The Bangladesh Police (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ) is the main law enforcement agency of Bangladesh. It is administered under the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of Bangladesh. It plays a crucial role in maintaining peace, and enforcement of law and order within Bangladesh. Though the police are primarily concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security of persons and property of individuals, they also play a big role in the criminal justice system.
|Common name||পুলিশ (Police)|
|Motto||শৃঙ্খলা নিরাপত্তা প্রগতি|
Discipline Security Progress
|Operations jurisdiction||Dhaka Metropolitan Police|
Criminal Investigation Department(CID), Bangladesh
|Map of Bangladesh Police's jurisdiction.|
|Size||147,570 km2 (56,980 sq mi)|
|Population||162,221,000 (162.22 million) |
|Governing body||Ministry of Home Affairs|
|Headquarters||6, Phoenix Road, Fulbaria, Dhaka – 1000|
|Nationalities of personnel||Bangladeshi|
|Elected officer responsible|
- 1 History
- 2 Organisation
- 3 Selection and training
- 4 Community policing
- 5 Women in Bangladesh Police
- 6 UN peace-keeping operations
- 7 Corruption
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Details of policing activities during the middle age are challenging to find. However, during the periods of the great sultans, an official holding the position of Muhtasib used to perform the duties of policing. This person was the chief of police, in charge of public works, and the inspector of public ethics simultaneously. In urban areas, Kotwals were responsible for performing police duties. The policing system introduced by Sher Shah Suri was further organised during the period of Emperor Akbar: the Emperor organised his administrative structure introducing Fouzdari (the principal representative of the Emperor), Mir Adal and Kazi (the head of judicial department), and Kotwal (the chief police official of larger cities). This system was effective in maintaining the law and order in cities, and was implemented in Dhaka. Many district sadar police stations are still called Kotwali police stations. In the Mughal period, Kotwal emerged as an institution.
A Fouzdar was appointed to every administrative unit of the government (district), under whom there were some artillery and cavalry forces. There was a disciplined police system during the Mughal period, though there was no professional police force like that in the British period.
British period [1857 - 1947]Edit
In the early stage of the Industrial Revolution, when England was facing grave crisis due to socio-economic transformation, the necessity of an effective organised police service was keenly felt. Sir Robert Peel, then the Prime Minister, introduced a bill in the British Parliament in 1829 which created an organised civil police in London. The success of the London police in controlling social disorder and crime was admired by not only the people of England but also of European and American countries: New York city copied the London model with some modifications when it organised the first Municipal Police Force, in 1833.
In 1858, full control of the Indian Territory was taken over from the East India Company by the British government. The success of the London police organised under Peel's Act of 1829 prompted the British government to reform the police system in the sub-continent in a similar way to British constabularies. With this end in view, a police commissioner was set up 1840, and on the recommendation of the commission of the Police Act (Act V of 1861), was passed by the British Parliament. Under this Act a police force was created in each province of British India, and placed under the control of the provincial government. The administration of the police force of a province was vested upon an officer styled as the Inspector-general of police. The administration of the police in a district was placed under the Superintendent of Police. The Act is still in force throughout the sub-continent, and regulates the function of police in Bangladesh, as well as the other countries of the sub-continent.
Pakistan period [1947 - 1970]Edit
After partition of the sub-continent in 1947, the police force in Bangladesh was first named as the East Bengal Police, and then as the East Pakistan Police; however, it continued to function on the same lines as during the British rule.
Role in Liberation War Edit
In the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali-speaking police officers participated with the citizens, leading to deaths from most ranks, fighting with .303 rifles against the Pakistani. The resistance by the Bengali members of police at Rajarbagh is considered the first chapter of armed struggles during the Bangladesh Liberation war. Bangladesh Police founded a Liberation War Museum at the Rajarbagh police line in January 2017.
Bangladesh period [1971 - present]Edit
After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country on 16 December 1971, the police force was recognised and assumed the role of a national police force. In January 2004, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party led government removed the boat from the Police force badge because the boat is also the symbol of the then opposition party, Bangladesh Awami League. The police had been using the boat in its symbol since the independence of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP), under whose command, Bangladesh Police is divided into different branches.They are-
- Police Headquarters (PHQ)
- Tourist Police (Website)
- Range Police and Range Reserve Force (RRF)
- District Police
- Metropolitan Police
- Special Branch
- Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
- Railway Police (GRP) (Website)
- Highway Police
- Industrial Police (IP)
- Police Bureau of Investigation (PBI)
- Special Security and Protection Battalion (SPBn)
- Armed Police Battalion (APBn)
- Airport Armed Police (AAP)
- Rapid Action Battalion (RAB)
- Police Internal Oversight (PIO)
- River Police
- Telecommunication and Information Management (T&IM)
- Detective Branch
- Counter Terrorism and Transnational Crime (CT)
- Police Staff College, Bangladesh (PSC)
- Bangladesh Police Academy, Sarda (BPA)
- Police Training Centers (PTCs)
- Specialized Training Center like DTS/TDS/FTC/SBTS/IPTC/ITTS/Telecom TS/MDTS/PSTS etc.
|National Police Ranks||Metropolitan Police Ranks||Abbreviation|
|Inspector General of Police||IGP|
|Additional Inspector General of Police (Grade-1)||Commissioner of Police (Only in Dmp)||Addl.IGP / PC|
|Additional Inspector General of Police (Grade-2)||Commissioner of Police (In DMP)||Addl.IGP / PC|
|Deputy Inspector General of Police||Commissioner of Police (In all metropoliton police except DMP) or Additional Police commissioner (In DMP)||DIG / PC / Addl.PC|
|Additional Deputy Inspector General of Police||Additionl Police Commissioner (In all metropoliton police except DMP) or Joint Commissioner of Police (Only in DMP)||Addl.DIG / Addl.PC / Joint PC|
|Superintendent of Police (SP) or
Assistant Inspector General (AIG) (in Police HQ) or
Special Superintendent (SS) (in SB & CID) or
Superintendent of Railway Police (SRP) (in Railway Police)
|Deputy Commissioner of Police||SP / AIG / SS / SRP / DC|
|Additional Superintendent of Police||Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police||Addl. SP /ADC|
|Senior Assistant Superintendent of Police||Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police||Sr. ASP / Sr.AC|
|Assistant Superintendent of Police||Assistant Commissioner of police||ASP/AC|
- Industrial Police Ranks
- Director General (DG)
- Additional Director General (ADG)
- Deputy Director (DD)
- Senior Assistant Director (Sr AD)
- Assistant Director (AD)
Rank badge of superior officersEdit
|IGP||Additional IGP||DIG||Additional DIG||SP||Additional SP||Senior ASP||ASP|
Rapid Action Battalion
Rank badge of subordinate officersEdit
Police medals are awarded every year in the annual Police Week Parade. They are awarded both for bravery and service.
Bangladesh Police Medal (BPM)
President Police Medal (PPM)
Selection and trainingEdit
The recruitment process differs according to the level of position being recruited to, and direct entry (where an applicant does not have to start at the lowest level) is possible. The educational requirements increase with rank. A minimum bachelor's degree is required for Assistant Superintendent of Police, Sub-Inspector, and Sergeant, and for Constable, a Secondary School Certificate is required. Recruitment is conducted in the following three tiers:
- In the rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
- In the rank of Sub-Inspector (SI) or Sergeant
- In the rank of Constable
Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)Edit
The Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) are recruited C) through the competitive Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. They undergo a one-year-long training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Probationary ASPs. After passing from the academy, they undergo an orientation training for six months in the district level as a probationer. After that they have been appointed as a full-fledged ASPs in different units.
Sub-Inspectors are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. They undergo a one-year-long training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Outside Cadet Sub-Inspectors. After that they have partake in two years probationary period in different police units. After that they have been appointed as a full-fledged SIs in different units.
Sergeants are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. After appointment they undergo a six-month-long training course in the Bangladesh Police Academy, at the rank of Probationary Sergeant. After passing from the academy, they also undergo an orientation training of six months in the rank of probationer.
The main training institution of the Bangladesh Police is the Bangladesh Police Academy, established in 1912 in Sardah. The Police Staff College, which trains officers from ASP to DIG in-service, was established in 2000 in Dhaka. Bangladesh Police also maintains Police Training Centre (PTC) in Tangail, Rangpur, Khulna and Noakhali. The Detective Training School was established in 1962 in Dhaka.
List of training institutionsEdit
- Police Staff College, Dhaka
- Bangladesh Police Academy, Sardah, Rajshahi
- Police Training Centre, Tangail
- Police Training Centre, Rangpur
- Police Training Centre, Khulna
- Police Training Centre, Noakhali
- Detective Training School (DTS), Rajarbagh, Dhaka
- Forensic Training Institute, Malibagh, Dhaka
- Special Branch Training School, Malibagh, Dhaka
- Police Peacekeepers' Training School, Rajarbagh, Dhaka
- Police Special Training School (PSTS), Betbunia, Rangamati
- Traffic and Driving School (TDS), Mill Barrack, Dhaka
- Motor Driver Training School (MDTS), Jamalpur
- Telecommunications Training School, T&IM, Rajarbagh, Dhaka
- IT Training School, T&IM, Rajarbagh, Dhaka
- Armed Police Battalion and specialized training centre,Khagrachari
- Rapid Action Battalion Forces Training School, Gazipur
- Armed Police Battalion Training School
Moreover, there are in-service training centres in different districts.
In Bangladesh police, community policing is an organisation with the aims of promoting community, government and police partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and community issues. Bangladesh Police have been trying to implement this philosophy nationwide. The Police Reform Program (PRP), a UNDP funded project, has been providing Bangladesh Police with technical assistance to implement community-policing nationwide.
Under the strategic partnership there are:
- a National Community Policing Advisory Committee, chaired by the Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
- a National Community Policing Co-ordination Committee headed by the IGP or an additional Inspector General of Police at the Police Headquarters
- a Crime Prevention Centre, set up in the police Headquarters having the Detective Inspector General (Crime) at the focal point
The implementation partnership starts at the district level: There is a district community-policing cell in every district under the Superintendent of Police. The Additional SP or an ASP looks after the district community-policing cell. Secondly, in the police station level, there is a community policing cell with a full-time community policing officer (CPO), who coordinates the community policing activities in the police station jurisdiction.
Dhaka Metropolitan Police is implementing the beat policing in Dhaka city. In this regard, each Police Station is divided into some police beats, and for each beat there is an assigned Beat Policing Officer.
Women in Bangladesh PoliceEdit
Women first joined Bangladesh Police in 1974, when 14 women police officers were appointed in the Special Branch: seven were at the rank of Sub-Inspector, and seven were at the rank of Constable. The first female uniformed police members were recruited two years later, in 1976, when 15 women police officers were appointed in the Dhaka Metropolitan Police. They were also at the ranks of Constable and Sub-Inspector.
In 1986, there was only one serving woman police officer: Fatema Begum was appointed as Assistant Superintendent of Police through 6th Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. After two years, in 1988, four women joined Bangladesh Police through the 7th Bangladesh Civil Service examination. After an interval from 1989 to 1998, in 1999, eight women officers were appointed through the 18th Bangladesh Civil Service examination. On 21 June 2011 an all-women Armed Police Battalion (APBn) was created as the 11th battalion of this force.
As of 2010, there are 2,240 women in the Bangladesh Police, from the rank of constable to additional police superintendent.
UN peace-keeping operationsEdit
|Sl. No||Name of mission||Country||Period|
|10||UNAMET & UNTAET||East Timor||1999–2002|
|13||UNMIL||Liberia||2003 to till date|
|14||UNOCI||Ivory Coast||2004 to till date|
|16||MONUSCO||DR Congo||2005 to till date|
|18||UNAMID||Darfur||2007 to till date|
|20||UNMISS||South Sudan||2011 to till date|
Bangladesh Police has been criticized for having political influence in all levels, and the major decisions are taken under political conditions. Corruption is widespread among the law enforcement, with custody deaths and torture being prevalent.
In 2016 January, Dhaka South City Corporation official was tortured by Dhaka Metropolitan Police members. In the same month a sub-inspector at DMP was accused of torturing and attempting to extort money from a Bangladesh Bank official. Bangladesh Police have been accused of being involved in crime including rape and murder. Bangladesh opposition party has accused the Police of being used to suppress the opposition parities. The accountability of the police has been question by the media. 230 Police officers in Barisal Metropolitan Police created a collective bribe fund for promotions. Bangladesh Police had faced criticism after telling secular bloggers to self-censure after the Attacks on secularists in Bangladesh. Wife of Avijit Roy had accused Bangladesh Police of Inactivity during the attack on her husband. British Government has faced criticism for its aid to Bangladesh Police which could be used to suppress dissidents.
- "134 women cops in UN missions". Daily Sun. Retrieved 2011-07-07.
- Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (PDF) (Report). 2008 revision. United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "Javed Patwary new IGP". The Daily Star. 2018-01-25.
- "Demands for Grants and Appropriations 2012-13" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
- "Bangladesh Police official website". Bangladesh Police. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
- "Innocent must not face torture, harassment". The Daily Star. 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
- "Police administration, interrogation of offenders". The New Nation. 8 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 2010-02-02 – via HighBeam Research.
- "History of Bangladesh Police". Retrieved 2016-03-20.
- "Valour of Rajarbagh goes on display". The Daily Star. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "A glimpse into police history". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "Police war museum". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "Boat dropped from police emblem". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
- "History". Police Staff College Bangladesh. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- "Community Policing in Bangladesh". The Independent. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- Raza, Razzak (21 February 2008). "Women in the Police". The New Nation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
- Arzu, Alpha; Zannat, Mahbuba; Urmee, Farhana (8 March 2010). "Bangladeshi women on the move". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- "Bangladesh Police in UN Missions". Bangladesh Police. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- "List of Mission Completed UNPOL and FPU Peacekeepers". Bangladesh Police. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- "Police brutality continues". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Police officer 'tried to blackmail Bangladesh Bank official' threatening Yaba taint". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "BB official assault: SI Masud did not behave like police, says Home Minister". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Policemen's involvement in crimes rising". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Police going overboard on government indulgence, says BNP". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Huq Zahid, Shamsul. "Are police unaccountable?". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "10 cops disciplined". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Petition calls for Bangladeshi police chief to resign after he warned secularists not to insult religion". National Secular Society. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- "Wife of murdered US blogger Avijit Roy says Bangladesh police 'did not act' during attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Holehouse, Matthew. "Did British aid help Bangladeshi police lock up dissidents?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Zaman, Rashed Uz; Biswas, Niloy R. (2013). "Bangladesh". In Bellamy, Alex J.; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). Providing Peacekeepers: The Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672820.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-967282-0.