Avon and Somerset Constabulary
Avon and Somerset Constabulary is the territorial police force in England responsible for policing the county of Somerset and the now-defunct county of Avon, which includes the city and county of Bristol and the unitary authorities of Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire.
|Avon and Somerset Constabulary|
|Motto||Working together to make the communities of Avon and Somerset feel safe and be safe|
|Formed||1 April, 1974|
|Annual budget||£276.1 million (2016–17)|
|Operations jurisdiction||Avon and Somerset, England, UK|
|Map of police area|
|Size||4,800 km2 (1,855 mi2)|
|Legal jurisdiction||England & Wales|
|General nature||• Local civilian agency|
|Overviewed by||Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Independent Police Complaints Commission|
|Headquarters||Valley Road, Portishead, Bristol, BS20 8QJ|
|Constables||3,102 (of which 364 are Special Constables)|
|Police and Crime Commissioner responsible|
As of September 2017 the force had a workforce of 2,630 police officers, 2,275 police staff, 315 police community support officers and 340 special constables. The constabulary provides service for over 1.6 million people and, in terms of geographic area of responsibility, is the 11th largest in England and Wales.
The police area covered by Avon & Somerset Constabulary today can trace its policing heritage back to the very start of the modern policing system. The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 created municipal boroughs across England and Wales, each with the power to create a borough police force. Prior to this time 'policing' was largely unrecognisable from today's system with watchmen and parish constables providing variable levels of law enforcement, if any, driven largely by magistrates. As a result of the Act the following borough police forces were created within the current Avon and Somerset Constabulary police area: Bath City Police (1836), Bristol Constabulary (1836), Bridgwater Borough Police (1836), Wells City Police (1836), Glastonbury Borough Police, Chard Borough Police (1839), and Yeovil Borough Police (1854).
However, outside of the new boroughs there was no modern police. Therefore, the government introduced the County Police Act 1839 which permitted county authorities to set up county forces to police areas outside of the boroughs. Following these Acts, Gloucestershire Constabulary was created in 1839 which covered what is now the north part of the current police area of Avon & Somerset Constabulary (South Gloucestershire). There was still some opposition to the new model of policing however, and rural Somerset had no police force until 1856. The County and Borough Police Act 1856 mandated that county authorities must set up a constabulary. Somerset Constabulary commenced policing the county in 1856 with Wells City Police and Glastonbury Borough Police merging into the new county force almost immediately, with Yeovil Borough Police following a year later.
Later in the 19th century the Local Government Act 1888 required that all boroughs with populations of less than 10,000 amalgamate their police force with the adjoining county constabulary. This signalled the end of Chard Borough Police who merged into Somerset Constabulary on 1 April 1888. In 1940 Bridgwater Borough Police voluntarily became part of Somerset constabulary, the small force having a 101-year history, with the 20 officers of the borough police becoming Somerset County officers upon merger.
During the 20th century the number of individual police forces across the United Kingdom was reduced across the country on grounds of efficiency. The Police Act 1964 gave the Home Secretary the power to enforce amalgamations but this was not required when Somerset Constabulary and Bath City Police voluntarily agreed to merge forming the Somerset and Bath Constabulary on 1 January 1967. This resulted in 3 police forces left covering the geographic area which is now the responsibility of Avon & Somerset Constabulary; these being Somerset and Bath Constabulary, Bristol Constabulary and Gloucestershire Constabulary covering the extreme north. This situation ended 7 years later on 1 April 1974 following the implementation the Local Government Act 1972 which created Avon and Somerset Constabulary following the amalgamation of Somerset and Bath Constabulary with Bristol Constabulary and the southern part of Gloucestershire Constabulary.
Chief Constables of the ConstabularyEdit
|Chief Constable||Term Started||Term Ended|
|Kenneth Steele**||1 April 1974||31 August 1979|
|Brian Weigh||1 September 1979||1983|
|David J. Shattock||1989||1998|
|Stephen Pilkington||February 1998||December 2004|
|Colin Port||27 January 2005||December 2012|
|Rob Beckley QPM (acting for 4 months)||December 2012||March 2013|
|Nick Gargan||4 March 2013||13 May 2014 (suspended)|
16 October 2015 (resigned)
|John Long (acting)||13 May 2014||31 August 2015|
|Gareth Morgan (acting for 4 months)||1 September 2015||31 January 2016|
|Andy Marsh QPM||1 February 2016||incumbent|
**First Chief Constable of Avon & Somerset Constabulary upon its formation. Had been Chief Constable of one of the preceding forces – Somerset and Bath Constabulary from 1967, and prior to that had been Chief Constable of Somerset Constabulary from 1955 (prior to its merger with Bath City Police).
Colin Port served as the Chief Constable of the Constabulary since January 2005, however after the Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) Sue Mountstevens announced on 22 November 2012 that she would invite applications for the role rather than extending his contract, Port decided not to re-apply for the position and retired in March 2013. In January 2013, Port took the PCC to court to seek an injunction to block the interviews of candidates for the post of Chief Constable, however the case did not succeed.
Nick Gargan was appointed as the next Chief Constable in March 2013, however just over a year later in mid-May 2014, Gargan was suspended by Commissioner Mountstevens following allegations of 'inappropriate behaviour towards female officers and staff'. The enquiry into the allegations was referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC). Gargan is reported by the Commissioner to have denied the allegations.
During the first part of Gargan's suspension, the force was run by Deputy Chief Constable, John Long. Long stood down as acting Chief Constable at the end of August 2015, where he was replaced by Gareth Morgan who was serving as Deputy Chief Constable for Long. Gargan resigned from the position in October 2015.
Morgan continued serving as acting Chief Constable after Gargan's resignation until Commissioner Mountstevens appointed Andy Marsh, the former Chief Constable of the Hampshire Constabulary, as the new Chief Constable of the Constabulary in February 2016.
The constabulary is overseen by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Commissioner, a new elected position which replaced the Avon and Somerset Police Authority in November 2012. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Avon and Somerset Police and Crime Panel, consisting of elected councillors from the police area. The first police and crime commissioner, who was elected on 15 November 2012 and took office on 21 November 2012, is Sue Mountstevens. She had previously been a magistrate and a member of the police authority, and had stood for election as an independent.
Organisation and senior managementEdit
This section needs to be updated.(September 2018)
The headquarters of the force is currently Portishead in North Somerset, close to the B3124, it was chosen as the site for the new HQ when the Bristol Constabulary's Bridewell Headquarters was deemed to be too small to continue serving as the Force's HQ. The Portishead complex cost £31 million to construct and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 2 June 1995.
In 2014 the force moved into three new police and custody centres in Bridgwater, Patchway and Keynsham. At that time they announced that a third of its other premises will be closed by 2019.
Bath and North East SomersetEdit
Basic Command Unit structureEdit
Each Basic Command Unit (BCU) has several specialist teams, namely:
- Neighbourhood Policing Team (NPTs), each with local Beat Managers and PCSOs. The NPTs concentrate on preventing and detecting local crime and targeting offenders, building contacts in the local community, resolving problems by working with local organisations and individuals, and being visible and accessible.
- Targeted Patrol Teams responding to emergency calls.
- Traffic Units patrol the roads and target and pursue people committing traffic offences, this includes Traffic PCSO's.
- Criminal Investigation Departments (CID) detect serious crime
- Forensic Services investigate crime scenes for forensic evidence that may correspond with many of the Home Office databases.
- Pro-active Policing Units target persistent criminals and focus on specific operations.
- Dog Units are officers who patrol with dogs and respond to incidents where a police dog is required.
To support the BCUs, several centralised teams operate from the Portishead headquarters:
The National Police Air Service is now responsible for providing air support to all the police forces of England & Wales. There is one NPAS base with the force area at Filton Aerodrome, however it should be noted that this helicopter is not devoted to servicing Avon & Somerset Police but will cover any force within flying distance.
Road Policing UnitEdit
The Road Policing Unit (RPU) is now part of a Tri Force Collaboration with Wiltshire and Gloucestershire Constabularies that is specifically focused on policing the roads and motorways of Avon and Somerset and the adjoining police areas. This collaboration also encompasses the Armed Response Units and Police Dog Patrols. The RPU has 55 cars and 28 motorcycles. The RPU has three bases, Almondsbury, Weston-Super-Mare and Taunton.
Support Group UnitEdit
Avon and Somerset Constabulary has a Support Group that specialise in very specific needs of investigations or missions, such as police divers, football match management and explosive searching. The officers chosen for Support Group duties are physically elite and have passed extensive tests.
Mounted Division UnitEdit
Although considered a luxury in other forces, Avon and Somerset Constabulary have a division of mounted police due to the many events that attract large crowds in the area such as Badminton Horse Trials, Glastonbury Festival and Bristol Rovers Football Club. The unit consists of 12 bred bay geldings. The unit is occasionally loaned to neighbouring forces as Avon and Somerset are the only West Country police force with a mounted division.
Avon and Somerset Police officers wear the traditional custodian helmet in the rose style with a Brunswick star that reads 'Avon and Somerset Constabulary', for foot patrol. And a peaked cap for when on mobile patrol in vehicles, and a white peaked cap for traffic officers. Female officers wear a bowler hat, or a white bowler hat for traffic officers.
When on duty officers wear the new style black wicking shirt, covered with a black stab vest reading 'Police' on the front and back. Avon and Somerset no longer use the traditional NATO police jumper, having favoured the black fleece with 'Police' written on the chest and back. Avon and Somerset officers do not have Brunswick stars on their epaulettes, just the rank and/or collar number. Female officers do not wear the black and white checkered cravat.
Formal dress comprises an open-necked tunic, with white shirt/blouse and tie. Constables and Sergeants wear custodian helmet's and collar numbers on their epaulettes, all higher-ranked officers wear peaked caps, name badges and their rank on their epaulettes. The No.1 uniform is accompanied by black boots or shoes and occasionally black gloves, or brown gloves for the rank of Inspector and above.
Avon and Somerset Constabulary use a variety of standard UK Police equipment including TETRA digital radios, rigid handcuffs, PAVA spray and the ASP collapsible baton. Some officers also routinely carry the TASER Stun device designed to electrically shock a subject making them fall to the ground and to be subdued.
During late 2009 Avon and Somerset Constabulary introduced mobile data terminals and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to some of its operational vehicles and front line officers. This is steadily being rolled out across the force. Most front line officers now have their own PDA designed to assist the officer in his/her day to day tasks and allows them to spend more time out of the station.
The Avon and Somerset Constabulary uses the modern blue and yellow retro-reflective square Battenburg markings on all of its operational vehicles. This style of livery was introduced in 2005, when the traditional 'jam sandwich' style police markings were removed in favour of the new livery, thought to aid officers responding to emergency calls by allowing the public to quickly and clearly identify the vehicle as belonging to the police. The square livery also aids in the visibility of the force, which is perceived to enhance public confidence. Marked vehicles also show the force's Internet address on the rear and the word 'POLICE' across the bonnet. However, the force's crest is no longer used on most vehicles.
Strength and recruitmentEdit
Avon and Somerset Constabulary employs 5,939 people and 324 police volunteers within the Special Constabulary. As of March 2017, 3,102 are Police Officers, 334 are Police Community Support Officers and 2,503 are support staff.
A report has described Avon and Somerset Constabulary as at 'tipping point' due to financial pressure and increasing work load. The region faces complex threats from Islamism, from right-wing extremists trying to incite anti Muslim hatred and from left-wing extremists. The report states, “We now face a tipping point. We cannot sustain further funding cuts without extremely serious consequences.” There is concern how far the force can protect its population from terrorism. The report expresses concern over management of offenders and over increasing demands due to people with mental health problems. By May 2017 1,926 registered sexual offenders were in the region. The constabulary manages over 11,000 offenders. Nearly 2,000 “high risk” people, including domestic abusers, violent offenders, sexual offenders, robbers and burglars are not under formal management. Andy Marsh, Chief Constable said, “Our continuing ability to safeguard communities, protect the vulnerable, and manage major incidents of this kind is being severely tested. It’s simply not sustainable. There are serious choices to be made.”
British Crime SurveyEdit
Avon and Somerset are making varied progress in fighting crime and maintaining public support. Overall 124,89 crimes were recorded in Avon and Somerset during 2009/10. Nationally recorded crime fell by 9%.
This included a 22% fall in car crime, a 19% fall in fraud, a 13% fall for robbery and criminal damage. However assault and sex crimes rose by 1% and 'Other Crimes' including public order offences, dangerous driving, possession of firearms, going equipped for stealing, and perverting the course of justice rose by 26%.
In perceptions of police and crime, 65.2% of residents in Avon and Somerset believe that Avon and Somerset Constabulary is dealing with 'anti-social behaviour and crime that matters' in their area.
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of ConstabularyEdit
For the year of 2009/10 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary rated Avon and Somerset Constabulary as 'Fair' all categories including 'Local Crime', 'Protection from harm' and 'Satisfaction and Confidence'. It was particularly 'Good' in 'Reducing road death and injury' and particularly 'Poor' in 'Comparative satisfaction of BME [black and minority ethnic] community'. In value for money the force received 'Medium/High' status.
Independent Police Complaints CommissionEdit
For the year of 2007/8 the Independent Police Complaints Commission received 800 complaint cases, an increase of 18& from 2006/7, compared to a 0% increase nationally. From which 1231 allegations were made, including 'Other neglect or failure in duty' and 'Incivility, Impoliteness and Intolerance' both 6% and 3% respectively lower than the national average. Avon and Somerset Constabulary was second lowest in its seven strong peer group.
Of the 1231 allegations made, 40% were investigated, 8% higher than the national average, 41% were resolved locally and 19% were withdrawn, dispensed with or discontinued. Of the 40% investigated, 12% were substantiated and 88% were unsubstantiated.
The force has been strongly criticised over the death of James Herbert aged 25. Herbert who had mental health issues was restrained and left wearing a winter coat alone in a hot police van during a 45-minute drive sometimes at 60 mph on a hot summer evening. At the police station Herbert was unresponsive and was put naked into a police cell instead of being taken to hospital. Herbert developed cardiac arrest. Deborah Coles of Inquest said, “James was detained by the police for his safety. He should have been treated as a patient in need of medical care. Instead, he suffered a traumatic but entirely preventable death involving prolonged and brutal restraint.” The police did not get mental health support for Herbert. It is claimed Avon and Somerset police have improved their procedures since the Herbert incident but other police forces continue with previous practise.
In 2006 the Home Office announced plans to reduce the number of police forces in the UK from 42 to 24 in an attempt to save money. The plans were abandoned later that year due to lack of funding for the mergers, however the idea has resurfaced many times.
The plans have been publicly criticised by all the involved forces, stating that it would lead to poor quality service and a reduction in local policing.
In February 2010 plans for a merger of the four South West police forces: Avon and Somerset, Wiltshire, Dorset, Gloucestershire and Devon and Cornwall were re-evaluated by the Home Office in a bid to reduce spending. All of the forces except Avon and Somerset were against an amalgamation. Following this Avon and Somerset Constabulary began purchasing uniform and equipment without the force crest. Instead identifying marks just read 'Police' without a force crest or reference to Avon and Somerset, the proposed merger to create a South Western Police Force has still not been ruled out as the Home Office and Central Government look to save funding.
Race and sex discrimination in recruitmentEdit
In 2006, the force admitted it had contravened the Sex Discrimination Act and Race Relations Act when it deselected 186 white male candidates from its recruitment process solely because of their gender and race. Ralph Welsman, one of those discriminated against, sued the constabulary for their breach of employment laws and he received compensation in an out of court settlement. The policy was condemned by both the Police Federation and Commission for Racial Equality and it has now been abandoned.
In August 2015, officers from the Avon and Somerset force Tasered a disabled man, who had the mental age of a seven year old. The man was charge with assaulting an officer but the case collapsed after defence lawyers provide CCTV of the alleged assault to prosecutors. The police watchdog said that the actions of the officer who failed to gather the CCTV evidence "fell below the standard expected", but concluded there was no wrongdoing. Campaigners and local politicians argued that the case represented “another incident of excessive and unnecessary” use of the weapon in Bristol. In response to the case, the force appointed a "dedicated lead for autism" and committed to ensuring that all new officers and civilian investigators undergo training covering "autism spectrum conditions and other non-visible disabilities".
In January 2017 the force referred itself to the Independent Police Complaints Commission following an incident when officers used a Taser on a black community activist who was trying to enter his own home. They mistook him for a wanted person. The incident was captured on video by a member of the public and by the officers' own body cameras.
Nepotistic gross misconductEdit
In March 2018, it was reported that an officer from the Avon and Somerset force had allegedly tried to prevent his daughter from being prosecuted for using her mobile phone while driving, in October 2017. Documents issues ahead of an official inquiry alleged that the officer "deliberately sought to place pressure on the special constables to take no action against his daughter". A three-day tribunal, held in early April 2018, ruled that the PC had been guilty of gross misconduct and dismissed him without notice. The tribunal panel concluded it was a "very sad case" which involved "disgraceful conduct over an hour or so".
Officers killed in the line of dutyEdit
The Police Memorial Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, and since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers. Officers killed include:
- Supt William Balkwill, 1900: Fatally injured while restraining a violent prisoner.
- DC Reginald Charles Grady, 1945: Collapsed and died during a violent arrest.
- PC David George Petch: Died 24 October 1981, aged 31, Killed when his traffic patrol car crashed following a speeding car.
- PC Peter Leonard Deans and PC Jonathan Michael Stapley, 1984: During a car chase their vehicle crashed and Deans and Stapley were fatally injured.
- WPC Deborah Leat, 1986: During a car chase Leat's vehicle crashed and she was fatally injured.
- PC Stephen Jones, 1999: Attempted to stop a stolen vehicle but was run over by it.
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