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Police ranks of the United Kingdom

Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police.[1][2] Most of the British police ranks that exist today were chosen by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police, enacted under the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829. The ranks at that time were deliberately chosen so that they did not correspond with military ranking (with the exception of Sergeant), because of fears of a paramilitary force.

In short, the ranks are from bottom to top:

See the variations section below for the ranks in London, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

Contents

Rank insigniaEdit

Badges of rank are usually worn on the epaulettes. However, when in their formal uniform sergeants wear their rank insignia on their upper sleeves.[1][2] When police tunics had closed collars (not open collars as worn with ties), constables and sergeants did not wear epaulettes but had their divisional call number on their collar (hence they are still often referred to as collar numbers). Sergeants wore their stripes on their upper sleeve. Inspectors and more senior ranks wore epaulettes at a much earlier stage, although they once wore their rank insignia on their collars. Most forces no longer use divisional call numbers, and retain only the collar number and rank insignia.

United Kingdom police ranks (up to chief superintendent)
Rank Constable Sergeant Inspector Chief inspector Superintendent Chief superintendent
Insignia            
United Kingdom police ranks (chief officers)
Rank Assistant chief constable Deputy chief constable Chief constable (red)
City of London Police rank Commander Assistant commissioner Commissioner
Metropolitan Police rank Commander Deputy Assistant Commissioner Assistant commissioner (blue) Deputy commissioner Commissioner
Insignia            


Senior officers usually wear distinguishing marks around the outer edge of the peaks of their caps (or under the capbadge for female officers, who do not wear peaked caps). Normally this is a raised black band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver (gold in the City of London Police) band for superintendents and chief superintendents, and a row of silver (gold in the City of London Police) oakleaves for chief officers. Chief constables, the Commissioner of the City of London Police, and all commissioner ranks of the Metropolitan Police wear oakleaves on both the outer and inner edges of their peaks (or a double row beneath the capbadge for female officers). In Scotland, however, the mark is a silver band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver band and silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak respectively for superintendents and chief superintendents, and silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak for all chief officers.

Additionally, officers at or above the rank of commander or assistant chief constable wear gorget patches on the collars of their tunics. The gorget patches are patterned after those worn by general officers of the British Army and Royal Marines; the police versions, however, are of silver on black (gold on black in the City of London Police) rather than gold on red, in keeping with the police uniform colours.

The above ranks are used by all territorial forces in the United Kingdom, and the specialist national forces: the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, and Civil Nuclear Constabulary.[3] Other specialist forces, and those outside of the United Kingdom (including the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Gibraltar) use the same general system, but often have fewer senior ranks.

Chief Constable is the title of the head of each United Kingdom territorial police force except the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police, which are headed by commissioners. Ranks above chief superintendent are usually non-operational management roles, and are often referred to as "chief officer" ranks but the longer phrase "chief police officer" or similar in legislation is specifically a commissioner or chief constable, a "senior police officer" being their immediate deputy.[4] The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police is often considered to be the highest police rank within the United Kingdom,[5] although in reality every chief constable and the two commissioners are supreme over their own forces and are not answerable to any other officer;[citation needed] there is also the matter that (in the absence of mutual aid arrangements and similar) a police officer of any rank only holds the office of constable in any of the three UK national jurisdiction(s) in which he/she has been attested thus implicitly limiting any general comparison or ranking to a chief police officer's home jurisdiction.[citation needed]

Epaulettes are normally black with white sewn on or silver metal insignia, although high-visibility uniforms are often yellow with black insignia.

Uniform insigniaEdit

The rank of an officer can be found in varying details of the uniform such as headgear, sleeve patches and tunic collar details, although these details do not vary for every rank.

Illustration of uniform tunics insignia to denote rank in British police forces
Ranks Constable Sergeant Inspector
up to chief
superintendent
Assistant chief
constable
up to
deputy chief
constable
Assistant commissioner
up to commissioner
(and chief constable)
Uniform
insignia
         


Illustrations of headgear used to denote rank in British police forces
Ranks Police
community
support officer
Constable
and sergeant
Inspector
and chief
inspector
Superintendent
and chief
superintendent
Commander/Asst Ch Const and
Dep Asst Commr/Dep Ch Const
Assistant commissioner
to commissioner
and chief constable
Foot patrol
(male)
 
 
         
Mobile patrol
(male)
 
Foot and
mobile patrol
(female)
 
 
         
Traffic officer
(male)
     
Traffic officer
(female)
     
Police Scotland, Thames Valley Police, West Yorkshire Police, and the Police Service of Northern Ireland do not wear the custodian helmet, instead using the peaked cap (which is also now worn by female officers in West Yorkshire Police). Cheshire Constabulary, Lancashire Police, and Northamptonshire Police have adopted hardened baseball-style caps for operational use. All English and Welsh forces retain the custodian helmet and other traditional headwear for ceremonial duties, however. Hampshire Constabulary have two versions of the custodian helmet for constables and sergeants. Although not visible here, hats worn by inspectors and chief inspectors have a raised black band along the outer edge of the peak (for male officers) or a black arc below the cap badge (for female officers). Merseyside Police and Police Scotland inspectors and chief inspectors wear similar hats to superintendents and chief superintendents elsewhere. Police Scotland superintendents and chief superintendents wear a row of oak leaves within the silver band. Police Scotland assistant and deputy chief constables wear two rows of oak leaves (as per chief constables).

Examples of variationsEdit

City of London PoliceEdit

The City of London Police has different ranks above chief superintendent:

City of London Police insignia is gold where that of other forces is silver. For example, rank insignia and collar numbers on epaulettes are gold, as are the bands and oakleaves on the caps of senior officers, and officers of or above the rank of commander wear gold-on-black gorget patches on the collars of their tunics.

The City of London Police also previously had variations for some acting ranks such as sergeant and inspector: acting sergeants wore their chevrons above their divisional letters (or later "CP" for all officers, following the abolition of the force's divisions), whereas substantive sergeants wear them below their collar number. Acting inspectors were denoted by a crown in the place of their divisional letters, whilst keeping their collar number and chevrons.

Ranks of the City of London Police
Rank Police
community
support
officer
Constable Sergeant Inspector Chief
inspector
Insignia          
Rank Superintendent Chief
superintendent
Commander Assistant
commissioner
Commissioner
Insignia          

Royal Ulster Constabulary/Police Service of Northern IrelandEdit

The Royal Ulster Constabulary was headed by an Inspector-General and had a different rank structure until 1 June 1970, when it fully adopted the rank system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. The RUC has now been succeeded by the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which uses the same ranks, but has a different version of the rank insignia, with the star from the PSNI badge replacing the crown.[6] Unusually, the star is worn below the pip by chief superintendents and by the Chief Constable, who wears both symbols above his tipstaves. The PSNI has retained the RUC's distinctive inverted (point-up) sergeants' chevrons.

Isle of Man ConstabularyEdit

The Isle of Man Constabulary has fewer ranks above superintendent:

Miscellaneous police forcesEdit

There are, in the United Kingdom, a number of miscellaneous constabularies. These are not operated, regulated or funded by the Home Office, although they are fully authorised (by Act of Parliament) establishments. In general, they provide the policing for ports, docks, tunnels, or other particular institutions. Although these forces tend to require high standards of training and accountability, which closely mirror those of the Home Office police forces, they are usually much smaller in terms of personnel, and therefore utilise fewer of the 'standard' ranks.

History of police ranksEdit

All police forces have used a wide variety of ranks to meet their organisational needs, especially the Metropolitan Police Service. Ranks have been created, abolished, amalgamated and sometimes revived during the history of British policing. "MET only" means they are specific for the Metropolitan Police.

 

Defunct rank insigniaEdit

Rank War
reserve
constable
Sub-
divisional
inspector
Station
inspector
Junior
station
inspector
Station
sergeant
Chief
inspector
Chief
superin-
tendent
Years
active
1939 –
1948
1880 –
1922
1922 –
1949
1880 –
1936
1936 –
1949
1936 –
1949
1890 –
1980
1868 –
1953
1949 –
1974
Rank
insignia
                 

PowersEdit

In law, every member of a police force is a Constable whatever their actual rank, in the sense that, despite being a low-ranking or high-ranking officer, all have the same powers of arrest. The basic police powers of arrest and search of an ordinary constable are identical to those of a superintendent or chief constable; however certain higher ranks are given administrative powers to authorise certain police actions. In England and Wales, these include the powers to:

  • authorise the continued detention of up to 24 hours of a person arrested for an offence and brought to a police station (granted to sergeants and above at designated police stations),
  • authorise section 18 (1) PACE house searches (granted to inspectors and above), or
  • extend the length of prisoner detention to 36 hours (granted to superintendents).

Some authorities are matters of force or national or force policy and not subject to law, such as authorising the use of spike strips, and authorising the use of safe controlled crashes of pursued vehicles, by trained traffic police officers.

In relation to police officers of the Home Office or territorial police forces of England and Wales, section 30 of the Police Act 1996 states that "a member of a police force shall have all the powers and privileges of a Constable throughout England and Wales and the adjacent United Kingdom waters". Police officers do not need to be on duty to exercise their powers and can act off duty if circumstances require it (technically placing themselves back on duty). Officers from the police forces of Scotland and Northern Ireland and non-territorial special police forces have different jurisdictions. See List of police forces in the United Kingdom for a fuller description of jurisdictions.

DetectivesEdit

Officers holding ranks up to and including chief superintendent who are members of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) or Special Branch (and certain other units) have the prefix "detective" before their rank. Due to the nature of their duties, these officers generally wear plain clothes (except for ceremonial purposes) and so do not wear the corresponding rank insignia; however, they still operate within the same structure as their uniformed counterparts.

It is a misconception often portrayed by the media that detective ranks are superior to those of uniformed officers.[citation needed] In the United Kingdom, this is not the case, and a detective sergeant has the same powers and authority as a uniformed sergeant. The "detective" prefix designates that the officer has a proven investigative ability and has received suitable training and passed related examinations, to conduct all manner of criminal investigations.[7]

Trainee, temporary and acting ranksEdit

Constables who are training to become detective constables sometimes bear the title trainee investigator (T/I) or trainee detective constable (T/DC).

The prefix "temporary" before a rank (e.g. temporary detective sergeant, abbreviated T/DS) denotes an officer who has been temporarily promoted to a rank (and so who does actually hold that rank, albeit on a temporary basis), whilst the prefix "acting" (e.g. acting inspector, abbreviated A/Insp) denotes an officer who is performing the role of a higher rank than the one actually held (sometimes informally termed "acting up"). Temporary ranks are often used for set periods (e.g. a six-month appointment to a particular role), whereas acting ranks, although sometimes held for extended periods, are often used for a very short time (e.g. a single shift when additional supervisory officers are required, or to replace an officer on short-term leave).

Under section 107 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (England and Wales only), sergeants and chief inspectors may be designated (by an officer of at least the rank of superintendent) to exercise the powers of an inspector or a superintendent respectively. Such a designation will generally accompany such an officer being given an acting rank, so for most operational purposes there is no difference between substantive, temporary and acting ranks at Inspector and above (although there may be differences as to pay, pensions and insignia). On the other hand, under section 36 of that Act, only substantive sergeants may be appointed custody officers.

Identification numbersEdit

All officers have a unique identification number. These are usually referred to as shoulder or collar numbers, referring to the fact that they were once worn on the uniform collar and later on the epaulettes by constables and sergeants. Uniformed officers in many forces still wear them on the epaulettes, but other forces have badges or other ways of displaying their identification numbers. Kent Police, for instance, refers to its numbers as force numbers and officers wear them on a velcro tab on their stab vest or on a badge attached to their shirt or tunic. Officers in all forces of the rank of inspector or above do not usually wear their numbers.

In most forces these identification numbers are simple numbers, with one to five digits.

The Metropolitan Police, being a much bigger force, uses a different system:

  • Sergeant - borough code and one, two or three digits
  • Constable - borough code and three or four digits
  • Special Constable – borough code and four digits, usually beginning with the number 5 (8 for Traffic/Transport or 9 for specialist units)
  • PCSO – borough code and four digits, the first digit being a 7

The borough code is a two-letter code which follows the digits (but displayed above them on epaulettes).

Before the reorganisation into boroughs, each division had a different code, with sergeants having two-digit numbers and constables having three-digit numbers. A few other forces still use divisional codes.

Special constablesEdit

Special constables are volunteer police officers who have exactly the same powers as a regular officer, and (with minor exceptions) wear the same uniform and are issued the same equipment. The roles of "specials" can vary greatly from force to force, though normally include working with local regular officers to provide an additional and heightened police presence on the streets and in the local community. They may also be requested to police particular events such as football matches and community events.

In virtually all police forces (except Police Scotland), there are various grades of special constable which assist in the tasking and management of the constabulary. The ranks are management grades; those holding them are not "sergeants" or "inspectors" for the purposes of the law (for example, authorisations to order the removal of disguises or to set up roadblocks). Originally, specials held the same ranks and used the same rank insignia as regular officers, but there was a general shift to distinct terms such as "area officer" and "divisional officer" in the 1980s. However, since 2000, the National Policing Improvement Agency has encouraged special constabularies to return to rank structures and epaulette insignia identical to their regular counterparts. Although most forces have now reverted to regular rank titles (with the prefix "special"), only some have reverted to regular rank insignia. Senior special constables have no authority over regular officers, but very experienced officers may occasionally be given administrative supervision of mixed units of regular and special constables for certain events where no regular supervisory officer is available.

There is a large variation in the design of epaulettes used across Great Britain for Specials. This has been recognised at national level and as part of the Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023 the structure and insignia is under review with the intention to standardise.[8]

Special constabulary epaulettes frequently bear the letters "SC" (with or without a crown above) to differentiate them from regular officers, within the City of London Special Constabulary is the Honourable Artillery Company Specials; members of this unit wear HAC on the shoulders in addition to other insignia[9]. Senior special constables wear the same markings on their hats as equivalent regular ranks.

Forces using the regular special constabulary rank insignia
Gaps in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
Rank Special
constable
Special
sergeant
Special
inspector
Special
chief inspector
Special
superintendent
Deputy chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
City of London
Special
Constabulary
           
Special
Commander
Durham
Special
Constabulary
[10]
         
Not in current use
 
Gloucestershire
Special
Constabulary
Proposed 2019
[11]
         
Hampshire
Special
Constabulary
(from 2019)
[12]
         
Merseyside
Special
Constabulary
[13]
       
Northamptonshire
Special
Constabulary
[14]
       
South Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
[15]
           
South Wales
Special
Constabulary
(from 2019)
[16]
         
Wiltshire
Special
Constabulary
[17]
   
Redundant
   
These forces use the NPIA recommended insignia for special constabulary. This list is not complete.

Other special constabularies use combinations of bars, half bars, pips, crowns, laurel wreaths, collar numbers, force crests and the SC identity (with or without a crown) to distinguish ranks (and/or role).

Forces using the alternative rank Special Constabulary insignia
Gaps in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
Alternative titles used by each force are listed below the rank.
Equivalent
rank
Special
constable
Special
sergeant
Special
inspector
Special
chief
inspector
Special
superintendent
Special chief
superintendent
Assistant
chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Deputy
chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Avon and
Somerset
Special
Constabulary
[18]
           
Bedfordshire
Special
Constabulary
[19]
         
British
Transport
Police
[20]
   
 
     
Cambridgeshire
Special
Constabulary
[21]
             
Cheshire
Special
Constabulary
[22]
             
Cleveland
Special
Constabulary
[23]
           
Derbyshire
Special
Constabulary
[24]
     


Devon and
Cornwall
Special
Constabulary
[25]
         
Dorset
Special
Constabulary
[26]
           
Dyfed-Powys
Special
Constabulary
[27]
         
Essex
Special
Constabulary
[28]
         
Gloucestershire
Special
Constabulary
[29]
         
Greater Manchester
Special
Constabulary
[30]
           
Gwent
Special
Constabulary
[31]
         
Hampshire
Special
Constabulary
(until 2019)
[32]
     
   
Force Lead for SC
 
Retained for National Cyber Specials & Volunteers Lead
Hertfordshire
Special
Constabulary
[33]
           
Lancashire
Special
Constabulary
[34]
       
*Regular Police Sergeant
Leicestershire
Special
Constabulary
[35]
       
SC Lead
Lincolnshire
Special
Constabulary
[36]
       
Metropolitan
Special
Constabulary
[37]
           
Norfolk
Special
Constabulary
[38]
           
Northumbria
Special
Constabulary
[39]
 
Northumbria Special Constabulary abolished its ranks in 2006. All officers hold the rank of special constable, although those who previously held a supervisory rank are entitled to continue wearing their rank insignia.
North Wales
Special
Constabulary
[40]
         
Nottinghamshire
Special
Constabulary
[41]
         
Police
Scotland
[42]
 
Police Scotland do not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
Staffordshire
Special
Constabulary
[43]
           
South Wales
Special
Constabulary
(until 2019)
[44]
       
Suffolk
Special
Constabulary
[45]
           
Surrey
Special
Constabulary
     
Thames
Valley
Special
Constabulary
[46]
         
(Not in current use)
   
Warwickshire
Special
Constabulary
[47]
           
West Mercia
Special
Constabulary
[48]
           
West Midlands
Special
Constabulary
[49]
         
West
Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
[50]
   
Section Officer
 
Senior
Section Officer
 
*Regular Chief
Inspector
These forty forces use insignia for special ranks not recommended by the NPIA. Some forces have adopted the approved insignia.

Police Community Support Officers (PCSO)Edit

 
Variations of PCSO epaulettes varying between forces
 
Examples of PCSO supervisor epaulettes

Police Community Support Officers, in general, do not have a rank system: their epaulettes simply bear the words "POLICE COMMUNITY SUPPORT OFFICER" and their shoulder number, or, in the Metropolitan Police, a borough identification code and shoulder number.

South Yorkshire Police and Kent Police have PCSO Supervisors. In South Yorkshire they wear a bar above the words "Police Community Support Officer Supervisor" and the shoulder number. PCSOs are not used in Scotland.

Traffic wardensEdit

Traffic wardens were administered by the police and exercised some police powers to control traffic or issue fixed penalty notices for traffic offences. Very few police Traffic Wardens now exist with a legacy of only 10 police traffic wardens remaining in England & Wales.[51] Section 46 of the Policing and Crime Act 2017 has in effect abolished police traffic wardens allowing police to focus on their core duties.[52] The duties of traffic wardens have been passed to local authority civil enforcement officers (formerly parking attendants) who, under decriminalised parking enforcement, have powers to issue penalty charge notices for breaches of parking laws on highways or in local authority car parks and compel the production of a disabled parking permit (blue badge) for inspection.

A similar situation has developed in Scotland with the functions of traffic wardens been taken over by local councils. In many areas parking legislation has been decriminalised and is enforced solely by council-employed parking attendants.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Badges of Rank". Metropolitan Police Service. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Thames Valley Police: Uniformed police ranks Archived 2007-11-22 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ CNC ranks listed here Archived 2011-08-05 at the Wayback Machine on their website.
  4. ^ Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011
  5. ^ Stephenson is named new Met Police chief, The Independent
  6. ^ Police Service of Northern Ireland: Badges of Rank
  7. ^ Mental Health Cop — Police Ranks and Roles Explained Archived 13 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ ACC Richard Debicki (2018). "Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023" (PDF). NPCC. p. 13. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  9. ^ https://www.hac.org.uk/home/special-constabulary/
  10. ^ Durham Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  11. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  12. ^ Hampshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  13. ^ Merseyside Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  14. ^ Northamptonshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  15. ^ South Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  16. ^ South Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  17. ^ Wiltshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  18. ^ Avon and Somerset Constabulary"Avon and Somerset Constabulary Website - Police Ranks", Viewed 21 January 2019
  19. ^ Bedfordshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  20. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  21. ^ Cambridgeshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  22. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  23. ^ Cleveland Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  24. ^ Derbyshire Constabulary"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  25. ^ Devon and Cornwall Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  26. ^ Dorset Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  27. ^ Dyfed-Powys Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  28. ^ Essex Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  29. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  30. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  31. ^ Gwent Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  32. ^ Hampshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  33. ^ Hertfordshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  34. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  35. ^ Leicestershire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  36. ^ Lincolnshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  37. ^ Metropolitan Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  38. ^ Norfolk Contabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  39. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  40. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  41. ^ Nottinghamshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  42. ^ Police Scotland "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  43. ^ Staffordshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  44. ^ South Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  45. ^ Suffolk Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  46. ^ Thames Valley Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  47. ^ Warwickshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  48. ^ West Mercia Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  49. ^ West Midlands Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  50. ^ West Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  51. ^ "Police workforce, England and Wales: 30 September 2017". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  52. ^ "Policing and Crime Act 2017". www.legislation.gov.uk. Expert Participation. Retrieved 2018-06-17.CS1 maint: others (link)