|title=Police Oversight by Jurisdiction (USA)
|publisher=National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement

Rank insignia of police commissioner edit

Duties and functions edit

Police commissioners may be experienced police officers, though some are politically appointed, or elected civilians;[1] not sworn police officers.[2][3][4] In such cases, usually a professional chief of police is in charge of day-to-day operations. In either event, commissioners are the designated heads of the organizations.[5]

In police services of the UK, Commonwealth and United States, the title of commissioner may designate the head of an entire police force, or a member of an oversight board of police commissioners.[6][7][8]

A police commissioner should not be confused with a police commissary. In France, Italy, Spain and some Latin American countries "commissary" denotes the head of a single police station (analogous to a inspector or chief inspector in UK and Commonwealth countries). However titles such as commissaire in French, commissario in Italian and comisario in Spanish can mean either commissioner or commissary in English, depending on the context.[9][10]

Police commissioner by country edit

Australia edit

The Australian Federal Police and the autonomous Australian state and territory police forces are each presided over by a commissioner, who is accountable to constituents through a minister of state. The state of Victoria at one time (during the 19th-century Gold Rush) appointed commissioners for both the metropolitan area and the goldfields. Outranking both was a "chief commissioner"—a title that has survived the disappearance of the earlier junior commissioners. In Victoria, as elsewhere, the second-highest rank is deputy commissioner.[11]

The insignia of rank worn by a commissioner in the Australian Federal Police and the New South Wales Police Force is a crown over a star and crossed and wreathed tipstaves, similar to the insignia of a military full general. In all other civilian forces, the insignia is a crown over crossed and wreathed tipstaves, similar to the insignia of a military lieutenant-general.[12]

Brunei edit

Commissioner of Police, Brunei, in 2023.

After the proclamation of the 1959 Constitution of Brunei, it was stated that a Commissioner of Police has to be appointed for the Royal Brunei Police Force (RBPF).[13] The first commissioner was appointed on 29 September 1959, assuming command of the force.[14] The Commissioner of Police, who oversees the RPB headquarters (the Commissioner's of Police Office) with assistance from the Deputy Commissioner of Police and Secretariat, reports directly to the monarch.[15]

Canada edit

In Canada, the highest-ranking officer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and of the Ontario Provincial Police holds the rank of commissioner.[16][17] In the province of Alberta, the Police Act requires the municipality to appoint police commissioners that are required to provide public oversight of the police. In Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, there are nine commissioners, including two city councillors and seven city-appointed members, the object being to "provide civilian oversight for the police service".[18] The commissioners appoint and oversee a chief of police, to whom is delegated the day-to-day management of the force.[19]

France edit

In reference to the police of France and other French-speaking countries, the rank of commissaire is a rank equating to somewhere in between the British police ranks of superintendent and chief superintendent.[20] The rank above is called "divisional commissioner". This is sometimes equated to a chief superintendent, but can in some cases hold a similar function to a Deputy Chief Constable. A former intermediate rank of "principal commissioner" was abolished in 2006.

Germany edit

The second-highest career bracket in German law enforcement leads to the rank of police commissioner or Kommissar. Training encompasses three years in a police academy (graduating as Diplom-Verwaltungswirt or bachelor of public administration). The highest possible rank within this career bracket is that of Erster Polizeihauptkommissar or Erster Kriminalhauptkommissar. The work of a Kommissar, in general, centers on investigation of felonies, depending on the branch of police and department to which he belongs, similar to the equivalent of an inspector in British-styled police forces. Roughly equivalent to a British commissioner would be (Landes-) Polizeipräsident or Inspekteur der Polizei, titles that differ between police forces in Germany.[21]

Hong Kong edit

The head of the Hong Kong Police (Royal Hong Kong Police Force 1969 to 30 June 1997) force has used this title since 1938.[22][23]

Iceland edit

The National Police of Iceland employs a national commissioner (Icelandic: Ríkislögreglustjóri) (four-star-rank) that is the head of 15 districts across Iceland. The commissioner is not an experienced police officer whatsoever, like most police chiefs in Iceland are educated lawyers, not experienced police officers.[24]

Of the 15 districts in the Icelandic police, each has a police chief of its own, but the national commissioner is above them, the minister of judicial affairs is in charge of law enforcement in Iceland.[25]

Ireland edit

The garda commissioner is the officer overseeing the Garda Síochána, the national police force.[26]

India edit

Police Commissioner of Pune, India, in 2010: Her insignia indicates her rank of Director General of Police or Additional Director General of Police.

In India, the commissioner of police designation is held by different ranks of Indian Police Service officers at different places. The Commissioner of Police holds a pivotal role as the head of city police forces in India.

For example, it is held by a Director General of Police (DGP) rank officer in Delhi and Kolkata; and by an Additional Director General of Police (ADGP) rank officer in Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Prayagraj (Allahabad),Gautam Budh Nagar, and Surat;by Inspector General of Police (IGP) officer in Cyberabad Metropolitan Police, Gurgaon, Pune, Nashik, Coimbatore, Madurai, Thane, Howrah, Siliguri, Trivandrum, and Cochin; and by Deputy Inspector General of Police officer in Bidhannagar, Kozhikode and in many small cities.

Indonesia edit

In the Indonesian National Police, the four levels of commissioner are police chief commissioner (komisaris besar polisi), police deputy chief commissioner (ajun komisaris besar polisi), police commissioner (komisaris polisi), and police deputy commissioner (ajun komisaris polisi). Due to strong military influence in its history, even now, police ranks can be compared to the ranks of the Indonesian military. The four commissioner ranks are equivalent to the Indonesian military ranks of colonel, lieutenant colonel, major, and captain, respectively.[27]

Italy edit

In the Italian Police, a commissioner (commissario) is the superintendent of a commissariato, a police station/detachment that can either serve an entire township of small or medium dimensions, or a limited area in a metropolitan city.[28]

Japan edit

The Japanese Prefectural police forces used this rank, and it was formerly known as chief superintendent. The rank holders assumed the responsibility of being a chief of the prefectural police force. It was lower than a senior commissioner and higher than a superintendent.

The commissioner of police in Japan is equivalent to a army major general.

Malaysia edit

In the Royal Malaysia Police, states of Sabah and Sarawak contingent are led by police commissioner than rest of the states in Malaysia, a special status for two states.[29]

Malta edit

In The Malta Police Force, the commissioner of police is the head of the police department, responsible for its entire management and control.[30] Since 2016, a chief executive officer at the Malta Police Force was appointed, to work alongside the commissioner of police to implement the Police Force Vision.[31]

Mauritius edit

In the Republic of Mauritius, the commissioner of police is the head of the national law enforcement agency called the Mauritius Police Force (MPF), which is responsible for policing on mainland Mauritius, Rodrigues, and other outer islands. The position dates back to 1767, when Antoine Codère was the first commissioner of police.[32] The commissioner operates under the aegis of the Home Affairs Division of the prime minister's office and the MPF employs around 12,500 police officers, who are posted at the eight divisions and 14 branches.[33]

Netherlands edit

The first chief commissioner is the head of the National Police Corps. The commissioner is appointed by the Crown, and reports to the minister of Justice and Security. The commissioner is the highest-ranking sworn police member in the country.[34]

New Zealand edit

The commissioner of police is the head of the New Zealand Police. The commissioner is appointed for a three-year term by the governor-general, and reports to the minister of police.[35] The position combines two functions, that of chief constable in charge of policing and cases, and chief executive responsible for assets and budgeting.[36] In military terms, the rank is equivalent to Lieutenant General.[37]

The Police Force Act 1886 split the police from the standing army and militia on 1 September 1886. Sir George Whitmore was appointed as the first commissioner, reporting to the minister of defence.[38] Early commissioners came from the United Kingdom with military or law-enforcement experience, such as Walter Dinnie, who had served as inspector at Scotland Yard.

In 2006, the commissioner was the highest-paid person on the public payroll in New Zealand, earning $440,000.[39]

Nigeria edit

In Nigeria, a commissioner of police is the head of an entire state branch of the Nigeria Police Force.[40]

Poland edit

In Poland, a commissioner (komisarz) is a relatively low rank, directly above podkomisarz and below nadkomisarz, comparable to a lieutenant of the armed forces.[41]

Portugal edit

Historically, in the Civil Police of Portugal, a police commissioner (Portuguese: comissário) was a divisional commander in the Lisbon and Oporto police forces or the chief of a district police force in the other districts of the country. The chief of each of the Lisbon and Oporto police forces had the title of commissioner general (comissário-geral). With the reorganization of Civil Police and its transformation in the Public Security Police (PSP) in the 1930s, commissioner became a police rank in this force.[42]

Presently, commissioner is an officer rank in the PSP, roughly equivalent to the military rank of captain. It is above the rank of subcommissioner and below that of superintendent. Commissioners usually have the role of second-in-command of PSP divisions commanded by subintendents.

The rank insignia of a commissioner consists in a dark blue epaulet with three PSP stars (silver six points stars with the "SP" monogram in the center).

Romania edit

In the Romanian Police, similarly to the French Police (see commissaire de police), the rank of commissioner (comisar) is equivalent to the British police rank of superintendent.[43]

Spain edit

In Spain, a National Police commissioner is the chief of a police station. This rank is called comisario principal. A commissioner exists in the biggest cities, and in smaller cities, the chief of the police is headed by a superintendent. In the Civil Guard, this rank does not exist because it has a military organization.

United Kingdom edit

In England and Wales, outside of Greater London, police and crime commissioners are directly elected officials charged with securing efficient and effective policing of their police area. They are not warranted police officers, although they appoint and hold to account their chief constable. The first police and crime commissioners were elected in November 2012, with the lowest electorate turnout ever in England and Wales. Historically the title "commissioner" has denoted the professional chief police officer of certain police forces, and that is still the case within Greater London, with the Commissioner of the City of London Police and the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Both these commissioners are appointed, not elected, and since the 1950s have been career police officers (as opposed to the previous practice of appointing former British Army officers). Although they were technically justices of the peace until the 1970s,[44] the commissioners have always worn a similar uniform to police officers, and have been treated similarly in terms of pay and terms of service.[45]

United States edit

Some U.S. police agencies use the title "commissioner" for the head of a police department or state agency. The term may refer to:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Board of Police Commissioners". detroitmi.gov. City of Detroit. 2022. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  2. ^ "POLICE COMMISSIONERS". stlouiscountypolice.com. St. Luis County Police. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  3. ^ "BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS". kcpd.org. Kansas City Missouri Police Department. 2022. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  4. ^ "Police Commission". lapdonline.org. Los Angeles Police Foundation and the LAPD. 2022. Retrieved 2022-03-25. There are five civilian members who make up the Board of Police Commissioners.
  5. ^ Belcher, Ellen (2022). "NYPD - Historical and Current Research: Police Commissioners". guides.lib.jjay.cuny.edu. Lloyd Sealy Library (City University of New York). Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  6. ^ "Article I. Police Civil Service Commission". ecode360.com. Upper Chichester Township (eCode360). 12 March 1992. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  7. ^ "Police and crime commissioners". gov.uk. Crown of the United Kingdom (Government Digital Service). 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  8. ^ "What is MEANINGFUL civilian oversight?". nacole.org. National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement. 2016. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  9. ^ "How INTERPOL supports France to tackle international crime". interpol.int. INTERPOL. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  10. ^ "Spain". enp.eu. The European Network of Policewomen. Archived from the original on 2021-09-29. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  11. ^ "Reece Kershaw to be sworn in as AFP Commissioner". 2 October 2019.
  12. ^ "The AFP shoulder patch and rank insignia". 6 April 2016.
  13. ^ Sidhu, Jatswan S. (2009-12-22). Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam. Scarecrow Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-8108-7078-9.
  14. ^ Office, Great Britain Colonial (1962). Brunei. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 121.
  15. ^ Sullivan, Larry E. (2005). Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement. SAGE. p. 982. ISBN 978-0-7619-2649-8.
  16. ^ "RCMP executive | Royal Canadian Mounted Police". 22 September 2016.
  17. ^ https://www.cacp.ca/index.html?asst_id=1781 [bare URL PDF]
  18. ^ Bylaw 14040: Edmonton Police Commission Bylaw Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine at Edmonton Police Commission
  19. ^ Appointment of the Chief of Police Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine at Edmonton Police Commission
  20. ^ "Commissaire de police".
  21. ^ https://saint-claire.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/UK-German-Rank-Comparison.pdf Archived 2016-01-25 at the Wayback Machine [bare URL PDF]
  22. ^ "China's State Council Appoints New Police Chief in Hong Kong". New York Times. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  23. ^ "Features".
  24. ^ "English". 29 December 2014.
  25. ^ "English". 29 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Offices of the Garda Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner and CAO".
  27. ^ https://jhuliplanejados.com.br/forum/commissioner-police-8b2a76 [dead link]
  28. ^ https://www.hierarchystructure.com/italian-police-hierarchy/ [bare URL]
  29. ^ "Sarawak police will assist in Sabah state elections if required, says Bukit Aman CID chief | Malaysia | Malay Mail". 28 August 2020.
  30. ^ "Commissioner of Police". pulizija.gov.mt. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  31. ^ "Position Of Chief Executive Officer At The Malta Police Force In The Ministry For Home Affairs And National Security". homeaffairs.gov.mt. Archived from the original on 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  32. ^ "History of MPF". Government of Mauritius. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  33. ^ "Distribution of MPF". Government of Mauritius. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  34. ^ "Organisation of the Dutch police - Police - Government.nl". 21 November 2011.
  35. ^ "About us - Structure". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  36. ^ "Govt appoints new Police Commissioner". The New Zealand Herald. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  37. ^ "Insignia of rank". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  38. ^ (Hill 1995, p. 7)
  39. ^ Thomson, Ainsley (5 April 2006). "Policeman on mission to restore confidence". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
  40. ^ "Nigeria Police Force (NPF) - Nigeria Intelligence Agencies".
  41. ^ https://jhuliplanejados.com.br/forum/commissioner-police-8b2a76 [dead link]
  42. ^ "Portugal | OSCE POLIS".
  43. ^ "Romania".
  44. ^ The Metropolitan Commissioner ceased to be a justice on 1 April 1974 (see section 20 (commencement)) by virtue of section 1(9)(a) of the Administration of Justice Act 1973 (as in para 10, Schedule 1 to the Act), and the City Commissioner ceased to be a justice before 1973 by Part 2 of Schedule 5 to the Justices of the Peace Act 1968.
  45. ^ "Role of the PCC".
  46. ^ "Board of Police Commissioners | Boards | City of Detroit MI". www.detroitmi.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-31.