part of agricultural collectivization and political repression, although there is insufficient documentation to make a definitive judgement. Dinyu Sharlanov, in his book History of Communism in Bulgaria, accounts for about 31,000 people killed under the regime between 1944 and 1989.
According to Valentino, between 80,000 and 100,000 people may have been killed in East Germany beginning in 1945 as part of denazification by the Soviet Union, but other scholars argue that these figures are inflated.
Immediately after World War II, denazification commenced in occupied Germany and the regions the Nazis had annexed. In the Soviet occupation zone, NKVD established prison camps, usually in abandoned concentration camps, and interned alleged Nazis and Nazi German officials along with some landlords and Prussian Junkers. According to files and data released by the Soviet Ministry for the Interior in 1990, all in all, 123,000 Germans and 35,000 citizens of other nations were detained. Of these prisoners, a total of 786 people were shot and 43,035 died of various causes. Most of the deaths were not direct killings, but caused by outbreaks of dysentry and tuberculosis. Death by starvation did also occur on a notable scale, in particular from late 1946 to early 1947, but these deaths do not appear to be deliberate killings, as food shortages were widespread in the Soviet occupation zone. The prisoners of the "silence camps", as the NKVD special camps were called, did not have access to the black market and were unable to get food other than what they were handed by authorities. Some prisoners also died because of execution and perhaps torture. In this context, it is unclear if the prisoner deaths in the silence camps can be categorized as mass killings. It is also unclear how many of the dead were German, East German, or of other nationalities.
In 1961, the East German GDR erected the Berlin Wall, following the Berlin crisis. Even though crossing between East Germany and West Germany was possible for motivated and approved travelers, thousands of East Germans tried to defect by crossing the wall illegally. From 1961 to 1989, between 136 and 227 people were killed by the Berlin Wall guards.
According to Valentino, between 60,000 and 300,000 people may have been killed in Romania beginning in 1945 as part of agricultural collectivization and political repression.
Democratic People's Republic of KoreaEdit
According to R.J. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from 1948 to 1987; others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. A wide range of atrocities have been committed in the camps including forced abortions, infanticide, and torture. "Former International Criminal Court judge Thomas Buergenthal, who was one of the [UN] report’s authors and a child survivor of Auschwitz, told the Washington Post, 'conditions in the [North] Korean prison camps are as terrible, or even worse, than those I saw and experienced in my youth in these Nazi camps and in my long professional career in the human rights field.'" Pierre Rigoulot estimates 100,000 executions, 1.5 million deaths through concentration camps and slave labor, and 500,000 deaths from famine.
Estimates based on a North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and there were 600,000 to 850,000 excess deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. The famine, which claimed as many as one million lives, has been described as the result of the economic policies of the North Korean government, and deliberate "terror-starvation". In 2010, Steven Rosefielde stated that the "Red Holocaust" "still persists in North Korea" as Kim Jong Il "refuses to abandon mass killing."
Democratic Republic of VietnamEdit
According to scholarship based on Vietnamese and Hungarian archival evidence, approximately 15,000 suspected landlords were executed during North Vietnam's land reform from 1953 to 1956.[ar] The North Vietnamese leadership planned in advance to execute 0.1% of North Vietnam's population (estimated at 13.5 million in 1955) as "reactionary or evil landlords," although this ratio could vary in practice; dramatic errors were committed in the course of the land reform campaign. Vu Tuong states that the number of executions during North Vietnam's land reform was proportionally comparable to executions during Chinese land reform from 1949 to 1952.
The communist Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975, establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets. The government of Laos has been accused of committing genocide against the Hmong, with up to 100,000 killed out of a population of 400,000.
Democratic Republic of AfghanistanEdit
According to Frank Wayman and Atsushi Tago, although frequently considered an example of communist genocide, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan represents a borderline case. Prior to the Soviet invasion, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan executed between 10,000 and 27,000 people, mostly at Pul-e-Charkhi prison. Mass graves of executed prisoners have been exhumed dating back to the Soviet era.
After the invasion in 1979, the Soviets installed the puppet government of Babrak Karmal, but it was never clearly stabilized as a communist regime and was in a constant state of war. By 1987, about 80% of the country's territory was permanently controlled by neither the pro-communist government (and supporting Soviet troops) nor by the armed opposition. To tip the balance, the Soviet Union used a tactic that was a combination of "scorched earth" policy and "migratory genocide": by systematically burning the crops and destroying villages in rebel provinces, as well as by reprisal bombing entire villages suspected of harboring or supporting the resistance, the Soviets tried to force the local population to move to Soviet controlled territory, thereby depriving the armed opposition of support. Benjamin Valentino attributes between 950,000 and 1,280,000 civilian deaths to the Soviet invasion and occupation of the country between 1978 and 1989, primarily as counter-guerrilla mass killing. By the early 1990s, approximately one-third of Afghanistan's population had fled the country.[as] M. Hassan Kakar said that "the Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower."
People's Democratic Republic of EthiopiaEdit
Amnesty International estimates that half a million people were killed during the Ethiopian Red Terror of 1977 and 1978. During the terror, groups of people were herded into churches that were then burned down and women were subjected to systematic rape by soldiers. The Save the Children Fund reported that victims of the Red Terror included not only adults, but 1,000 or more children, mostly aged between eleven and thirteen, whose corpses were left in the streets of Addis Ababa. Mengistu Haile Mariam himself is alleged to have killed political opponents with his bare hands.
Debate on faminesEdit
Over half of the 100 million deaths attributed to communism were due to famine, according to Soviet historian J. Arch Getty. Stéphane Courtois argues that many communist regimes caused famines in their efforts to forcibly collectivize agriculture and systematically used it as a weapon by controlling the food supply and distributing food on a political basis. He states that "in the period after 1918, only Communist countries experienced such famines, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of people. And again in the 1980s, two African countries that claimed to be Marxist-Leninist, Ethiopia and Mozambique, were the only such countries to suffer these deadly famines."[at]
The scholars Stephen G. Wheatcroft, R. W. Davies and Mark Tauger reject the idea that the Ukrainian famine was an act of genocide or intentionally inflicted by the Soviet government. J. Arch Getty posits that the "overwhelming weight of opinion among scholars working in the new archives is that the terrible famine of the 1930s was the result of Stalinist bungling and rigidity rather than some genocidal plan."
Pankaj Mishra questions Mao's direct responsibility for famine, noting that "A great many premature deaths also occurred in newly independent nations not ruled by erratic tyrants." Mishra cites Nobel laureate Amartya Sen's research demonstrating that democratic India suffered more excess mortality from starvation and disease in the second half of the 20th century than China did. Sen wrote that “India seems to manage to fill its cupboard with more skeletons every eight years than China put there in its years of shame.”
Benjamin Valentino writes that, "Although not all the deaths due to famine in these cases were intentional, communist leaders directed the worst effects of famine against their suspected enemies and used hunger as a weapon to force millions of people to conform to the directives of the state." Daniel Goldhagen says that in some cases, deaths from famine should not be distinguished from mass murder: "Whenever governments have not alleviated famine conditions, political leaders decided not to say no to mass death – in other words, they said yes." He claims that famine was either used or deliberately tolerated by the Soviets, the Germans, the communist Chinese, the British in Kenya, the Hausa against the Ibo in Nigeria, Khmer Rouge, communist North Koreans, Ethiopeans in Eritrea, Zimbabwe against regions of political opposition, and Political Islamists in southern Sudan and Darfur.
Authors including Seumas Milne and Jon Wiener have criticized the emphasis on communism and the exclusion of colonialism when assigning blame for famines. Milne argues that if the Soviets are considered responsible for deaths caused by famine in the 1920s and 30s, then Britain would be responsible for as many as 30 million deaths in India from famine during the 19th century, and he laments that "There is a much-lauded Black Book of Communism, but no such comprehensive indictment of the colonial record". Weiner makes a similar assertion while comparing the Ukrainian famine and the Bengal famine of 1943, stating that "Churchill's role in the Bengal famine seems similar to Stalin's role in the Ukrainian famine."
Michael Ellman is critical of the fixation on a "uniquely Stalinist evil" when it comes to excess deaths from famines, and asserts that catastrophic famines were widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as "in the British empire (India and Ireland), China, Russia and elsewhere". He argues that a possible defense of Stalin and his associates is that "their behaviour was no worse than that of many rulers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries." He also draws comparisons to the actions of the Group of Eight (G8) in recent decades, saying "the world-wide death of millions of people in recent decades which could have been prevented by simple public health measures or cured by application of modern medicine, but was not, might be considered by some as mass manslaughter—or mass death by criminal negligence—by the leaders of the G8 (who could have prevented these deaths but did not do so)." He adds that he is "sympathetic to the idea that the leaders of the British Empire in the past (India and Ireland) and of the G8 in recent years are guilty of mass manslaughter or mass deaths from criminal negligence because of their not taking obvious measures to reduce mass deaths."
Legal status and prosecutionsEdit
According to a 1992 constitutional amendment in the Czech Republic, a person who publicly denies, puts in doubt, approves, or tries to justify Nazi or communist genocide or other crimes of Nazis or communists will be punished with a prison term of 6 months to 3 years.
Barbara Harff wrote in 1992 that no communist country or governing body has ever been convicted of genocide. Martin Malia, in his 1999 foreword to The Black Book of Communism, wrote "Throughout the former Communist world, moreover, virtually none of its responsible officials has been put on trial or punished. Indeed, everywhere Communist parties, though usually under new names, compete in politics."
At the conclusion of a trial lasting from 1994 to 2006, Ethiopia's former ruler Mengistu Haile Mariam was convicted of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by an Ethiopian court for his role in Ethiopia's Red Terror. Ethiopian law is distinct from the UN and other definitions in that it defines genocide as intent to wipe out political and not just ethnic groups. In this respect it closely resembles the definition of politicide.
In 1997 the Cambodian Government asked the United Nations assistance in setting up a genocide tribunal. The prosecution presented the names of five possible suspects to the investigating judges on July 18, 2007. On July 26, 2010, Kang Kek Iew (aka Comrade Duch), director of the S-21 prison camp in Democratic Kampuchea where more than 14,000 people were tortured and then murdered (mostly at nearby Choeung Ek), was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 35 years. His sentence was reduced to 19 years in part because he had been behind bars for 11 years. Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity, but not charged with genocide. On August 7, 2014 he was convicted of crimes against humanity by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal and received a life sentence.
In August 2007, Arnold Meri, an Estonian Red Army veteran and cousin of former Estonian president Lennart Meri, faced charges of genocide by Estonian authorities for participating in the deportations of Estonians in Hiiumaa in 1949. The trial was halted when Meri died March 27, 2009, at the age of 89. Meri denied the accusation, characterizing them as politically motivated defamation: "I do not consider myself guilty of genocide," he said.
On November 26, 2010, the Russian State Duma issued a declaration acknowledging Stalin's responsibility for the Katyn massacre, the execution of over 21,000 Polish POW's and intellectual leaders by Stalin's NKVD. The declaration stated that archival material “not only unveils the scale of his horrific tragedy but also provides evidence that the Katyn crime was committed on direct orders from Stalin and other Soviet leaders."
Memorials and museumsEdit
Monuments to the victims of communism exist in almost all the capitals of Eastern Europe and there are several museums documenting communist rule, such as the Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights in Lithuania, the Museum of the Occupation of Latvia in Riga, and the House of Terror in Budapest, all three of which also document Nazi rule.
In 2007, a bronze statue based upon the 1989 Tiananmen Square Goddess of Democracy sculpture was dedicated as the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C., having been authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1993. The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation plans to build an International Museum on Communism in Washington.
Violence and communist movements
- Communist terrorism
- Crimes against humanity under Communist regimes
- Criticisms of Communist party rule
- Great Leap Forward
- Great Chinese Famine
- Land reform in North Vietnam
- Mass graves in the Soviet Union
- Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union
- Revolutionary terror
- Soviet war crimes
- Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
- Victims of Communism Memorial
Violence by governments in general
Mass killing of communists
Excerpts and notesEdit
- Krain 1997, pp. 331-332: "1. The literatures on state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism have been plagued by definitional problems. Terms such as state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism can be (and often are) easily confused and therefore need elaboration. The main difference between state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism, for instance, is one of intentionality. The purpose behind policies of state-sponsored mass murder such as genocide or politicide is to eliminate an entire group (Gurr 1986, 67). The purpose behind policies of state terrorism is to "induce sharp fear and through that agency to effect a desired outcome in a conflict situation" (Gurr 1986, 46). The former requires mass killings to accomplish its goal. The latter's success is dependent on the persuasiveness of the fear tactics used. Mass killings may not be necessary to accomplish the particular goal." ... "2. Genocides are mass killings in which the victim group is defined by association with a particular communal group. Politicides are mass killings in which "victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups" (Harff and Gurr 1988, 360). Interestingly, many of the instances coded by Harff and Gurr as "politicide" are considered by much of the literature to be instances of state terrorism (e.g., Argentina, Chile, El Salvador) (Lopez 1984, 63). Evidently there is some overlap between state terrorism and some kinds of state-sponsored mass murder."
- Valentino 2005, p. 9: "Mass killing and Genocide. No generally accepted terminology exists to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants."
- Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008: "‘Crimes against humanity’ is a linguistically and logically cumbersome term when the aim is to analyse physical violence perpetrated by individual groups, institutions and states against specific victim groups in their own country, which is essentially the case in the context of communist regimes’ crimes against humanity. In addition, it is not in keeping with the terms that have long been used by the academic community. Naturally, the work of creating an inventory includes examining the terms used in practice by researchers in their analyses, and it is reasonable to assume that every time, every society and every paradigm has its own terms to refer to the crimes of communist regimes. Nonetheless, it is possible to establish at this early stage that researchers have long used the word terror to describe the crimes of the Soviet communist regime, regardless of the framework of interpretation to which they adhere. Although the extent to which the mass operations and forced deportations of specific ethnic groups ordered by Stalin before and during the Second World War can be defined as genocide is debated, there is agreement among researchers that the term ‘terror’ is the best reflection of the development of violence in Bolshevik Russia and in the communist Soviet Union under Lenin and Stalin. As a result, terror will be the term most frequently used here in analysing the Soviet communist criminal history. On the other hand, the term terror is seldom used to describe the mass killings in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979, which may be because it is less clear that the actual intention and stated motive of the Khmer Rouge was to terrorise people into submission. The term genocide, however, is relatively widely accepted and established in describing the systematic and selective crimes of the communist regime in Cambodia, although the use of this term is not entirely uncontroversial. Therefore, in analysing the criminal history of Cambodia, this term will be used in precise contexts dealing with the killing of a category of people, whereas more neutral terms such as mass killing and massacre are used to refer to the general use of violence. The terminology used in the Chinese criminal history is dealt with in detail as part of the section on China." ... "In the Soviet case, as Klas-Göran Karlsson so rightly notes, there is an ‘established term’ for the crimes of the regime, namely ‘terror’ – and this is used almost regardless of the general frameworks of interpretation employed by individual researchers. In the same way, he notes that ‘the term genocide is established and accepted as a description of the crimes of the Khmer Rouge’. In the case of the People’s Republic of China, however, there are no equivalent terms that are accepted or generally established in the academic community and that can be made use of in a research inventory. Bibliographies and search engines all speak their own clear language: those who carried out research on Maoism in its day made very limited use of words such as terror and genocide, and neither do these terms appear among the key terms that carry implicit clear explanations and are therefore regularly used by current foreign and Chinese historians."
- Semelin 2009, p. 318: "'Classicide', in counterpoint to genocide, has a certain appeal, but it doesn't convey the fact that communist regimes, beyond their intention of destroying 'classes' - a difficult notion to grasp in itself (what exactly is a 'kulak'?) - end up making political suspicion a rule of government: even within the Party (and perhaps even mainly within the Party). The notion of 'fratricide' is probably more appropriate in this regard. That of 'politicide', which Ted Gurr and Barbara Harff suggest, remains the most intelligent, although it implies by contrast that 'genocide' is not 'political', which is debatable. These authors in effect explain that the aim of politicide is to impose total political domination over a group or a government. Its victims are defined by their position in the social hierarchy or their political opposition to the regime or this dominant group. Such an approach applies well to the political violence of communist powers and more particularly to Pol Pot's Democratic Kampuchea. The French historian Henri Locard in fact emphasises this, identifying with Gurr and Harff's approach in his work on Cambodia. However, the term 'politicide' has little currency among some researchers because it has no legal validity in international law. That is one reason why Jean-Louis Margolin tends to recognise what happened in Cambodia as 'genocide' because, as he points out, to speak of 'politicide' amounts to considering Pol Pot's crimes as less grave than those of Hitler. Again, the weight of justice interferes in the debate about concepts that, once again, argue strongly in favour of using the word genocide. But those so concerned about the issue of legal sanctions should also take into account another legal concept that is just as powerful, and better established: that of crime against humanity. In fact, legal scholars such as Antoine Garapon and David Boyle believe that the violence perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge is much more appropriately categorised under the heading of crime against humanity, even if genocidal tendencies can be identified, particularly against the Muslim minority. This accusation is just as serious as that of genocide (the latter moreover being sometimes considered as a subcategory of the former) and should thus be subject to equally severe sentences. I quite agree with these legal scholars, believing that the notion of 'crime against humanity' is generally better suited to the violence perpetrated by communist regimes, a viewpoint shared by Michael Mann."
- Weiss-Wendt 2008, p. 42: "The field of comparative genocide studies has grown beyond recognition over the past two decades, though more quantitatively than qualitatively. On the surface, everything looks good: the number of books on genocide has triple within less than a decade; the field of comparative genocide studies has its own professional association and journals; more and more colleges and universities offer courses on genocide; several research institutions dedicated to the study of genocide have been established. If we are talking numbers, comparative genocide studies are indeed a success. Upon closer examination, however, genocide scholarship is ridden with contradictions. There is barely any other field of study that enjoys so little consensus on defining principles such as definition of genocide, typology, application of a comparative method, and timeframe. Considering that scholars have always put stress on prevention of genocide, comparative genocide studies have been a failure. Paradoxically, nobody has attempted so far to assess the field of comparative genocide studies as a whole. This is one of the reasons why those who define themselves as genocide scholars have not been able to detect the situation of crisis."
- Williams 2008: "A vital element of the evolution of genocide studies is the increased attention devoted to the mass killing of groups not primarily defined by ethnic or religious identities. Most vulnerable minorities around the world had been so defined when Lemkin was crafting his genocide framework, and when UN member states were drafting the Genocide Convention. Such groups continued to be targeted in the post-Second World War period, as in East Pakistan/ Bangladesh in 1971, or Guatemala between 1978 and 1984. But it became increasingly apparent that political groups were on the receiving end of some of the worst campaigns of mass killing, such as the devastating assault on the Indonesian Communist Party in 1965—1966 (with half a million to one million killed), and the brutal campaigns by Latin American and Asian military regimes against perceived dissidents in the 1970s and 1980s. One result of this re-evaluation was that the mass killing by the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia between 1975 and 1978, previously ruled out as genocide or designated an 'auto-genocide' because most victims belonged to the same ethnic-Khmer group as their killers, came to be accepted as a classic instance of twentieth-century genocide. Detailed investigations were also launched into the hecatombs of casualties inflicted under Leninism and Stalinism in the post-revolutionary Soviet Union, and by Mao Zedong's communists in China. In both of these cases—and to some degree in Cambodia as well—the majority of deaths resulted not from direct execution, but from the infliction of 'conditions of life calculated to bring about [the] physical destruction' of a group, in the language of Article II(c) of the Genocide Convention. In particular, the devastating famines that struck the Ukraine and other minority regions of the USSR in the early 1930s, and the even greater death-toll—numbering tens of millions—caused by famine during Mao's 'Great Leap Forward' (1958—1962), were increasingly, though not uncontroversially, depicted as instances of mass killing underpinned by genocidal intent."
- Wayman & Tago 2009, pp. 1-17: "The two important scholars who have created datasets related to this are Rummel (1995) and Harff (2003). Harff (sometimes with Gurr) has studied what she terms 'genocide and politicide', defined to be genocide by killing as understood by the Genocide Convention plus the killing of a political or economic group (Harff & Gurr, 1988); the combined list of genocides is sometimes labeled 'geno-politicide' for short. Rummel (1994, 1995) has a very similar concept, 'democide', which includes such genocide and geno-politicide done by the government forces, plus other killing by government forces, such as random killing not targeted at a particular group. As Rummel (1995: 3-4) says, 'Cold-blooded government killing ... extends beyond genocide'; For example, 'shooting political opponents; or murdering by quota'. Hence, 'to cover all such murder as well as genocide and politicide, I use the concept democide. This is the intentional killing of people by government' (Rummel, 1995: 4). So Rummel has a broader concept than geno-politicide, but one that seems to include geno-politicide as a proper subset."
- Midlarsky 2005, pp. 22, 309, 310: "I distinguish between genocide as the systematic mass murder of people based on ethnoreligious identity, and politicide as the large-scale killing of designated enemies of the state based on socioeconomic or political criteria. Although genocide can be understood to be a species of politicide (but not the converse), in practice, genocidal (i.e., ethnoreligious) killings tap into much deeper historical roots of the human condition. In this distinction, I follow Harff and Gurr 1988, 360." ... "Turning to Cambodia, the mass killings in that country during Pol Pot's murderous regime are often characterized with other seemingly identical circumstances. Cambodia and Rwanda, for example, are typically treated as genocides that differ little from each other in essential characteristics. However, the victimization rates for the two countries are similar only when treated as proportions of the total country population systematically murdered. Although the mass murders in Cambodia are frequently characterized as genocide, I argue that in fact genocidal activity was only a small proportion of the killing and that the vast majority of Cambodians died in a politicide, substantially different in origin from the genocides we have been examining. The matter of etiology lies at the root of my distinction here, not definitional semantics. If we lump the Cambodian case other instances of systematized mass murder, then the sources of all of them become hopelessly muddled." ... "Essentially, I argue that genocides stem from a primitive identification of the "collective enemy" in Carl Schmitt's sense, whereas politicides, at least of the Cambodian variety, are attributable to more detailed ideological considerations. Further, the Cambodian case falls under the rubric of state killings, having a particular affinity with earlier practices in the Soviet Union and China. Indeed, an arc of Communist politicide can be traced from the western portions of the Soviet Union to China and on to Cambodia. Not all Communist states participated in extensive politicide, but the particular circumstances of Cambodia in 1975 lent themselves to the commission of systematic mass murder. Because an element of Cambodian state insecurity existed in this period, especially vis-à-vis Vietnam, a genocidal element is found in the killing of non-Khmer peoples such as the Vietnamese, who comprised a small proportion of the total."
- Rummel 1993: "First, however, I should clarify the term democide. It means for governments what murder means for an individual under municipal law. It is the premeditated killing of a person in cold blood, or causing the death of a person through reckless and wanton disregard for their life. Thus, a government incarcerating people in a prison under such deadly conditions that they die in a few years is murder by the state--democide--as would parents letting a child die from malnutrition and exposure be murder. So would government forced labor that kills a person within months or a couple of years be murder. So would government created famines that then are ignored or knowingly aggravated by government action be murder of those who starve to death. And obviously, extrajudicial executions, death by torture, government massacres, and all genocidal killing be murder. However, judicial executions for crimes that internationally would be considered capital offenses, such as for murder or treason (as long as it is clear that these are not fabricated for the purpose of executing the accused, as in communist show trials), are not democide. Nor is democide the killing of enemy soldiers in combat or of armed rebels, nor of noncombatants as a result of military action against military targets."
- Staub 2011, p. 100: "In contrast to genocide, I see mass killing as 'killing (or in other ways destroying) members of a group without the intention to eliminate the whole group, or killing large numbers of people' without a focus on group membership."
- Charny 1999: In the Encyclopedia of Genocide (1999), Israel Charny defined generic genocide as "the mass killing of substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of military action against the military forces of an avowed enemy, under conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims."; Easterly, Gatti & Kurlat 2006, pp. 129-156: In the 2006 article "Development, democracy, and mass killings", William Easterly, Roberta Gatti and Sergio Kurlat adopted Charny's definition of generic genocide for their use of "mass killing" and "massacre" to avoid the politics of the term "genocide" altogether.
- Wayman & Tago 2009, pp. 1-17: "Our term, 'mass killing', is used by Valentino (2004: 10), who aptly defines it as 'the intentional killing of a massive number of noncombatants'. The word 'noncombatants' distinguishes mass killing from battle-deaths in war, which occur as combatants fight against each other. The 'massive number' he selects as the threshold to mass killing is 'at least fifty thousand intentional deaths over the course of five or fewer years' (Valentino, 2004: 11-12), which of course averages to at least 10,000 killed per year." ... " One reason for selecting these thresholds of 10,000 and 1,000 deaths per year is that we find that in the Harff data on geno-politicide, which are one of our key datasets, there are many cases of over 10,000 killed per year, but also some in which between 1,000 and 10,000 are killed per year. Therefore, analyzing at a 1,000-death threshold (as well as the 10,000 threshold) insures the inclusion of all the Harff cases. Valentino chooses 50,000 over five years as 'to some extent arbitrary', but a 'relatively high threshold' to create high confidence that mass killing did occur and was deliberate, 'given the generally poor quality of the data available on civilian fatalities' (Valentino, 2004: 12). We believe that our similar results, when we lower the threshold to 1,000 killed per year, are an indication that the data in Harff and in Rummel remain reliable down even one power of ten below Valentino's 'relatively high' selected threshold, and we hope that, in that sense, our results can be seen as a friendly amendment to his work, and that they basically lend confidence, based on empirical statistical backing, for the conceptual direction which he elected to take." ... "Within that constant research design, we then showed that the differences were not due to threshold either (over 10,000 killed per year; over 1,000; or over 1). The only remaining difference is the measure of mass killing itself - democide vs. geno-politicide."
- Semelin 2009, p. 37: "Mann thus establishes a sort of parallel between racial enemies and class enemies, thereby contributing to the debates on comparisons between Nazism and communism. This theory has also been developed by some French historians such as Stéphane Courtois and Jean-Louis Margolin in The Black Book of Communism: they view class genocide as the equivalent to racial genocide. Mann however refuses to use the term 'genocide' to describe the crimes committed under communism. He prefers the terms 'fratricide' and 'classicide', a word he coined to refer to intentional mass killings of entire social classes."
- Courtois 1999, p. 4:
- USSR: 20 million deaths
- China: 65 million deaths
- Vietnam: 1 million deaths
- North Korea: 2 million deaths
- Cambodia: 2 million deaths
- Eastern Europe: 1 million deaths
- Latin America: 150,000 deaths
- Africa: 1.7 million deaths
- Afghanistan: 1.5 million deaths
- the international Communist movement and Communist parties not in power: about 10,000 deaths.
- Malia 1999, pp. ix-xx: "...with a grand total of victims variously estimated by contributors to the volume at between 85 million and 100 million."
- Valentino 2005, p. 91: "Communist regimes have been responsible for this century's most deadly episodes of mass killing. Estimates of the total number of people killed by communist regimes range as high as 110 million. In this chapter I focus primarily on mass killings in the Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia - history's most murderous communist states. Communist violence in these three states alone may account for between 21 million and 70 million deaths. Mass killings on a smaller scale also appear to have been carried out by communist regimes in North Korea, Vietnam, Eastern Europe, and Africa."
- Valentino 2005, p. 275: "Rudolph J. Rummel, Death by Government (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994), p. 15. A team of six French historians coordinated by Stéphane Courtois estimates that communist regimes are responsible for between 85 and 100 million deaths. See Martin Malia, "Foreward: The Uses of Atrocity," in Stéphane Courtois et.al., The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), p. x. Zbigniew Brzezinski estimates that "the failed effort to build communism" cost the lives of almost sixty million people. See Zbigniew Brzezinski, Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993), p. 16. Matthew White estimates eighty-one million deaths from communist "genocide and tyranny" and "man-made famine." See Matthew White, "Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century," http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat8.htm [June 2002]. Todd Culbertson estimates that communist regimes killed "perhaps 100 million" people. See Todd Culbertson, "The Human Cost of World Communism," Human Events, August 19, 1978, pp. 10-11. These estimates should be considered at the highest end of the plausible range of deaths attributable to communist regimes."
- White 2011, pp. 455-456: "For those who prefer totals broken down by country, here are reasonable estimates for the number of people who died under Communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats:
- China: 40,000,000
- Soviet Union: 20,000,000
- North Korea: 3,000,000
- Ethiopia: 2,000,000
- Cambodia: 1,700,000
- Vietnam: 365,000 (after 1975)
- Yugoslavia: 175,000
- East Germany: 100,000
- Romania: 100,000
- North Vietnam: 50,000 (internally, 1954-75)
- Cuba: 50,000
- Mongolia: 35,000
- Poland: 30,000
- Bulgaria: 20,000
- Czechoslovakia: 11,000
- Albania: 5,000
- Hungary: 5,000
- Rough Total: 70 million
- Dissident 2016: "A brief survey returns the following high and low estimates for the number of people who died at the hand of communist regimes:
- China: 29,000,000 (Brzezinski) to 78,860,000 (Li)
- USSR: 7,000,000 (Tolz) to 69,500,000 (Panin)
- North Korea: 1,600,000 (Rummel, Lethal Politics; figure for killings) to 3,500,000 (Hwang Jang-Yop, cited in AFP; figure for famine)
- Cambodia: 740,000 (Vickery) to 3,300,000 (Math Ly, cited in AP)
- Africa: 1,700,000 (Black Book) to 2,000,000 (Fitzgerald; Ethiopia only)
- Afghanistan: 670,000 (Zucchino) to 2,000,000 (Katz)
- Eastern Europe: 1,000,000
- Vietnam: 1,000,000 (Black Book) to 1,670,000 (Rummel, Death by Government)
- Latin America: 150,000
- International Movements not in power: 10,000
- Kotkin 2017: "But a century of communism in power—with holdouts even now in Cuba, North Korea and China—has made clear the human cost of a political program bent on overthrowing capitalism. Again and again, the effort to eliminate markets and private property has brought about the deaths of an astounding number of people. Since 1917—in the Soviet Union, China, Mongolia, Eastern Europe, Indochina, Africa, Afghanistan and parts of Latin America—communism has claimed at least 65 million lives, according to the painstaking research of demographers. Communism’s tools of destruction have included mass deportations, forced labor camps and police-state terror—a model established by Lenin and especially by his successor Joseph Stalin. It has been widely imitated. Though communism has killed huge numbers of people intentionally, even more of its victims have died from starvation as a result of its cruel projects of social engineering."
- Aronson 2003, pp. 222‒245: "But most of these problems pale in significance opening and closing chapters, which caused occasioned a break among the Black Book authors." ... "Courtois's figures for the Soviet Union, Vietnam, and Latin America go far beyond the estimates of the authors themselves, as does Courtois's final body count." ... "But two other theses created considerable consternation and have come to be associated with The Black Book: the figure of 100 million deaths and the parallel with Nazism. They became central in the debate that followed." ... "In articles and interviews Werth and Margolin pointed out how, in the service of this goal, Courtois distorted and exaggerated: Werth's total, including the Civil War and the famine of 1932-1933 had been five million less than Courtois's "mythical number," while Margolin denied having spoken of the Vietnamese Communists being responsible for one million deaths.52 Interviewed in Le Monde, Margolin likened Courtois's effort to "militant political activity, indeed, that of a prosecutor amassing charges in the service of a cause, that of a global condemnation of the Communist phenomenon as an essentially criminal phenomenon." Both rejected the comparison between Communism and Nazism.
- Jahanbegloo 2014, pp. 117-118: "Most interesting, however, is Finlay's argument that Marxist thought, beyond justifying and excusing the use of violence, also legitimates it. Finlay (ibid. p. 378) argues that this is done by 'undermining existing moral norms and suggesting that new ones will be created to suit a new proletarian order.' Marx argues that norms and ethics are determined by the dominating class of the time, as can be illustrated in Lenin's statement that 'Honesty is a bourgeoisie virtue', meaning that honesty is crucial to the existence of bourgeoisie, as other virtues such as loyalty and obedience were necessary virtues during the reign of the feudal aristocracy. This impacts the concept of justice in war dramatically.
As there is the assumption that a new social order is to be created, along with a new set of moral and ethical codes, then the current ones may be discarded. Therefore, Finley (ibid.) states that it would be conceivable for revolutionaries to commit atrocious crimes in bringing about a socialist system, with the belief that their crimes will be retroactively absolved by the new system of ethics put in place by the proletariat. Finley also addresses an alternative opinion, that of Shlomo Avineri, who believes that this may be a non-issue when one takes into account the universality of the proletariat. This universality means that it has no active class-based or sectarian interest, or, rather, that its interests represent those of all society. Its major interest is simply to 'eliminate all other special interests on the basis of which it suffers oppression' and is an entirely negative entirely (ibid., p. 379). Therefore, our conception of ethics and morality - the product of a capitalist society - is inaccurate. Being based on the interest of the bourgeoisie rather than a true and authentic reflection of the ethics of a universal class, its contravention is not something to be lamented. Finley understands Avineri as drawing two conclusions. First, that:
- whatever the bourgeoisie with its individualistic and legalistic conception of political ethics and legality has to say about the morality of violence is likely to be invalid since it reflects the particular class interests and therefore the perverted humanism of its proponents. (Ibid., p. 370)
- Jahanbegloo 2014, pp. 120-121: "Singh makes a principled argument: that Marx saw the use of violence, even when it is avoidable, as required insofar as that it has a purging quality, believing that only by using violence can all elements of the previous regime be eradicated. Moreover, Singh (ibid., p. 14) considers Marx's references to the use of bourgeoisie democratic institutions to bring about social change only as 'hinting to the possibility of the working class coming into power, in England, through universal suffrage'. Furthermore, he quotes Engels in a letter addressed to the Communist Committee in Brussels in October 1846. In this letter, Engels states that there cannot be any means of carrying out the communist agenda 'other than a democratic revolution by force' (ibid. p. 10). Singh, however, does acknowledge the desire in Marx to avoid a bloody revolution. Singh (ibid. p. 11) notes that most Marxist writing that alluded to the possibility of this transition being carried out peacefully took place before the events of 1844-48, which 'showed that a peaceful change was not even remotely possible'. After 1848, Singh notes a return to advocating a violent revolution due to what Singh identifies as the 'practical considerations' of being unable to overcome the existing obstacles to a peaceful transition. Singh (ibid. p. 13) writes that, in 1848, Marx published an article titled The Victory of Counter-Revolution in Vienna, where he states 'there is only one means by which the murderous death agonies of the old society and the bloody birth throes of the new society can be shortened, simplified and concentrated - and that is by revolutionary terror'."
- The Magyar Struggle: "Among all the large and small nations of Austria, only three standard-bearers of progress took an active part in history, and still retain their vitality — the Germans, the Poles and the Magyars. Hence they are now revolutionary. All the other large and small nationalities and peoples are destined to perish before long in the revolutionary world storm. For that reason they are now counter-revolutionary." ... "There is no country in Europe which does not have in some corner or other one or several ruined fragments of peoples, the remnant of a former population that was suppressed and held in bondage by the nation which later became the main vehicle of historical development. These relics of a nation mercilessly trampled under foot in the course of history, as Hegel says, these residual fragments of peoples always become fanatical standard-bearers of counter-revolution and remain so until their complete extirpation or loss of their national character, just as their whole existence in general is itself a protest against a great historical revolution. Such, in Scotland, are the Gaels, the supporters of the Stuarts from 1640 to 1745. Such, in France, are the Bretons, the supporters of the Bourbons from 1792 to 1800. Such, in Spain, are the Basques, the supporters of Don Carlos. Such, in Austria, are the pan-Slavist Southern Slavs, who are nothing but the residual fragment of peoples, resulting from an extremely confused thousand years of development." ... "The Magyars are not yet defeated. But if they fall, they will fall gloriously, as the last heroes of the 1848 revolution, and only for a short time. Then for a time the Slav counter-revolution will sweep down on the Austrian monarchy with all its barbarity, and the camarilla will see what sort of allies it has. But at the first victorious uprising of the French proletariat, which Louis Napoleon is striving with all his might to conjure up, the Austrian Germans and Magyars will be set free and wreak a bloody revenge on the Slav barbarians. The general war which will then break out will smash this Slav Sonderbund and wipe out all these petty hidebound nations, down to their very names. The next world war will result in the disappearance from the face of the earth not only of reactionary classes and dynasties, but also of entire reactionary peoples. And that, too, is a step forward."
- Valentino 2005, pp. 91, 93: "Communism has a bloody record, but most regimes that have described themselves as communist or have been described as such by others have not engaged in mass killing. In addition to shedding light on why some communist states have been among the most violent regimes in history, therefore, I also seek to explain why other communist countries have avoided this level of violence." ... "I argue that radical communist regimes have proven such prodigious killers primarily because the social change they sought to bring about have resulted in the sudden and nearly complete material and political dispossession of millions of people. These regimes practiced social engineering of the highest order. It is the revolutionary desire to bring about the rapid and radical transformation of society that distinguishes radical communist regimes from all other forms of government, including less violent communist regimes and noncommunist, authoritarian governments."
- Chirot & McCauley 2010, p. 42: "The modern search for a perfect, utopian society, whether racially or ideologically pure is very similar to the much older striving for a religiously pure society free of all polluting elements, and these are, in turn, similar to that other modern utopian notion - class purity. Dread of political and economic pollution by the survival of antagonistic classes has been for the most extreme communist leaders what fear of racial pollution was for Hitler. There, also, material explanations fail to address the extent of the killings, gruesome tortures, fantastic trails, and attempts to wipe out whole categories of people that occurred in Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao's China, and Pol Pot's Cambodia. The revolutionary thinkers who formed and led communist regimes were not just ordinary intellectuals. They had to be fanatics in the true sense of that word. They were so certain of their ideas that no evidence to the contrary could change their minds. Those who came to doubt the rightness of their ways were eliminated, or never achieved power. The element of religious certitude found in prophetic movements was as important as their Marxist science in sustaining the notion that their vision of socialism could be made to work. This justified the ruthless dehumanization of their enemies, who could be suppressed because they were 'objectively' and 'historically' wrong. Furthermore, if events did not work out as they were supposed to, then that was because class enemies, foreign spies and saboteurs, or worst of all, internal traitors were wrecking the plan. Under no circumstances could it be admitted that the vision itself might be unworkable, because that meant capitulation to the forces of reaction. The logic of the situation in times of crisis then demanded that these 'bad elements' (as they were called in Maoist China) be killed, deported, or relegated to a permanently inferior status. That is very close to saying that the community of God, or the racially pure volksgemeinschaft could only be guaranteed if the corrupting elements within it were eliminated (Courtois et al. 1999)."
- Mann 2005, pp. 318, 321: "All accounts of 20th-century mass murder include the Communist regimes. Some call their deeds genocide, though I shall not. I discuss the three that caused the most terrible human losses: Stalin's USSR, Mao's China, and Pol Pot's Cambodia. These saw themselves as belonging to a single socialist family, and all referred to a Marxist tradition of development theory. They murderously cleansed in similar ways, though to different degrees. Later regimes consciously adapted their practices to the perceived successes and failures of earlier ones. The Khmer Rouge used China and the Soviet Union (and Vietnam and North Korea) as reference societies, while China used the Soviet Union. All addressed the same basic problem - how to apply a revolutionary vision of a future industrial society to a present agrarian one. These two dimensions, of time and agrarian backwardness, help account for many of the differences." ... "Ordinary party members were also ideologically driven, believing that in order to create a new socialist society, they must lead in socialist zeal. Killings were often popular, the rank-and-file as keen to exceed killing quotas as production quotas. The pervasive role of the party inside the state also meant that authority structures were not fully institutionalized but factionalized, even chaotic, as revisionists studying the Soviet Union have argued. Both centralized control and mass party factionalism were involved in the killings."
- Semelin 2009, p. 331: "Dynamics of destruction/subjugation were also developed systematically by twentieth-century communist regimes, but against a very different domestic political background. The destruction of the very foundations of the former society (and consequently the men and women who embodied it) reveals the determination of the ruling elites to build a new one at all costs. The ideological conviction of leaders promoting such a political scheme is thus decisive. Nevertheless, it would be far too simplistic an interpretation to assume that the sole purpose of inflicting these various forms of violence on civilians could only aim at instilling a climate of terror in this 'new society'. In fact, they are part of a broader whole, i.e. the spectrum of social engineering techniques implememted in order to transform a society completely. There can be no doubt that it is this utopia of a classless society which drives that kind of revolutionary project. The plan for political and social reshaping will thus logically claim victims in all strata of society. And through this process, communist systems emerging in the twentieth century ended up destroying their own populations, not because they planned to annihilate them as such, but because they aimed to restructure the 'social body' from top to bottom, even if that meant purging it and recarving it to suit their new Promethean political imaginaire."
- Rosefielde 2010, p. xvi: "The story that emerges from the exercise is edifying. It reveals that the conditions for the Red Holocaust were rooted in Stalin's, Kim's, Mao's, Ho's and Pol Pot's siege-mobilized terror-command economic systems, not in Marx's utopian vision or other pragmatic communist transition mechanisms. Terror-command was chosen among other reasons because of legitimate fears about the long-term viability of terror-free command, and the ideological risks of market communism. The internal contradictions of communism confronted leaders with a predicament that could only have been efficiently resolved by acknowledging communism's inferiority and changing course. Denial offered two unhappy options: one bloody, the other dreary, and history records that more often than not, communist rulers chose the worst option. Tens of millions were killed in vain; a testament to the triumph of ruthless hope over dispassionate reason that proved more durable than Hitler's and Hirohito's racism. These findings are likely to withstand the test of time, but are only a beginning, opening up a vast new field for scientific inquiry as scholars gradually gain access to archives in North Korea, China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia."
- Montefiore 2005, p. 649: "Perhaps 20 million had been killed; 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags."
- Volkogonov 1999, p. 139: "Between 1929 and 1953 the state created by Lenin and set in motion by Stalin deprived 21.5 million Soviet citizens of their lives."
- Yakovlev 2002, p. 234: "My own many years and experience in the rehabilitation of victims of political terror allow me to assert that the number of people in the USSR who were killed for political motives or who died in prisons and camps during the entire period of Soviet power totaled 20 to 25 million. And unquestionably one must add those who died of famine—more than 5.5 million during the civil war and more than 5 million during the 1930s."
- Gellately 2007, p. 584: "More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more 'modest' and range between ten and twenty million."
- Brent 2008: "Estimations on the number of Stalin's victims over his twenty-five year reign, from 1928 to 1953, vary widely, but 20 million is now considered the minimum."
- Rosefielde 2010, p. 17: "We now know as well beyond a reasonable doubt that there were more than 13 million Red Holocaust victims 1929–53, and this figure could rise above 20 million."
- Conquest 2007, p. xvi: "Exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty, but the total of deaths caused by the whole range of Soviet regime's terrors can hardly be lower than some fifteen million."
- Snyder 2011: "All in all, the Germans deliberately killed about 11 million noncombatants, a figure that rises to more than 12 million if foreseeable deaths from deportation, hunger, and sentences in concentration camps are included. For the Soviets during the Stalin period, the analogous figures are approximately six million and nine million."
- Wheatcroft 1999, pp. 315‒345: Stephen G. Wheatcroft gives the following numbers: During 1921–53, the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences, 4,060,306; death penalties, 799,473; camps and prisons, 2,634,397; exile, 413,512; other, 215,942. In addition, during 1937‒52 there were 14,269,753 non-political sentences, among them 34,228 death penalties, 2,066,637 sentences for 0–1 year, 4,362,973 for 2–5 years, 1,611,293 for 6–10 years, and 286,795 for more than 10 years. Other sentences were non-custodial.
- Healey 2018, p. 1049: "New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and "inhumanity." The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953. Moreover, as Alexopoulos summarizes, we have found no "plan of destruction" of prisoners (7), no statement of official intent to kill them in these records. Instead, historians have found that prisoner releases significantly predominated over deaths in the Gulag, with Alexopoulos's own earlier work on amnesty a leading statement of this view. Yet her encounter with the Gulag medical-sanitary service's Moscow archive "surprised" Alexopoulos (1), and she now attempts to challenge the emergent scholarly consensus, with uneven success."
- 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців")
- Ellman 2002, pp. 1151–1172: "The best estimate that can currently be made of the number of repression deaths in 1937–38 is the range 950,000–1.2 million, i.e., about a million. This estimate should be used by historians, teachers, and journalists concerned with twentieth century Russian—and world—history."
- Kleveman 2003: In one estimate, based on a report by Lavrenti Beria to Stalin, 150,000 of 478,479 deported Ingush and Chechen people (or 31.3 percent) died within the first four years of the resettlement.; Naimark 2001: Another scholar puts the number of deaths at 22.7 percent: Extrapolating from NKVD records, 113,000 Ingush and Chechens died (3,000 before deportation, 10,000 during deportation, and 100,000 after resettlement) in the first three years of the resettlement out of 496,460 total deportees.; Mawdsley 2003: A third source says a quarter of the 650,000 deported Chechens, Ingush, Karachais and Kalmyks died within four years of resettlement.; Fischer & Leggett 2006: However, estimates of the number of deportees sometimes varies widely. Two scholars estimated the number of Chechen and Ingush deportees at 700,000, which would have the percentage estimates of deaths.
- Fenby 2008, p. 351: "Mao’s responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking."
- Vu 2010a, p. 103: "Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China. ... Yet the Vietnamese 'land reform' campaign ... testified that Vietnamese communists could be as radical and murderous as their comrades elsewhere."
- Valentino 2005, p. 223: "The pattern of Soviet military operations strongly suggests that population relocation was a significant part of Soviet counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan. Although direct evidence of Soviet intentions is limited, most analysts and observers of the war have concluded that the Soviets adopted an intentional policy of attacking villages in areas of high guerrilla activity in the effort to force the population into flight. Free-fire zones were established in depopulated areas, permitting Soviet troops to shoot anything that moved. In addition to killing tens of thousands in attacks on villages, this policy eventually produced one of the most massive refugee movements in modern history. Approximately 5 million people out of a total prewar population of between 15.5 and 17 million had fled the country by the early 1990s, the great majority across the border to Pakistan. Two million more were displaced within Afghanistan. Many refugees died during the difficult journey over mountain passes to Pakistan."
- Courtois 1999, p. 9: "As for the great famine in Ukraine in 1932-33, which resulted from the rural population's resistance to forced collectivization, 6 million died in a period of several months. Here, the genocide of a "class" may well be tantamount to the genocide of a "race" - the deliberate starvation of a child of a Ukrainian kulak as a result of the famine causes by Stalin's regime "is equal to" the starvation of a Jewish child in the Warsaw ghetto as a result of the famine caused by the Nazi regime. Such arguments in no way detract from the unique nature of Auschwitz - the mobilization of leading-edge technological resources and their use in an "industrial process" involving the construction of an "extermination factory," the use of gas, and cremation. However, this argument highlights one particular feature of many Communist regimes - their systematic use of famine as a weapon. The regime aimed to control the total available food supply and, with immense ingenuity, to distribute food purely on the basis of "merits" and "demerits" earned by individuals. This policy was a recipe for creating famine on a massive scale. Remember that in the period after 1918, only Communist countries experienced such famines, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of people. And again in the 1980s, two African countries that claimed to be Marxist-Leninist, Ethiopia and Mozambique, were the only such countries to suffer these deadly famines."
- Wheatcroft 1996, pp. 1320-1321.
- Jones 2010, p. 137.
- van Schaack 1997, pp. 2259‒2291.
- Staub 2000, p. 368.
- Wayman & Tago 2009, pp. 1-17.
- Rousso & Goslan 2004, p. 157.
- Harff & Gurr 1988, pp. 359-371.
- Midlarsky 2005, p. 321.
- US Congress 1993, p. 15 at §905a1.
- Rauch 2003.
- Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation 2010.
- Möller 1999.
- Rosefielde 2010.
- Voicu 2018, p. 46.
- Harff 2017, pp. 112-115.
- Fein 1993a, p. 75.
- Rummel 1993.
- Staub 1989, p. 8.
- Esteban, Morelli & Rohner 2010, p. 6.
- Valentino, Huth & Bach-Lindsay 2004, p. 387.
- Valentino 2005, p. 91.
- Wheatcroft 1996, pp. 1319-1353.
- Mann 2005, p. 17.
- Sangar 2007, p. 1, paragraph 3.
- Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 104.
- Semelin 2009, p. 344.
- Semelin 2009, p. 318.
- Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 8.
- Dallin 2000, pp. 882‒883.
- Rummel 1994, p. 15, Table 1.6.
- Rummel 2005a.
- Rosefielde 2010, pp. 1, 7.
- ChicagoTribune 2017.
- Harff 1996, pp. 117-119.
- Dulić 2004, pp. 85‒102.
- Weiner 2002, pp. 450‒452.
- Paczkowski 2001, pp. 28‒34.
- Kuromiya 2001, pp. 191‒201.
- Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 5.
- Goldhagen 2009, p. 206.
- Pipes 2001, p. 147.
- Gray 1990, p. 116.
- Harff 1996, p. 118.
- Harff & Gurr 1988, pp. 360.
- Courtois 1999, p. 4.
- Courtois 1999, p. 2.
- Watson 1998, p. 77.
- Grant 1999, pp. 557–559.
- Walicki 1997, p. 154.
- Totten & Jacobs 2002, p. 168.
- Rummel 2004.
- Valentino 2005, pp. 34-37.
- Valentino 2005, pp. 93-94.
- Hollander 2006, p. xiv.
- Fitzpatrick 2008, p. 77.
- Conquest 2007, p. xxiii.
- Yakovlev 2002, p. 20.
- Ray 2007.
- Hicks 2009, pp. 87-88.
- Weitz 2003, pp. 251–252.
- Malia 1999, pp. xvii‒xviii.
- Hertzke 2006, p. 24.
- Thompson 2008, pp. 254–255.
- Rappaport 1999, pp. 82–83.
- Jones 2010, p. 124.
- Haynes & Klehr 2003, pp. 14‒27.
- Keep 1997, p. 94.
- Nove 1993, pp. 260‒274.
- Rummel 1994, pp. 10, 15, 25.
- Naimark 2010, pp. 133–135.
- Applebaum 2010.
- Ellman 2007, pp. 663–693.
- Ellman 2002, p. 1172.
- Wheatcroft 2000, pp. 1143-1159.
- Ellman 2002, p. 1153.
- Alexopoulos 2013.
- Getty, Rittersporn & Zemskov 1993, p. 1024.
- Rosefielde 2010, pp. 67,77.
- Alexopolus 2017, p. 16.
- Hardy 2018, pp. 269-270.
- Melgunov 1975.
- Melgunov 1927, p. 205.
- Lincoln 1999, pp. 383‒385.
- Leggett 1987, pp. 197–198.
- Figes 1997, p. 647.
- Figes 1997, p. 643.
- Rayfield 2004, p. 85.
- Yakovlev 2002, p. 156.
- Pipes 1994, p. 356.
- Courtois 1999, p. 98.
- Holquist 1997, p. 138.
- Figes 1997, p. 660.
- Gellately 2007, pp. 70-71.
- Kort 2001, p. 133.
- Kulchytsky 2007.
- Wheatcroft 2001, p. 885, Приложение № 2.
- Kremlin 1998.
- britannica1 2008.
- Davies & Wheatcroft 2004, p. 401.
- Ellman 2005, pp. 823–841.
- Pianciola 2001, pp. 237–251.
- Volkava 2012.
- Amstutz 2005, p. 96.
- Finn 2008.
- Bilinsky 1999, pp. 147–156.
- Snyder 2010, p. vii.
- Maksymiuk 2006.
- RIAN 2010.
- Courtois 1999, p. 202 (photographic insert).
- McLoughlin 2002, p. 141.
- Gellately 2007, p. 256.
- Figes 2007, p. 240.
- Okhotin & Roginsky 2007.
- Yakovlev 2002, p. 165.
- Pipes 2001, p. 66.
- Montefiore 2005, p. 229.
- Kuromiya 2007, p. 2.
- Kaplonski 2002, pp. 155‒168.
- Strzembosz 2001, p. 2.
- Gross 2002, pp. 181‒182.
- Allen 1996, p. 155.
- AFP 2009.
- Materski & Szarota 2009.
- Fischer 1999.
- Parrish 1996, pp. 324, 325.
- Montefiore 2005, pp. 197‒198, 332, 334.
- Montefiore 2005, p. 334.
- Gellately 2007, p. 391.
- Boobbyer 2000, p. 130.
- Conquest 1970.
- Totten, Parsons & Charny 1997, p. 120.
- Short 2001, p. 631.
- Jung & Halliday 2005, p. 3.
- Rummel 1991, p. 205.
- Rummel 2007, p. 223.
- Goldhagen 2009, p. 344.
- Goldhagen 2009, p. 608.
- Short 2001, pp. 436‒437.
- Mosher 1992, pp. 72‒73.
- Kuisong 2008, pp. 102‒121.
- Valentino 2005, p. 128.
- Dikötter 2010, pp. x, xi.
- Fish 2010.
- Rummel 2005b.
- MacFarquhar & Schoenhals 2006, p. 262.
- MacFarquhar & Schoenhals 2006, p. 125.
- Lorenz 2007.
- Courtois 1999, pp. 545‒546.
- Jones 2010, pp. 95-96.
- DailyMail 2009.
- Kiernan 2003, p. 587.
- Sharp 2005.
- Locard 2005, pp. 121, 134.
- Seybolt, Aronson & Fischoff 2013, p. 238.
- Fein 1993b, pp. 796‒823.
- Goldhagen 2009, p. 207.
- Shaw 2000, p. 141.
- Rosefielde 2010, pp. 120-121.
- Berger 1987, p. 262.
- Jones 2010, pp. 215-216.
- Valentino 2005, p. 75, table 2.
- Шарланов 2009.
- Sharlanov & Ganev 2010.
- von Plato 1999, p. 141.
- Morré 1997, p. 9.
- von Plato 1999.
- Merten 2018, p. 7.
- Baron 2011, p. 486.
- Taylor 2012.
- Rummel 1997b.
- Omestad 2003.
- Dangerfield 2017.
- Courtois 1999, p. 564.
- Spoorenberg & Schwekendiek 2012, pp. 133‒158.
- Haggard, Noland & Sen 2009, p. 209.
- Rosefielde 2010, p. 109.
- Rosefielde 2010, pp. 228, 243.
- Valentino 2005, pp. 75, 84.
- Szalontai 2005, pp. 395–426.
- Vu 2010a, p. 103.
- Vu 2010b, pp. 243–247.
- Vo 2015, p. 36.
- unpo 2006.
- Hamilton-Merritt 1999, pp. 337-460.
- LCHR 1989, p. 8.
- Valentino 2005, p. 219.
- Kaplan 2001, p. 115.
- Sarwary 2006.
- Hossaini 2007.
- Collins 1987, pp. 198‒210.
- Valentino 2005, p. 83, table 5.
- Kakar 1995.
- Andrew & Mitrokhin 2006, p. 457.
- BBC 1999.
- Orizio 2004, p. 151.
- Courtois 1999, p. 692.
- Clayton 2006.
- Ghodsee 2014, p. 124.
- Davies & Wheatcroft 2009, p. xiv.
- Tauger 2001, pp. 1–65.
- Mishra 2010.
- Wemheuer 2014, pp. 3-4.
- Goldhagen 2009, pp. 29-30.
- Milne 2002.
- Wiener 2012, pp. 37-39.
- Whine 2008.
- Harff 1992, pp. 37-38.
- Malia 1999, p. xiii.
- BBC 2006.
- HRW 1999.
- Tadesse 2006.
- BBC 2008.
- Doyle 2007.
- MacKinnon 2007.
- Brady 2010.
- McKirdy 2014.
- BBC 2007.
- IHT 2007.
- BBC 2009.
- Barry 2010.
- Todorova & Gille 2012, p. 4.
- Omar 2007.
- Gregory 2017.
- CBC 2018.
- Alexopoulos, Golfo (January 7, 2013), "The Gulag's Veiled Mortality", Hoover Institution, Hoover Institution, retrieved September 21, 2018
- Alexopolus, Golfo (April 25, 2017), Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag, Yale University, ISBN 978-0-300-17941-5, retrieved September 3, 2018
- Allen, Paul (1996), Katyn: Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection, Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-55750-670-1
- Amstutz, Mark R. (January 28, 2005), International ethics: concepts, theories, and cases in global politics (2nd ed.), Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7425-3583-1
- Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili (2006), The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-00313-6
- Applebaum, Anne (November 11, 2010), The Worst of the Madness, The New York Review of Books
- Aronson, Ronald (2003), "Review: Communism's Posthumous Trial. Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois; The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century by François Furet; The Burden of Responsibility: Blum, Camus, Aron, and the French Twentieth Century by Tony Judt; Le Siècle des communismes by Michel Dreyfus", History and Theory, Wiley for Wesleyan University, 42 (2): 222‒245
- Barry, Ellen (November 26, 2010), "Russia: Stalin Called Responsible for Katyn Killings", The New York Times
- Baron, Udo (2011), Hertle, Hans-Hermann; Nooke, Maria, eds., The Victims at the Berlin Wall 1961-1989: A Biographical Handbook, Ch. Links Verlag, ISBN 978-3-861-53632-1
- Berger, Arthur Asa (January 31, 1987), Television in society, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-0-88738-109-6
- Bilinsky, Yaroslav (1999), "Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?", Journal of Genocide Research, 1 (2), doi:10.1080/14623529908413948
- Boobbyer, Phillip (2000), The Stalin Era, Routledge, ISBN 0-7679-0056-1
- Brady, Brendan (July 27, 2010), "Sentence reduced for former Khmer Rouge prison chief", The Los Angeles Times
- Brent, Jonathan (2008), Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia (PDF), Atlas & Co., ISBN 0-9777433-3-0
- Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon (2005), Mao: The Unknown Story, London, ISBN 0-224-07126-2
- Charny, Israel (1999), Encyclopedia of Genocide, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio
- Chirot, Daniel; McCauley, Clark (2010), Why Not Kill Them All?: The Logic and Prevention of Mass Political Murder, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-1-400-83485-3
- Clayton, Jonathan (December 13, 2006), "Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa", The Times Online
- Collins, Joseph (1987), "Soviet Policy toward Afghanistan", Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, 36 (4)
- Conquest, Robert (1970), The Nation Killers, New York: Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-10575-3
- Conquest, Robert (2007) , The Great Terror: A Reassessment, 40th Anniversary Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-195-31699-5
- Courtois, Stéphane, ed. (1999), The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, translated by Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer; Mark Kramer (consulting ed.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2
- Dallin, Alexander (2000), "Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer", Slavic Review, Cambridge University Press, 59 (4): 882‒883
- Dangerfield, Katie (December 13, 2017), "North Korea defector says prisoners fled to dogs, women forced to have abortions", Global News, Global News, retrieved August 8, 2018
- Davies, R.W; Wheatcroft, S.G. (2004), The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931-1933, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia, 5, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
- Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009), The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931-1933, The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia, 5, Palgrave Macmillan UK, ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9
- Dikötter, Frank (2010), Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-1962, Walker & Company, ISBN 0-8027-7768-6
- Dikötter, Frank, Mao’s Great Famine, Key Arguments, archived from the original on August 9, 2011
- Dissident (July 28, 2016), Victims by the Numbers, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, archived from the original on March 14, 2018, retrieved August 19, 2018
- Doyle, Kevin (July 26, 2007), "Putting the Khmer Rouge on Trial", Time
- Dulić, Tomislav (2004), "Tito's Slaughterhouse: A Critical Analysis of Rummel's Work on Democide", Journal of Peace Research, Sage Publications, Ltd., 41 (1)
- Easterly, William; Gatti, Roberta; Kurlat, Sergio (2006), "Development, democracy, and mass killings" (PDF), Journal of Economic Growth, 11
- Ellman, Michael (2002), "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments" (PDF), Europe-Asia Studies, 54 (7): 1151–1172, doi:10.1080/0966813022000017177
- Ellman, Michael (September 2005), "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934" (PDF), Europe-Asia Studies, Routledge, 57 (6), doi:10.1080/09668130500199392, retrieved July 4, 2008
- Ellman, Michael (2007), "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited", Europe-Asia Studies, Routledge, 59 (4), archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2007
- Esteban, Joan Maria; Morelli, Massimo; Rohner, Dominic (May 11, 2010), "Strategic Mass Killings", University of Zurich Working Paper No. 486, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics
- Fein, Helen (1993a), "Soviet and Communist genocides and 'Democide'", Genocide: a sociological perspective; Contextual and Comparative Studies I: Ideological Genocides, Sage Publications, ISBN 978-0-8039-8829-3
- Fein, Helen (October 1993b), "Revolutionary and Antirevolutionary Genocides: A Comparison of State Murders in Democratic Kampuchea, 1975 to 1979, and in Indonesia, 1965 to 1966", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 35 (4)
- Fenby, Jonathan (2008), Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present, Ecco, ISBN 0-06-166116-3
- Figes, Orlando (1997), A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891‒1924, Viking, ISBN 0-19-822862-7
- Figes, Orlando (2007), The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia, Metropolitan Books, ISBN 978-0-8050-7461-1
- Finn, Peter (April 27, 2008), "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine", The Washington Post
- Fischer, Benjamin B. (Winter 1999), "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, retrieved December 10, 2005
- Fischer, Ruth; Leggett, John C. (2006), "Stalin and German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party", Studies in Intelligence, Edison, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-87855-822-5
- Fish, Issac Stone (September 26, 2010), "Greeting Misery With Violence", Newsweek
- Fitzpatrick, Sheila (2008), The Russian Revolution, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-923767-0
- Gellately, Robert (2007), Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe, Knopf, ISBN 1-4000-4005-1
- Getty, Arch; Rittersporn, Gábor; Zemskov, Viktor (1993), "Victims of the Soviet penal system in the pre-war years: a first approach on the basis of archival evidence" (PDF), American Historical Review, 98 (4): 1017–1049, doi:10.2307/2166597, JSTOR 2166597
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (Fall 2014), "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF), History of the Present: A Journal of Critical History, University of Illinois Press, 4 (2): 115–142, JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115
- Grant, Robert (November 1999), "Review: The Lost Literature of Socialism", The Review of English Studies, New Series, 50 (200)
- Gray, John (1990), "Totalitarianism, civil society and reform", in Ellen Frankel Paul, Totalitarianism at the crossroads, Transaction Publisher, ISBN 978-0-88738-850-7
- Gregory, Stephen (June 14, 2017), "Remembering the Victims of Communism—for Them, and for Us", The Epoch Times
- Goldhagen, Daniel (2009), Worse Than War: Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity, PublicAffairs, ISBN 978-1-58648-769-0
- Gross, Jan T. (2002), Revolution From Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-09603-1
- Haggard, Stephan; Noland, Marcus; Sen, Amartya (2009), Famine in North Korea, Columbia University Press
- Hamilton-Merritt, Jane (1999), Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret Wars for Laos, 1942-1992, Indiana University Press
- Hardy, Jeffrey S. (Spring 2018), "Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag. By Golfo Alexopoulos. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. xi, 308 pp. Notes. Index. Maps. $65.00, hard bound", Slavic Review, Cambridge University Press, 77 (1): 269–270
- Harff, Barbara; Gurr, Ted R. (1988), Toward Empirical Theory of Genocides and Politicides: Identification and Measurement of Cases since 1945, 32
- Harff, Barbara (1992), "Recognizing Genocides and Politicides", in Fein, Helen, Genocide Watch, 27
- Harff, Barbara (1996), "Death by Government by R. J. Rummel", The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, The MIT Press, 27 (1)
- Harff, Barbara (2017), "12. The Comparative Analysis of Mass Atrocities and Genocide", in Gleditsch, N.P., R.J. Rummel: An Assessment of His Many Contributions, 37, SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-54463-2_12, ISBN 978-3-319-54463-2
- Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey (2003), In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage, San Francisco, California: Encounter Books, ISBN 1-893554-72-4
- Healey, Dan (June 1, 2018), "GOLFO ALEXOPOULOS. Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag", The American Historical Review, 123 (3): 1049–1051, doi:10.1093/ahr/123.3.1049
- Hertzke, Allen D. (2006), "Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights", Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7425-4732-2
- Hicks, Stephen R. C. (2009), Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault, Scholarly Publishing, ISBN 1-59247-646-5
- Hollander, Paul, ed. (2006), From the Gulag to the Killing Fields: Personal Accounts of Political Violence and Repression in Communist States, Applebaum, Anne (foreword) and Hollander, Paul (introduction), Intercollegiate Studies Institute, ISBN 978-1-932-23678-1
- Holquist, Peter (January–June 1997), ""Conduct Merciless Mass Terror": Decossackization on the Don, 1919" (PDF), Cahiers du monde russe : Russie, Empire russe, Union soviétique, États indépendants, Guerre, guerres civiles et conflits nationaux dans l'Empire russe et en Russie soviétique, 1914 - 1922, Persée, 38 (1–2), doi:10.3406/cmr.1997.2486
- Hossaini, Massoud (July 5, 2007), In pictures: Afghan mass grave, BBC
- Jahanbegloo, Ramin (2014), Introduction to Nonviolence, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-31426-0
- Jones, Adam (2010), Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.), New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-48619-X
- Kakar, M. Hassan (1995), Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982, University of California Press
- Kaplan, Robert D. (2001), Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, New York: Vintage Departures
- Kaplonski, Christopher (2002), "Thirty thousand bullets", Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe (PDF), London
- Karlsson, Klas-Göran; Schoenhals, Michael (2008), Crimes against humanity under communist regimes – Research review (PDF), Forum for Living History, ISBN 978-91-977487-2-8
- Keep, John (1997), "Recent Writing on Stalin's Gulag: An Overview", Crime, Histoire & Sociétés / Crime, History & Societies, 1 (2), doi:10.4000/chs.1014
- Kiernan, Ben (2003), "The Demography of Genocide in Southeast Asia: The Death Tolls in Cambodia, 1975-79, and East Timor, 1975-80" (PDF), Critical Asian Studies, Routledge, 35 (4)
- Kleveman, Lutz (2003), The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia, Jackson, Tennessee: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0-87113-906-5
- Kort, Michael (2001), The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 978-0-7656-0396-8
- Kotkin, Stephen (November 3, 2017), "Communism's Bloody Century", The Wall Street Journal, archived from the original on November 3, 2017
- Krain, Matthew (June 1997), "State-Sponsored Mass Murder: The Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides", The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Sage Publications, Inc., 41 (3)
- Kuisong, Yang (March 2008), "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries", The China Quarterly, 193
- Kulchytsky, Stanislav (February 17, 2007), "Holodomor of 1932–1933 as genocide: the gaps in the proof", Den
- Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2001), "Review Article: Communism and Terror. Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, and Repression by Stephane Courtois; Reflections on a Ravaged Century by Robert Conquest", Journal of Contemporary History, 36 (1)
- Kuromiya, Hiroaki (December 24, 2007), The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-12389-2
- Leggett, George (1987), The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-822862-7
- Lincoln, W. Bruce (1999), Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80909-5
- Locard, Henri (March 2005), "State Violence in Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979) and Retribution (1979–2004)", European Review of History, 12 (1)
- Lorenz, Andreas (May 15, 2007), "The Chinese Cultural Revolution: Remembering Mao's Victims", Der Spiegel Online
- MacFarquhar, Roderick; Schoenhals, Michael (2006), Mao's Last Revolution, Harvard University Press
- MacKinnon, Ian (March 7, 2007), "Crisis talks to save Khmer Rouge trial", The Guardian
- Maksymiuk, Jan (November 29, 2006), Ukraine: Parliament Recognizes Soviet-Era Famine As Genocide, RFE/RL
- Malia, Martin (1999), "Foreword: The Uses of Atrocity", in Courtois, Stéphane; Kramer, Mark, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, pp. ix–xx, ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2, retrieved August 24, 2015
- Mann, Michael (2005), The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-53854-1
- Materski, Wojciech; Szarota, Tomasz (2009), Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, Warszawa: Institute of National Remembrance (IPN), ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6
- Mawdsley, Evan (2003), The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929–1953, Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-6377-9
- McKirdy, Euan (August 7, 2014), "Top Khmer Rouge leaders found guilty of crimes against humanity, sentenced to life in prison", CNN
- McLoughlin, Barry (2002), "Mass Operations of the NKVD, 1937–1938: a survey", in McLoughlin, Barry; McDermott, Kevin, Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-4039-0119-8
- Melgunov, Sergei Petrovich (1927), "The Record of the Red Terror" (PDF), Current History
- Melgunov, Sergei Petrovich (1975), The Red Terror in Russia, Hyperion Press, ISBN 978-0-883-55187-5
- Merten, Ulrich (2018), The Gulag in East Germany: Soviet Special Camps 1945-1950, Amherst, New York: Teneo Press, ISBN 978-1-93484-432-8
- Midlarsky, Manus (2005), The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-81545-1
- Milne, Seumas (September 12, 2002), "The battle for history", The Guardian, London, retrieved May 12, 2010
- Mishra, Pankaj (December 13, 2010), "Staying Power", The New Yorker, ISSN 0028-792X, retrieved May 22, 2018
- Möller, Horst (1999), Der rote Holocaust und die Deutschen. Die Debatte um das 'Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus' [The red Holocaust and the Germans. The debates on the 'Black Book of Communism'], Piper Verlag, ISBN 978-3-492-04119-5
- Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2005), Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, New York: Vintage Books, ISBN 978-1-4000-7678-9
- Morré, Jörg (1997), "Einleitung. – Sowjetische Internierungslager in der SBZ", in Morré, Jörg, Speziallager des NKWD. Sowjetische Internierungslager in Brandenburg 1945–1950 (PDF), Potsdam: Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung
- Mosher, Steven W. (1992), China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-09813-4
- Naimark, Norman M. (2001), Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-00994-0
- Naimark, Norman M. (2010), Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity), Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-14784-1
- Nove, Alec (1993), "Victims of Stalinism: How Many?", in Getty, J. Arch; Manning, Roberta T., Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44670-8
- Okhotin, N.G.; Roginsky, A.B. (2007), "Great Terror": Brief Chronology, Memorial
- Omar, Fekeiki (June 13, 2007), "The Toll of Communism", The Washington Post
- Omestad, Thomas (June 23, 2003), "Gulag Nation", U.S. News & World Report
- Orizio, Riccardo (2004), Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators, Walker, ISBN 978-0-802-71416-9
- Paczkowski, Andrzej (2001), "The Storm over the Black Book", The Wilson Quarterly, Wilson Quarterly, 25 (2)
- Parrish, Michael (1996), The Lesser Terror: Soviet state security, 1939‒1953, Westport, CT: Praeger Press, ISBN 0-275-95113-8
- Pianciola, Niccolò (2001), "The Collectivization Famine in Kazakhstan, 1931–1933", Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 25 (3–4), JSTOR 41036834, PMID 20034146
- Pipes, Richard (1994), Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime, Vintage Books, ISBN 0-679-76184-5
- Pipes, Richard (2001), Communism: A History, Modern Library Chronicles, ISBN 978-0-8129-6864-4
- Rappaport, Helen (1999), Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-208-0
- Rauch, Jonathan (December 2003), "The Forgotten Millions: Communism is the deadliest fantasy in human history (but does anyone care?)", The Atlantic Monthly, retrieved April 24, 2010
- Ray, Barry (2007), FSU professor's 'Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler' sheds new light on three of the 20th century's bloodiest rulers, Florida State University
- Rayfield, Donald (2004), Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, Random House, ISBN 0-375-50632-2
- Rosefielde, Steven (2010), Red Holocaust, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5
- Rousso, Henry; Goslan, Richard Joseph, eds. (2004), Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0-803-29000-6
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (1991), China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-88738-417-X
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (November 1993), How Many did Communist Regimes Murder?, University of Hawaii Political Science Department, archived from the original on August 27, 2018, retrieved September 15, 2018
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (1994), Death by Government, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-56000-927-6
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (1997b), Statistics of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, and Sources, University of Hawaii Political Science Department
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (December 15, 2004), The killing machine that is Marxism, WorldNetDaily, retrieved May 19, 2010
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (October 10, 2005a), "Reevaluating China's Democide to 73,000,000", Democratic Peace Blog, Wordpress.com, retrieved December 1, 2012
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (December 1, 2005b), "Stalin Exceeded Hitler in Monstrous Evil; Mao Beat Out Stalin", Hawaii Reporter, archived from the original on September 17, 2009
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (2007), China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-1-4128-0670-1
- Sangar, Eric (November 3, 2007), Classicide, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, retrieved June 6, 2018
- Sarwary, Bilal (February 27, 2006), "Kabul's prison of death", BBC
- Semelin, Jacques (2009), Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed., Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide, CERI Series in Comparative Politics and International Studies, translated by Cynthia Schoch, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14283-0
- Seybolt, Taylor B.; Aronson, Jay D.; Fischoff, Baruch (2013), Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19997-731-4
- Шарланов, Диню (2009), История на комунизма в Булгария: Комунизирането на Булгариия, Сиела, ISBN 978-954-28-0543-4
- Sharlanov, Dinyu; Ganev, Venelin I. (2010), "Crimes Committed by the Communist Regime in Bulgaria", "Crimes of the Communist Regimes" Conference Country Report, February 24–26, 2010, Prague, Hanna Arendt Center in Sofia
- Sharp, Bruce (April 1, 2005), Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia, retrieved July 5, 2006
- Shaw, Martin (2000), Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-59730-2
- Short, Philip (2001), Mao: A Life, Owl Books, ISBN 0-8050-6638-1
- Snyder, Timothy (2010), Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00239-0
- Snyder, Timothy (January 27, 2011), Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was Worse?, New York review of Books
- Spoorenberg, Thomas; Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012), "Demographic Changes in North Korea: 1993–2008", Population and Development Review, 38 (1)
- Staub, Ervin (1989), The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-42214-7
- Staub, Ervin (June 2000), "Genocide and Mass Killing: Origins, Prevention, Healing and Reconciliation", Political Psychology, International Society of Political Psychology, 21 (2)
- Strzembosz, Tomasz (December 23, 2001), Interview with Tomasz Strzembosz: Die verschwiegene Kollaboration (PDF) (in German), Transodra
- Staub, Ervin (2011), Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-195-38204-4
- Szalontai, Balazs (November 2005), "Political and Economic Crisis in North Vietnam, 1955–56", Cold War History, 5 (4)
- Tadesse, Tsegaye (2006), "Verdict due for Ethiopia's ex-dictator Mengistu", Reuters
- Tauger, Mark B. (2001), "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933", The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506), doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89, ISSN 2163-839X, archived from the original on June 12, 2017
- Taylor, Frederick (2012), The Berlin Wall: 13 August 1961 - 9 November 1989, A&C Black, ISBN 978-1-408-83582-1
- Thompson, John H. (2008), Russia and the Soviet Union: An Historical Introduction from the Kievan State to the Present (6 ed.), New Haven, Connecticut: Westview Press, ISBN 978-0-8133-4395-2
- Todorova, Maria; Gille, Zsuzsa (2012), Post-Communist Nostalgia, Berghahn Books, ISBN 978-0-857-45643-4
- Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (1997), Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Garland, ISBN 0-8153-2353-0
- Totten, Samuel; Jacobs, Steven L. (2002), Pioneers of genocide studies, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0151-5
- US Congress (1993), Friendship Act (HR3000) (PDF)
- Valentino, Benjamin; Huth, Paul; Bach-Lindsay, Dylan (2004), "Draining the Sea: mass killing and guerrilla warfare", International Organization, 58 (2)
- Valentino, Benjamin A. (2005), Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-801-47273-2
- van Schaack, Beth (1997), "The Crime of Political Genocide: Repairing the Genocide Convention's Blind Spot", The Yale Law Journal, 106 (7)
- Vo, Alex-Thai D. (Winter 2015), "Nguyễn Thị Năm and the Land Reform in North Vietnam, 1953", Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 10 (1), doi:10.1525/vs.2015.10.1.1
- Voicu, George (2018), "Postcommunist Romania's Leading Public Intellectuals and the Holocaust", in Florian, Alexandru, Holocaust Public Memory in Postcommunist Romania, Studies in Antisemitism, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-03274-4
- Volkava, Elena (March 26, 2012), The Kazakh Famine of 1930–33 and the Politics of History in the Post-Soviet Space, Wilson Center, retrieved July 9, 2015
- Volkogonov, Dmitri (1999), Autopsy for an Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime, Touchstone, ISBN 978-0-684-87112-7
- von Plato, Alexander (1999), "Sowjetische Speziallager in Deutschland 1945 bis 1950: Ergebnisse eines deutsch-russischen Kooperationsprojektes", in Reif-Spirek, Peter; Ritscher, Bodo, Speziallager in der SBZ. Gedenkstätten mit "doppelter Vergangenheit", Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag, ISBN 3-86153-193-3
- Vu, Tuong (2010a), Paths to Development in Asia: South Korea, Vietnam, China, and Indonesia, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-139-48901-0
- Vu, Tuong (Summer 2010b), "Politburo's Directive Issued on May 4, 1953, on some Special Issues regarding Mass Mobilization", Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 5 (2), doi:10.1525/vs.2010.5.2.243
- Walicki, Andrzej (1997), Marxism and the Leap to the Kingdom of Freedom: The Rise and Fall of the Communist Utopia, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-804-73164-5
- Wayman, FW; Tago, A (2009), "Explaining the onset of mass killing, 1949–87", Journal of Peace Research Online
- Weiner, Amir (2002), "Review. Reviewed Work: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Jonathan Murphy, Mark Kramer", The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 32 (3)
- Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2008), "Problems in Comparative Genocide Scholarship", in Stone, Dan, The Historiography of Genocide, London: Palgrave Macmillan, doi:10.1057/9780230297784, ISBN 978-0-230-29778-4
- Weitz, Eric D. (2003), A century of genocide: utopias of race and nation, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-00913-1
- Wemheuer, Felix (June 24, 2014), Famine Politics in Maoist China and the Soviet Union, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-19581-1
- Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996), "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45" (PDF), Europe-Asia Studies, 48 (8), doi:10.1080/09668139608412415
- Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999), "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Not the Last Word" (PDF), Europe-Asia Studies, 51 (2), doi:10.1080/09668139999056
- Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2000), "The Scale and Nature of Stalinist Repression and its Demographic Significance: On Comments by Keep and Conquest" (PDF), Europe-Asia Studies, 52 (6), doi:10.1080/09668130050143860
- Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2001), О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг. (On demographic evidence of the tragedy of the Soviet village in 1931–1933), Трагедия советской деревни: Коллективизация и раскулачивание 1927–1939 гг.: Документы и материалы. Том 3. Конец 1930–1933 гг., 3, Российская политическая энциклопедия, ISBN 5-8243-0225-1, archived from the original on March 20, 2008
- Whine, Michael (April 27, 2008), Expanding Holocaust Denial and Legislation, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
- White, Matthew (2011), Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3
- Wiener, Jon (October 15, 2012), How We Forgot the Cold War: A Historical Journey Across America, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-27141-8
- Williams, Paul (2008), Security Studies: An Introduction, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-42561-2
- Yakovlev, Alexander Nikolaevich (2002), A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08760-8
- A Moral Blind Spot, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, archived from the original on January 31, 2010
- Court Sentences Mengistu to Death, BBC, May 26, 2008
- "Estonian charged with Communist genocide", International Herald Tribune, August 23, 2007, archived from the original on June 7, 2011
- Ethiopian Dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, Human Rights Watch, November 24, 1999
- Entisen presidentin serkkua syytetään neuvostoajan kyydityksistä, Baltic Guide, archived from the original on April 2, 2009
- "Estonian war figure laid to rest", BBC News, April 2, 2009, retrieved May 12, 2010
- Forced Back and Forgotten: The Human Rights of Laotian Asylum Seekers in Thailand, New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 1989
- "Khmer Rouge torturer describes killing babies by 'smashing them into trees'", Mail Online, June 9, 2009
- The Khmer Rouge Trial Task Force, Royal Government of Cambodia, archived from the original on March 17, 2009
- The legacy of 100 years of communism: 65 million deaths, Chicago Tribune, November 6, 2017, archived from the original on November 7, 2017
- Mengistu found guilty of genocide, BBC, December 12, 2006, retrieved January 2, 2010
- PACE finds Stalin regime guilty of Holodomor, does not recognize it as genocide, RIA Novosti, April 28, 2010
- Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll, AFP/Expatica, July 30, 2009, retrieved November 4, 2009
- Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC, September 19, 2007
- "'Stalinism' was a collective responsibility – Kremlin papers", The News in Brief, University of Melbourne, 7 (22), June 19, 1998, archived from the original on April 29, 2003
- Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls
- "Ukraine – The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved June 26, 2008
- US admits helping Mengistu escape, BBC, December 22, 1999
- Victims of communism monument could be unveiled next spring, CBC News, March 19, 2018
- WGIP: Side event on the Hmong Lao, at the United Nations, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, August 9, 2006, retrieved April 20, 2011
- Courtois, Stéphane, ed. (1999), The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, translated by Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer; Mark Kramer (consulting ed.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
- Fein, Helen (1993a), "Soviet and Communist genocides and 'Democide'", Genocide: a sociological perspective; Contextual and Comparative Studies I: Ideological Genocides, Sage Publications, ISBN 978-0-8039-8829-3
- Ghodsee, Kristen (2017), Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism, Duke University Press, ISBN 978-0-822-36949-3
- Hollander, Paul, ed. (2006), From the Gulag to the Killing Fields: Personal Accounts of Political Violence and Repression in Communist States, Applebaum, Anne (foreword) and Hollander, Paul (introduction), Intercollegiate Studies Institute, ISBN 978-1-932-23678-1
- Karlsson, Klas-Göran; Schoenhals, Michael (2008), Crimes against humanity under communist regimes – Research review (PDF), Forum for Living History, ISBN 978-91-977487-2-8
- Mann, Michael (2005), "Communist Cleansing: Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot", The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-53854-1
- Rosefielde, Steven (2010), Red Holocaust, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (November 1993), How Many did Communist Regimes Murder?, University of Hawaii Political Science Department, archived from the original on August 27, 2018, retrieved September 15, 2018
- Sangar, Eric (November 3, 2007), Classicide, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, retrieved June 6, 2018
- Semelin, Jacques (2009), "Destroying to Subjugate: Communist regimes: Reshaping the social body", in Jaffrelot, Christophe, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide, CERI Series in Comparative Politics and International Studies, translated by Cynthia Schoch, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14283-0
- Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop; Steven L. Jacobs (2008), "Communism", Dictionary of genocide, Volume 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2
- Valentino, Benjamin A. (2005), "Communist Mass Killings: The Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia", Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-801-47273-2
- Watson, George (1998), The Lost Literature of Socialism, Lutterworth Press, ISBN 978-0-7188-2986-5
- White, Matthew (2011), "The Black Chapter of Communism", Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3
- Deker, Nikolai; Institute for the study of the U.S.S.R. Munich (1958), Genocide in the USSR: studies in group destruction, Scarecrow Press
- Weiss-Wendt, Anton (December 2005), "Hostage of Politics Raphael Lemkin on "Soviet Genocide"" (PDF), Journal of Genocide Research, 7 (4): 551–559, doi:10.1080/14623520500350017, archived from the original (PDF) on June 10, 2007
- Lorenz, Andreas (May 15, 2007), "The Chinese Cultural Revolution: Remembering Mao's Victims", Der Spiegel Online
- Rummel, Rudolph Joseph (2011), China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-1-412-81400-3
- Barron, John; Paul, Anthony (1977), Murder of A Gentle Land, The Untold Story of Communist Genocide in Cambodia, Reader's Digest Press, ISBN 0-88349-129-X
- Sarup, Kamala (September 5, 2005), Communist Genocide In Cambodia (PDF), Genocide Watch, retrieved September 30, 2009