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Special Constables and regular officers of the Avon and Somerset Constabulary at the 125th anniversary of the Special Constabulary in Taunton, Somerset

The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer section of statutory police forces in the United Kingdom and some Crown dependencies. Its officers are known as special constables. All have only the legal powers vested of a constable no matter what rank title they hold, meaning they cannot make use of legal powers that full-time officers of rank can such as authorising a search of a property belonging to a person arrested. Thus, a Special Inspector is not a like-for-like equivalent of an Inspector in terms of the legal powers vested in the latter.

Every United Kingdom territorial police force has a special constabulary except the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which has a Reserve constituted on different grounds. However, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (and the previous Royal Irish Constabulary) did have its own Ulster Special Constabulary from 1920 until 1970, when the Reserve was formed. The British Transport Police (a national "special police force") also has a special constabulary. In the Crown dependencies, the Isle of Man Constabulary and the States of Guernsey Police Service also have special constabularies, but the States of Jersey Police does not. Jersey has Honorary Police.

The strength of the special constabulary as of September 2018 in England and Wales was 11,343, -12.3% on the previous year.[1] The number of special constables in Scotland in 2018 was 610.[2] Special constables are not the same as police community support officers (PCSOs), who are employed by police forces to provide operational support to regular officers. Special constables usually work for a minimum number of hours per month (depending on the force – the national minimum is 16 hours), although many do considerably more. Special constables might receive some expenses and allowances from the police service, including a £1,100 "recognition award" in Scotland and some forces in England, but their work is in the main voluntary and unpaid.

Special constables have identical powers to their regular (full-time) colleagues and work alongside them, but most special constabularies in England and Wales have their own organisational structure and grading system, which varies from force to force. Special constabularies are headed by a chief officer. In Scotland, special constables have no separate administrative structure and grading system.

Contents

HistoryEdit

While the idea of a populace policing itself dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, with English common law requiring that all citizens have the legal obligation to come to the assistance of a police officer, it was not until 1673 that Charles II ruled that citizens may be temporarily sworn in as constables during times of public disorder. This ruling was in response to rising public disorder relating to enforcement of religious conformity, and any citizen refusing to acknowledge the call would have been subject to fines and jail sentences. The 1673 act was enforced for centuries after, mainly used to call up constables in the north of England.[3]

Public disorder of that nature was renewed during the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries, which was coupled with falling living standards and starvation[citation needed]. In 1819, mass meetings calling for Parliamentary reform took place across England, including 60,000 demonstrators rioting in Manchester where a special constable was killed. In light of these events, in 1820, an Act was passed allowing magistrates to recruit men as special constables.

In 1831, Parliament passed "An act for amending the laws relative to the appointment of Special Constables, and for the better preservation of the Police".[4] This Act, forming the basis of special-constable principles to the modern day, and in particular allowed the formation of special constables outside of times of unrest, if the regular police force was deemed to be too small in a particular area. Specials were also granted full powers of arrest like their regular counterparts at this time, as well as weapons and equipment to carry out their duty.

A further act in 1835 redefined the Special Constabulary as a volunteer organisation, and expanded its jurisdiction. The Constabulary was redefined for the last time into the organisation which exists today during World War I, where they were instructed to safeguard water supplies from German infiltrators.

During the Second World War, besides their normal duties, they were trained to deal with a range of eventualities such as first aid in case of injury, initial coordination of the security of aircraft crash sites, clearing people from the vicinity of unexploded bombs, handling of unignited incendiary bombs and checking compliance with lighting regulations.[5]

ApplicationEdit

Requirements for being a special constable vary from force to force. The recruitment process in Scotland is also significantly different from the process in England and Wales. It can take from as few as six to as many as eighteen months from initial application through to attestation where recruits take the Police Oath. A number of different steps are involved in the recruitment process and the order can vary from force to force. The first part of the process usually involves completing an application form. After that, there may be a combination of entrance test (the Police Initial Recruitment Test in England and Wales or the Standard Entrance Test in Scotland), interview, security checks, fitness test and medical assessment although the exact process is force specific.

Uniform and insigniaEdit

See also: Police uniforms and equipment in the United Kingdom#Uniform

Special constables generally wear identical uniforms to their regular colleagues. In some constabularies, their shoulder number may be prefixed with a certain digit or they may have additional insignia on their epaulettes which is usually a crown with the letters SC above or below it (although some forces just use the letters). Formerly, male special constables in English and Welsh forces did not wear helmets while on foot patrol but wore patrol caps instead, but in most forces they now do wear helmets. Some forces also issue special constables with a different hat badge from that of their regular counterparts although this is now extremely rare.

Within the City of London Special Constabulary is the Honourable Artillery Company Specials, provided by the Honourable Artillery Company;[6] members of this unit wear HAC on the shoulders in addition to other insignia.

There is a large variation in the design of epaulettes used across Great Britain for Specials. This has been recognised at national level and as part of the Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023 the structure and insignia is under review with the intention to standardise.[7]

Special constabulary epaulettes frequently bear the letters "SC" (with or without a crown above) to differentiate them from regular officers. Senior special constables wear the same markings on their hats as equivalent regular ranks.

Forces using the regular special constabulary rank insignia
Gaps in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
Rank Special
constable
Special
sergeant
Special
inspector
Special
chief inspector
Special
superintendent
Deputy chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
City of London
Special
Constabulary

HAC Specials wear the letters HAC in addition
           
Special
Commander
Durham
Special
Constabulary
[8]
         
Not in current use
 
Gloucestershire
Special
Constabulary
Proposed 2019
[9]
         
Hampshire
Special
Constabulary
(from 2019)
[10]
         
Merseyside
Special
Constabulary
[11]
       
Northamptonshire
Special
Constabulary
[12]
       
South Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
[13]
           
South Wales
Special
Constabulary
(from 2019)
[14]
         
Wiltshire
Special
Constabulary
[15]
   
Redundant
   
These forces use the NPIA recommended insignia for special constabulary. This list is not complete.

Other special constabularies use combinations of bars, half bars, pips, crowns, laurel wreaths, collar numbers, force crests and the SC identity (with or without a crown) to distinguish ranks (and/or role).

Forces using the alternative rank Special Constabulary insignia
Gaps in the table indicate that a rank is not used in a force's structure.
Alternative titles used by each force are listed below the rank.
Equivalent
rank
Special
constable
Special
sergeant
Special
inspector
Special
chief
inspector
Special
superintendent
Special chief
superintendent
Assistant
chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Deputy
chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Chief officer
of the Special
Constabulary
Avon and
Somerset
Special
Constabulary
[16]
           
Bedfordshire
Special
Constabulary
[17]
         
British
Transport
Police
[18]
   
 
     
Cambridgeshire
Special
Constabulary
[19]
             
Cheshire
Special
Constabulary
[20]
             
Cleveland
Special
Constabulary
[21]
           
Derbyshire
Special
Constabulary
[22]
     


Devon and
Cornwall
Special
Constabulary
[23]
         
Dorset
Special
Constabulary
[24]
           
Dyfed-Powys
Special
Constabulary
[25]
         
Essex
Special
Constabulary
[26]
         
Gloucestershire
Special
Constabulary
[27]
         
Greater Manchester
Special
Constabulary
[28]
           
Gwent
Special
Constabulary
[29]
         
Hampshire
Special
Constabulary
(until 2019)
[30]
     
   
Force Lead for SC
 
Retained for National Cyber Specials & Volunteers Lead
Hertfordshire
Special
Constabulary
[31]
           
Lancashire
Special
Constabulary
[32]
       
*Regular Police Sergeant
Leicestershire
Special
Constabulary
[33]
       
SC Lead
Lincolnshire
Special
Constabulary
[34]
       
Metropolitan
Special
Constabulary
[35]
           
Norfolk
Special
Constabulary
[36]
           
Northumbria
Special
Constabulary
[37]
  Northumbria Special Constabulary abolished its ranks in 2006. All officers hold the rank of special constable, although those who previously held a supervisory rank are entitled to continue wearing their rank insignia.
North Wales
Special
Constabulary
[38]
         
Nottinghamshire
Special
Constabulary
[39]
         
Police
Scotland
[40]
  Police Scotland do not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
Staffordshire
Special
Constabulary
[41]
           
South Wales
Special
Constabulary
(until 2019)
[42]
       
Suffolk
Special
Constabulary
[43]
           
Surrey
Special
Constabulary
     
Thames
Valley
Special
Constabulary
[44]
         
(Not in current use)
   
Warwickshire
Special
Constabulary
[45]
           
West Mercia
Special
Constabulary
[46]
           
West Midlands
Special
Constabulary
[47]
         
West
Yorkshire
Special
Constabulary
[48]
   
Section Officer
 
Senior
Section Officer
 
*Regular Chief
Inspector
These forty forces use insignia for special ranks not recommended by the NPIA. Some forces have adopted the approved insignia.

Current UK Special Constabulary Chief OfficersEdit

The table below lists the Special Chief Officers of British police forces. The majority of these officers are titled 'Special Chief Officer’, but some hold other titles such as ‘Special Commander’. Some forces do not have a Chief Officer at all due to abolishing their rank structure and are therefore headed by a more junior rank, and some forces are lead by a regular (full time) police officer such as a Sergeant or Chief Inspector.

Police force Special Chief officer name
Avon and Somerset Constabulary David Farrell
Bedfordshire Police Clint Sharp
British Transport Police Ben Clifford
Cambridgeshire Constabulary
Cheshire Constabulary Celvyn Jones
City of London Police James Phipson (Special Commander)
Cleveland Police David Robinson
Cumbria Constabulary
Derbyshire Constabulary Derbyshire Special Constabulary does not have a chief officer or ranks above Special Inspector.
Devon and Cornwall Police Marc Kastner
Dorset Police Anthi Minhinnick
Durham Constabulary Dale Checksfield
Dyfed–Powys Police Cairn Newton-Evans, BEM
Essex Police Essex Special Constabulary is headed by a Deputy Chief Officer
Gloucestershire Constabulary David Pedrick-Friend
Greater Manchester Police Michael Walmsley
Gwent Police Gareth Chapman
Hampshire Constabulary Hampshire Special Constabulary is headed by a Special Superintendent
Hertfordshire Constabulary
Humberside Police John Philip
Kent Police Gavin McKinnon
Lancashire Constabulary Lancashire Special Constabulary is headed by a regular Police Sergeant
Leicestershire Police Leicestershire Special Constabulary is headed by a Special Chief Inspector
Lincolnshire Police Lincolnshire Special Constabulary is headed by a Special Superintendent
Merseyside Police Dave Lyons
Metropolitan Special Constabulary John Conway
Norfolk Constabulary Darren Taylor
North Wales Police Mark Owen
Northamptonshire Police Mike Maywood
Northumbria Police Northumbria Special Constabulary does not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
North Yorkshire Police Mike Maiden
Nottinghamshire Police
Police Scotland Police Scotland do not currently have a rank structure for Special Constables.
Police Service of Northern Ireland
South Wales Police Dr Dale Cartwright OStJ
South Yorkshire Police Stephen Merrett
Staffordshire Police Simon Anderson
Suffolk Constabulary Dean Knight
Surrey Police
Sussex Police Jackie Connor
Thames Valley Police Jason Morley-Smith, MStJ
Warwickshire Police Katherine Hancock
West Mercia Police Nick Marlow
West Midlands Police Michael Rogers
West Yorkshire Police West Yorkshire Special Constabulary is headed by a regular Chief Inspector
Wiltshire Police Wiltshire Special Constabulary is headed by a Special Superintendent

EquipmentEdit

Special constables all carry the same personal protective equipment (PPE) as their regular counterparts, such as handcuffs, batons, incapacitant spray (CS spray, pepper spray, or in some forces a solution called PAVA spray) and protective vests.

The issuing of equipment varies from force to force with financial factors being the main reason behind the differences. In some forces protective vests, or body armour, may be personally issued to an officer, made to measure, however many other forces cannot afford this practice and instead the use of pool sets is prevalent.

The same practice is also seen with regard to radios: although many forces provide special constables with personal radios kept securely at their police station, other forces may only have pool sets. The management task is to ensure there are enough working pooled radios available in a command area to meet any "surge" need.

No special constables carry firearms or tasers.

Powers and jurisdictionEdit

Territorial police forcesEdit

The vast majority of special constables serve with one of the 45 territorial police forces in the United Kingdom. Depending on where they are attested, they have full police powers throughout one of three distinct legal systems - either England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.[49][50][51] This is identical to the jurisdiction granted to regular officers, although prior to 1 April 2007, special constables in England and Wales only had jurisdiction within their force area and any adjacent force areas. Recent changes have seen special constables enjoy the same cross-border powers as regular constables.

British Transport PoliceEdit

Special constables of the British Transport Police have exactly the same powers and privileges as regular BTP constables, and the same cross-border powers.[52] BTP special constables do not wear the distinctive "SC" insignia on their epaulettes. They work across England, Wales and Scotland and will often parade on at their home station and work 40 to 80 miles away from it.

DutiesEdit

Within recent years the role of special constables has changed dramatically and they are now increasingly used alongside their regular colleagues to perform almost all police duties. As well as patrol duties, they often take part in response duties and specials often police events such as sports matches, carnivals, parades and fêtes. While this event policing is the stereotypical image of a special constable, it only represents one of the wide range of duties undertaken. Many police forces in England and Wales have introduced neighbourhood policing teams and the Special Constabulary has been incorporated into this concept.[53]

The City of London Police recruits accountancy specialists to work directly for its fraud squad.

Special operationsEdit

Many special constables have taken the opportunity to join specialist teams within their constabularies such as marine support, dog units and roads policing. Durham Constabulary, Warwickshire Police,[54] West Mercia Police and Devon and Cornwall Police have for a number of years been training some of their specials to work with the road policing unit (RPU); this has been expanded and some specials with Warwickshire and West Mercia are now working with the force's criminal intercept team.[55] In Kent Police specials were introduced to the RPU team in 2009. Now specials on the RPU team are trained to Class 1 advanced driving standard, as well as in TPAC (tactical pursuit and containment). They are vehicle prohibition trained and also have training to enable them to act as authorised inspectors under S19 of the H&S at work act 1974 to inspect and prohibit the carriage of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). A number of other Warwickshire & Devon & Cornwall specials are trained in response driving. In 2009, Greater Manchester Police also introduced special constables to permanently working within the RPU, although this has since been discontinued. Bedfordshire specials have a tasking unit which specialises in drug enforcement operations; they were also the first force in the United Kingdom to train special constables in the use of method of entry equipment (MOE).

In 1995, special constables from Cheshire Police assisted officers from the Ministry of Defence Police with a surveillance operation at the former Royal Ordnance Factory at Radway Green near Crewe.[56]

Within the Metropolitan Police, a number of specials work within SO1, 6, 14 and 18, providing operational support to their armed colleagues. Special constables at Wiltshire Police have established a drone unit offering a 24/7 on-call service, the only one of its kind in the United Kingdom.

Durham Constabulary introduced the first special constable-led rural policing team in the UK providing special constables with additional training to support the fight against rural crime.

Public orderEdit

As with their full-time counterparts, many special constables are trained in public order duties, including policing of football matches and demonstrations. In West Yorkshire Police, 24 specials have received Level 2 PSU (Police Support Unit) training, and have become part of the Operation Target team.[57] Operation Target has now disbanded, but West Yorkshire Police have kept the service of the specials in their own operational support unit.

South Yorkshire Police has a team of special constables who are part of the joint specialist operations department. These officers are level 2-trained and have method of entry capability. In addition, the special constabulary supervisors who lead the team are qualified PSU commanders.

Police Scotland makes Level 2 PSU training available to special constable applicants, and qualified special constables are integrated as a part of regular PSUs

West Mercia Police and Devon and Cornwall Police also train special constables to PSU Level 2 and regularly deploy specials on PSU support.

British Transport Police also train special constables to PSU Level 2 and regularly deploy specials on PSU support.

2012 OlympicsEdit

There were plans for the Metropolitan Police to have up to 10,000 specials to help with security at the 2012 Olympic Games. This was to be done either through recruitment, with 700 extra specials being employed in the last year[58] or by borrowing them from other forces.[59] While this idea would have created a much safer environment for the Olympic celebrations, the plans came under fire from the police federation, which said that "volunteer special constables could drop out at the last minute, causing significant staffing problems".[59] After the security firm G4S failed to hire enough security staff, the government called in 3,500 additional military personnel to cover the shortfall.[60]

AcceptanceEdit

Historically, special constables were often looked down upon by regular officers and resented, as they were sometimes seen as "hobby bobbies" and not proper police officers. During the 1980s, specials were often considered to be preventing regular officers from earning overtime pay.[61] Nowadays, they have a much closer relationship with the regular police and are a supplement to understaffed police forces.[citation needed]

A sizeable proportion of regular officers have served as special constables before joining the regular force, which is encouraged by recruitment departments. Most police forces will accept applications from the age of 18; and the minimum age to commence training is 17 years 9 months in Essex Constabulary and 17 years 6 months for Humberside Police.[citation needed]

Allowing special constables to be paid for their work has been a contentious issue, with mixed comments from all sides, with some people believing that as specials are doing much the same job as regular officers they should be paid the same, but others thinking that this would attract the 'wrong' type of person (those motivated by monetary gain as opposed to those who are community minded)[citation needed].

Honours, medals and awardsEdit

 
Medal ribbon bar of the Special Constabulary Long Service Medal
Established by Royal Warrant on 30 August 1919, the Special Constabulary Long Service Medal may be earned by special constables after nine years' service, with a clasp issued for each additional period of 10 years. The name and rank of the recipient and the date of the award are engraved on the rim of the medal.

Special constables are also eligible for other honours and a full list of honours can be found at the List of British Special Constables awarded honours with seven members of the Special Constabulary being awarded MBEs and BEMs in the 2019 New Year Honours. Due to a loophole in legislation, special constables in England and Wales are not eligible to be nominated for award of the Queen's Police Medal, whereas special constables in Scotland are eligible for nomination. The Association of Special Constabulary Chief Officers made representation to the Home Office requesting clarification in 2016.

The Lord Ferrers' Awards recognise outstanding contributions to volunteering in policing. The awards, previously known as the Special Constable and Police Support Volunteer Awards, highlight the vital role volunteers play in support of policing, by giving up their free time to make communities safer, and enhancing the effectiveness of policing across England and Wales. In 2013, they were renamed in memory of Lord Ferrers, the former Home Office minister who created the awards in 1993.[62]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Police workforce, England and Wales: 30 September 2018". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  2. ^ icebomb.co.uk, Marc - (2018-03-12). "Number of Special Constables in Scotland has more than halved since 2013 - Scottish Conservatives". Scottish Conservatives. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  3. ^ Police Specials website: history (accessed 3 November 2006)
  4. ^ PoliceSpecials.com - History of the Special Constabulary
  5. ^ "Lincolnshire Special Constabulary Bulletin No.27-September, 1942". Archived from the original on 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2009-07-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  6. ^ The HAC Special Constabulary website[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ ACC Richard Debicki (2018). "Special Constabulary National Strategy 2018-2023" (PDF). NPCC. p. 13. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  8. ^ Durham Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  9. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  10. ^ Hampshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  11. ^ Merseyside Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  12. ^ Northamptonshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  13. ^ South Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  14. ^ South Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  15. ^ Wiltshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  16. ^ Avon and Somerset Constabulary"Avon and Somerset Constabulary Website - Police Ranks", Viewed 21 January 2019
  17. ^ Bedfordshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  18. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  19. ^ Cambridgeshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  20. ^ British Transport Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  21. ^ Cleveland Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  22. ^ Derbyshire Constabulary"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  23. ^ Devon and Cornwall Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  24. ^ Dorset Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  25. ^ Dyfed-Powys Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  26. ^ Essex Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  27. ^ Gloucestershire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  28. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  29. ^ Gwent Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  30. ^ Hampshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  31. ^ Hertfordshire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  32. ^ Lancashire Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  33. ^ Leicestershire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  34. ^ Lincolnshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  35. ^ Metropolitan Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  36. ^ Norfolk Contabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  37. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  38. ^ North Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  39. ^ Nottinghamshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  40. ^ Police Scotland "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  41. ^ Staffordshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  42. ^ South Wales Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  43. ^ Suffolk Constabulary "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  44. ^ Thames Valley Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  45. ^ Warwickshire Police"Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  46. ^ West Mercia Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  47. ^ West Midlands Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  48. ^ West Yorkshire Police "Special Constabulary Ranks FOI Request 2019", January 2019
  49. ^ Police and Justice Act 2006
  50. ^ Police (Scotland) Act 1967
  51. ^ Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000
  52. ^ Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003
  53. ^ Commitment to the Community, Specials magazine published by Story Worldwide for the Home Office (Summer 2006)
  54. ^ Special Beat
  55. ^ Specials magazine Autumn 2006
  56. ^ Special Beat magazine produced on behalf of the NPIA (National Policing Improvement Agency) for Special Constabulary members in England & Wales
  57. ^ Specials magazine Autumn 2005
  58. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2010-03-31. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  59. ^ a b "Met Police to fill London Olympics security roles with special constables - 1/22/2010 - Personnel Today". Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  60. ^ Burns, John F. (14 July 2012). "Amid Reports of Ineptitude, Concerns Over Security at London Olympics". The New York Times.
  61. ^ Leon (1989), "The mythical history of the 'specials'", Liverpool Law Journal, 11 (2): 187–197, doi:10.1007/BF01079404
  62. ^ "Lord Ferrers Awards 2018". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2019-04-28.

External linksEdit