Death flights (Spanish: vuelos de la muerte) are a form of extrajudicial killing practised by military forces in possession of aircraft: victims are dropped to their death from airplanes or helicopters into oceans, large rivers or even mountains. Death flights have been carried out in a number of internal conflicts, including the 1957 Battle of Algiers and by the junta dictatorship during the Argentine "Dirty War" between 1974–1983.
The Dirty War in ArgentinaEdit
During the Argentine Dirty War, from 1976 to 1983 an estimated 30,000 people disappeared, kidnapped clandestinely by groups acting for the dictatorship. Human rights groups in Argentina often cite a figure of 30,000 disappeared; Amnesty International estimates 20,000. Many were killed in death flights, a practice initiated by Admiral Luis María Mendía, usually after detention and torture. Typically they were drugged into a stupor, loaded into aircraft, stripped, and dropped into the Río de la Plata or the Atlantic Ocean.
According to the testimony of Adolfo Scilingo, a former Argentine naval officer convicted in Spain in 2005 of crimes against humanity under the doctrine of universal jurisdiction, there were 180–200 death flights during the years 1977 and 1978; Scilingo confessed to participating in two such flights, with 13 and 17 people killed respectively. He estimated that the navy conducted the flights every Wednesday for two years, 1977 and 1978, and that 1,500 to 2,000 people were killed.
Victims were sometimes made to dance for joy in celebration of the freedom that they were told awaited them. In an earlier interview, in 1996, Scilingo said, "They were played lively music and made to dance for joy, because they were going to be transferred to the south. ... After that, they were told they had to be vaccinated due to the transfer, and they were injected with Pentothal. And shortly after, they became really drowsy, and from there we loaded them onto trucks and headed off for the airfield." Scilingo said that the Argentine Navy was "still hiding what happened during the Dirty War".
In May 2010, Spain extradited pilot Julio Alberto Poch to Argentina. Poch, born in 1952, had been arrested in Valencia, Spain, on September 23, 2009 and was wanted in Argentina for his alleged participation as a pilot on the death flights. At his trial in February 2013, Poch not only denied that he had participated, but claimed that all he knew about death flights was from what he had read.
In April 2015 further arrests were made. It was reported that flights had started even before 1976, and continued until 1983. An organised military structure was in place to carry out these flights, Batallón de Aviación del Ejército 601 (Army Air Battalion 601), with a commander, sub-commander, chief of staff, and officers of five companies making up the unit. Soldiers who refused to take part, as well as others who acted as airfield guards and runway cleaners, testified that they had seen live people and corpses loaded onto aircraft; after taking off, the planes returned empty.
On 12 March 2016 Interpol, through the National Police of Colombia, arrested Juan Carlos Francisco Bossi in the city of Medellín. Also known as El doctor, Bossi is credited for activating the death flights during the Dirty War and is wanted by the Argentine authorities for taking part in death flights and forced disappearance of over 30,000 people. After his arrest, Bossi confessed to the Colombian authorities of being responsible in the deaths of 6,000 individuals.
A five-year trial (nicknamed "the ESMA mega-trial" or the "Death Flights trial") of 54 former Argentine officials accused of death flights and other crimes against humanity (lesa humanidad) heard 830 witnesses and investigated the death of 789 victims. The trial reached a verdict on 29 November 2017. 29 defendants were sentenced to life in prison; six others were acquitted; all other defendants were sentenced to prison terms ranging from eight to 25 years.
Flights were also used to make bodies of already killed dissidents disappear. A testimony describes the following procedure: corpses were put in gunny sacks, the sacks were attached to a piece of rail using wire, and a second gunny sack was put around both. The sacks were carried on a pickup truck to the helicopters that flew towards the open sea off the coast of the Valparaíso Region, where the bodies were thrown into the ocean. Osvaldo Romo confessed in a 1995 interview to have participated in death flights. Showing no remorse, he added, "Now, would it not be better throwing bodies into a volcano?"
Death flights were used during the Algerian War by French paratroopers of the 10th Parachute Division under Jacques Massu during the Battle of Algiers. After it was discovered that the corpses sometimes resurfaced, the executioners began to attach concrete blocks to their victims' feet. These victims came to be known as "Bigeard's shrimps" (crevettes Bigeard), after one of the paratrooper commanders, Marcel Bigeard.
In popular cultureEdit
- In The Gods Must Be Crazy (1980), soldiers threaten to throw two captured guerrillas out of a helicopter if they do not reveal information. The first guerilla is pushed out blindfolded and quickly confesses in panic, not realizing the helicopter had already landed and he has been tricked.
- Anti-communists have used "free helicopter ride" memes to joke about executing communists, some alt-right Internet forums have also used a "free helicopter ride" internet meme to joke about executing Trump detractors and other left-wing political opponents mostly in reference to Pinochet.
- DuBois, Lindsay (1 October 2017). "The Politics of the Past in an Argentine Working-Class Neighbourhood". University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 1 October 2017 – via Google Books.
- "Spain tries Argentine ex-officer". BBC News. January 20, 2005. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- Calvin Sims. "Argentine Tells of Dumping 'Dirty War' Captives Into Sea". The New York Times.
- "Macabre new details emerge about Argentina's 'dirty war'". CNN.
- "'Death flight' captain says Argentine navy is hiding horrors". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. January 19, 2005. Archived from the original on May 17, 2007.
- Pilots charged with Argentina dirty war 'death flights'. CNN. October 5, 2009.
- Espacio Memoria y Derechos Humanos (ex ESMA) – Poch: "I have nothing to repent", 18 February 2013 (in Spanish)
- LaRed21 (Uruguay): Four officers who took part in "death flights" arrested in Argentina, 28 April 2015 (in Spanish)
- "Latin American Herald Tribune - Colombian Police Arrest Man Suspected of Rights Violations in Argentina". Laht.com. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- "Delitos de Lesa Humanidad - Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos - Presidencia de la Nación". Jus.gob.ar. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- NoticiasUnoColombia (12 March 2016). "Argentino considerado criminal de guerra fue capturado en Medellín". YouTube. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- starMedia: Trial for crimes against humanity in Argentina reaching its close, 7 July 2015 (in Spanish)
- Politi, Daniel; Londoño, Ernesto (29 November 2017). "29 Argentines Sentenced to Life in Prison in 'Death Flights' Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Ex piloto de Pinochet reconoció que lanzó cuerpos al mar". Emol.com (in Spanish). January 11, 2001. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- "La brigada más cruel de la DINA". La Nación (in Spanish). March 10, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- La Tercera, 4/07/07, «La escabrosa entrevista que concedió Romo a Univisión»
- Franklin, Jonathan (9 January 2001). "Chilean army admits 120 thrown into sea". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Film testimony by Paul Teitgen, Jacques Duquesne and Hélie Denoix de Saint Marc on the INA archive website.
- Des guerres d’Indochine et d’Algérie aux dictatures d’Amérique latine Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine, interview with Marie-Monique Robin by the Ligue des droits de l'homme (LDH, Human Rights League), January 10, 2007
- Prise de tête Marcel Bigeard, un soldat propre ?, L'Humanité, June 24, 2000 (in French)
- Jean Fremigacci, "La vérité sur la grande révolte de Madagascar", L'Histoire, n° 318, March 2007
- ""Chronologie de la République démocratique du Congo / Zaïre (1960–1997) – Sciences Po Encyclopédie des violences de masse"". 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2016-07-21.
- Austin, Jonathan Luke., 2015. "We have never been civilized: Torture and the Materiality of World Political Binaries." European Journal of International Relations, doi:10.1177/1354066115616466
- Caffier, Justin (January 25, 2017). "Get to Know the Memes of the Alt-Right and Never Miss a Dog-Whistle Again". VICE. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- "Rick Perlstein: The alt-right is gunning for anti-Trump protesters | Opinion". Newsweek. 30 April 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Collins, Ben (15 August 2017). "Reddit Bans Forum Inciting 'Physical Removal' of Democrats From Society". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Augusto Pinochet es un ícono dentro del movimiento de derecha radical que llevó a Donald Trump a la presidencia". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). August 18, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2019.