Crewe (/kr/) is a railway town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East in Cheshire, England. The civil parish of Crewe had a population of 55,318 in the 2021 census.[3] The larger Crewe built-up area, which also covers parts of the adjacent civil parishes of Willaston, Shavington cum Gresty and Wistaston, had a total population of 76,437 in 2021.[1]

Clockwise, from top: Crewe Municipal Buildings; Crewe railway station; Market Hall; Crewe Arms Hotel and; Crewe Town Clock
Crewe is located in Cheshire
Location within Cheshire
Population76,437 (built-up area, 2021)[1]
OS grid referenceSJ705557
• London147 miles (237 km)[2] SE
Civil parish
  • Crewe
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townCREWE
Postcode districtCW1-CW3
Dialling code01270
AmbulanceNorth West
UK Parliament
WebsiteCrewe Town Council
List of places
53°05′56″N 2°26′24″W / 53.099°N 2.44°W / 53.099; -2.44

Crewe is perhaps best known as a large railway junction and home to Crewe Works; for many years, it was a major railway engineering facility for manufacturing and overhauling locomotives, but now much reduced in size. From 1946 until 2002, it was also the home of Rolls-Royce motor car production. The Pyms Lane factory on the west of the town now exclusively produces Bentley motor cars. Crewe is 158 miles (254 km) northwest of London, 28 miles (45 km) south of Manchester city centre, and 31 miles (50 km) southeast of Liverpool city centre.

History Edit

Medieval Edit

The name derives from an Old Welsh word criu, meaning 'weir' or 'crossing'.[4] The earliest record is in the Domesday Book, where it is written as Creu.

Modern Edit

Crewe Municipal Buildings

Until the Grand Junction Railway (GJR) company chose Crewe as the site for its locomotive works and railway station in the late 1830s, Crewe was a village with a population (c. 1831) of just 70 residents.[5] Winsford, 7 miles (11 km) to the north, had rejected an earlier proposal, as had local landowners in neighbouring Nantwich, 4 miles (6 km) away. Crewe railway station was built in fields near to Crewe Hall and was completed in 1837.

The modern urban settlement of Crewe was not formally planned out until 1843 by Joseph Locke to consolidate the "railway colony" that had grown up since around 1840–41 in the area near to the railway junction station opened in 1837, even though it was called Crewe by many, from the start.[6][7] Crewe was thus named after the railway station, rather than the other way round.

The new town of Crewe was founded next to the railway station in the township of Monks Coppenhall which, with the township of Church Coppenhall, formed the ancient parish of Coppenhall.[8] The railway station was named after the township of Crewe (then, part of the ancient parish of Barthomley) in which it was located.[9] Eventually, the township of Crewe became a civil parish in its own right also named, rather confusingly, Crewe.[10] This civil parish changed its name to Crewe Green in 1974 to avoid confusion with the adjacent town, which had been made a municipal borough in 1877.[11]

The railway station remained part of the civil parish of Crewe, outside the boundary of the municipal borough until 1936.[12] So, throughout its history, the town of Crewe has neither been part of, nor has it encompassed first the township of Crewe, later the civil parish of Crewe, and later still the civil parish of Crewe Green adjacent to it, even though these places were the direct origin of the name of the town via the railway station which was also not part of the town before 1936. An old, local riddle describes the somewhat unusual states of affairs: "The place which is Crewe is not Crewe, and the place which is not Crewe is Crewe."[13]

Crewe War Memorial

A new town grew up, in the parishes of Monks Coppenhall and Church Coppenhall, alongside the increasingly busy station, with the population expanding to reach 40,000 by 1871. GJR chief engineer Joseph Locke helped lay out the town.[5]

The town has a large park, Queen's Park (laid out by engineer Francis Webb), the land for which was donated by the London and North Western Railway, the successor to the GJR. It has been suggested that their motivation was to prevent the rival Great Western Railway building a station on the site, but the available evidence indicates otherwise.[14]

The railway provided an endowment towards the building and upkeep of Christ Church. Until 1897 its vicar, non-conformist ministers and schoolteachers received concessionary passes, the school having been established in 1842. The company provided a doctor's surgery with a scheme of health insurance. A gasworks was built and the works water supply was adapted to provide drinking water and a public baths. The railway also opened a cheese market in 1854 and a clothing factory for John Compton who provided the company uniforms, while McCorquodale of Liverpool set up a printing works.

During World War II the strategic presence of the railways and Rolls-Royce engineering works (turned over to producing aircraft engines) made Crewe a target for enemy air raids, and it was in the flight path to Liverpool.[15] The borough lost 35 civilians to these,[16] the worst raid was on 29 August 1940 when some 50 houses were destroyed, close to the station.[17]

Crewe crater on Mars is named after the town of Crewe. Crewe was described by author Alan Garner in his novel Red Shift as "the ultimate reality".

Crewe was mentioned in 1984 as the setting of the 19th episode The Flying Kipper, in the first series of Thomas & Friends.

Governance Edit

Crewe is within the United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency of Crewe and Nantwich. Crewe is within the ceremonial county of Cheshire.

Since April 2009 Crewe has been administered by the unitary authority, Cheshire East Council; at parish level, since 4 April 2013, local matters have been dealt with by Crewe Town Council, which is based at 1 Chantry Court, Forge Street, Crewe, CW1 2DL.[18]

Crewe applied for City status as part of the Platinum Jubilee Civic Honours in 2022.[19] The application was unsuccessful and Crewe remains a town.[20]

Climate Edit

Like most of the United Kingdom, Crewe has an oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters and relatively little temperature change throughout the year.[21]

Economy Edit

Bentley's Pyms Lane factory

The railways still play a part in local industry at Crewe Works, which carries out train maintenance and inspection. It has been owned by Bombardier Transportation since 2001. At its height, the site employed over 20,000 people, but by 2005 fewer than 1,000 remained, with a further 270 redundancies announced in November of that year. Much of the site once occupied by the works has been sold and is now occupied by a supermarket, leisure park, and a large new health centre.

There is still an electric locomotive maintenance depot to the north of the railway station, operated by DB Cargo UK. The diesel locomotive maintenance depot, having closed in 2003, reopened in 2015 as a maintenance facility for Locomotive Services Limited, having undergone major structural repairs.[22][23]

The Bentley car factory is on Pyms Lane to the west of town. As of early 2010, there are about 3,500 working at the site.[24] The factory used to produce Rolls-Royce cars, until the licence for the brand transferred from Bentley's owners Volkswagen to rival BMW in 2003.

There is a BAE Systems Land & Armaments factory in the village of Radway Green near Alsager, producing small arms ammunition for the British armed forces.

The headquarters of Focus DIY, which went into administration in 2011, was in the town. Off-licence chain Bargain Booze is also Crewe-based. It was bought-out in 2018 by Sir Anwar Pervez' conglomerate Bestway for £7m,[25] putting drinks retailing alongside its Manchester-based Well Pharmacy.

Several business parks around the town host light industry and offices. Crewe Business Park is a 67-acre site with offices, research and IT manufacturing. Major presences on the site include Air Products and Chemicals, Barclays and Fujitsu. The 12 acre Crewe Gates Industrial Estate is adjacent to Crewe Business Park, with smaller industry including the ice cream van manufacturer Whitby Morrison. The Weston Gate area has light industry and distribution. Marshfield Bank Employment Park is to the west of the town, and includes offices, manufacturing and distribution. There are industrial and light industrial units at Radway Green.

The town has two small shopping centres: the Victoria Centre and the Market Centre. There are outdoor markets throughout the week. Grand Junction Retail Park is just outside the centre of town. Nantwich Road provides a wide range of secondary local shops, with a variety of small retailers and estate agents.

The Market Centre is the largest shopping centre in Crewe. It is situated in the heart of the town centre with a few national retailers, including Wilko, Argos and Iceland. There are three large car parks nearby and Crewe bus station is a five-minute walk from the shopping centre. It has a weekly footfall of approximately 100,000 visitors.

Developments Edit

A planned redevelopment of Crewe's town centre, including the current bus station and main shopping area, was abandoned because of "difficult economic conditions" during 2008.[26]

There were also plans to revamp the railway station which involved moving it to Basford. This was pending a public consultation by Network Rail scheduled for autumn 2008, but no such public consultation was done. The plan was abandoned and maintenance work was carried out on the current station instead.[27]

Cheshire East Council developed a new regeneration master plan for Crewe,[28] which included the opening of a new Lifestyle Centre, with a new swimming pool, gym and library.

After a £3 million refurbishment, the Crewe Market Hall re-opened its doors on 19 May 2021, the start of many new developments in Crewe.[citation needed]

Crewe has been proposed as the site of a transport hub for the new High Speed 2 line, with development planned for completion in 2027.[29]

Transport Edit

Platform 12 at Crewe railway station, before the roof over it was replaced

Railway Edit

Crewe railway station is located less than a mile from the town centre, although it was not incorporated into the then Borough of Crewe until 1937. It is one of the largest stations in the North West and is a major interchange station on the West Coast Main Line. It has 12 platforms in use.

The station is served by several train operating companies:

Roads Edit

Crewe is on the A500, A530 and A534 roads; it is located less than 5 miles (8 km) from the M6 motorway.[35]

Buses Edit

Bus services in Crewe are operated predominantly by D&G Bus; their routes link the town with Congleton (route 42), Leighton Hospital (12), Macclesfield (38), Nantwich (84X) and Northwich (31/37).[36]

Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire runs route 84 to Chester and First Potteries operate a single service (route 3) running to Stoke-on-Trent, via Kidsgrove.[37]

Airport Edit

The closest airport to Crewe is Manchester Airport, which is 30 miles (48 km) away; Liverpool John Lennon Airport is 40 miles (64 km) away.

Culture Edit

Crewe Heritage Centre is located in the old LMS railway yard for Crewe railway station. The museum has three signal boxes and an extensive miniature railway with steam, diesel and electric traction. The most prominent exhibit of the museum is the British Rail Class 370 Advanced Passenger Train.

Lyceum Theatre

The Grade II-listed Edwardian Lyceum Theatre is in the centre of Crewe. It was built in 1911 and shows drama, ballet, opera, music, comedy and pantomime.[38] The theatre was originally located on Heath Street from 1882. The Axis Arts Centre is on the Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) campus in Crewe. It relocated from the university's Alsager Campus when it closed. The centre has a programme of touring new performance and visual art work.[39] The Axis centre closed at the end of the spring 2019 season with the withdrawal of MMU from the Crewe campus.[40] The Box on Pedley Street is the town's main local music venue.

Both the Lyceum Theatre and the Axis Arts Centre feature galleries. The private Livingroom art gallery is on Prince Albert Street. The town's main library is on Prince Albert Square, opposite the Municipal Buildings.

Crewe has six Anglican churches, three Methodist, one Roman Catholic (which has a weekly Mass in Polish) and two Baptist.[41]

There is a museum dedicated to Primitive Methodism in the nearby village of Englesea-Brook.[42]

The Jacobean mansion Crewe Hall is located to the east of the town near Crewe Green. It is a grade I listed building, built in 1615–36 for Sir Randolph Crewe. Today, it is used as a hotel, restaurant and health club.

There is a multiplex Odeon cinema on Phoenix Leisure Park on the edge of the town centre, as well as a Mecca bingo hall.

Queens Park is the town's main park; £6.5 million was spent on its restoration in 2010.[43] It features walkways, a children's play area, crown green bowling, putting, a boating lake, grassed areas, memorials and a café.[44] Jubilee Gardens are in Hightown and there is also a park on Westminster Street.

In 2019, Crewe hosted Pride in the Park (previously held at Tatton Park in 2018) in Queens Park. The 2020 event, which had been due to take place on 12 September, was cancelled on 20 May, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[45]

Media Edit

Local news and television programmes are provided by BBC North West and ITV Granada from the Winter Hill TV transmitter.

The weekly Crewe Chronicle and the daily Sentinel newspapers cover the town. Cheshire Live, an online news source that covers news across Cheshire, also has a section dedicated to Crewe news.[46]

The local radio station is The Cat[47] broadcasting on 107.9FM from the Cheshire College South and West building covering the town along with Nantwich and other local settlements. Other radio stations that cover the area include Silk 106.9 from Macclesfield, Signal 1 and Greatest Hits Radio Staffordshire & Cheshire from Stoke-on-Trent and BBC Radio Stoke. Nantwich-based online-only station RedShift Radio also cover the area. Sonnet Radio is a Crewe based online-only station ran by volunteers. It covers Crewe and surrounding areas broadcasting 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.[citation needed]

Education Edit

Cheshire has adopted the comprehensive school model of secondary education, so all of the schools under its control cater for pupils of all levels of ability.[48] Until the late 1970s Crewe had two grammar schools, Crewe Grammar School for Boys, now Ruskin High School and Crewe Grammar School for Girls, now the Oaks Academy (formerly Kings Grove School). The town's two other secondary schools are Sir William Stanier School, a specialist technology and arts academy, and St. Thomas More Catholic High School, specialising in mathematics and computing and modern foreign languages.

Although there are eight schools for those aged 11–16 in Crewe and its surrounding area, South Cheshire College is one of only two local providers of education for pupils aged 16 and over, and the only one in Crewe. The college also provides educational programmes for adults, leading to qualifications such as Higher National Diplomas (HNDs) or foundation degrees. In the 2006–07 academic year 2,532 students aged 16–18 were enrolled, along with 3,721 adults.[49]

Manchester Metropolitan University's (MMU) Cheshire Faculty is based in Crewe, in a part of town which has been rebranded as the University Quadrant. The campus offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in five areas: business and management, contemporary arts, exercise and sport science, interdisciplinary studies, education and teacher training.[50] The campus underwent a £70 million investment in its facilities and buildings in 2015.[51] The campus was used as a pre-games training camp for the London 2012 Olympic Games.[52]

Since 2016, there has been a University Technical College for 14-19 year olds interested in automotive or railway engineering.[53]

Sport Edit

Mornflake Stadium/Gresty Road

Crewe's local football club is Crewe Alexandra. During the late 20th century the club enjoyed something of a renaissance under the management of Dario Gradi, playing in the second tier of the professional pyramid for eight seasons in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Crewe Alexandra currently play in League Two (the fourth tier), having been relegated from League One in April 2022. In 2013 the club won its first major silverware after beating Southend United 2–0 in the EFL Trophy final at Wembley.

From the early 1980s, Crewe Alexandra built a reputation for developing young players through its youth ranks: England internationals Geoff Thomas, Danny Murphy, David Platt, Rob Jones and Dean Ashton, plus Northern Ireland's Neil Lennon and Steve Jones, and Wales's Robbie Savage and David Vaughan all passed through the club. Among their earlier most notable home-grown players was Frank Blunstone, born in the town in 1934, who was transferred from "The Alex" to Chelsea in 1953, and went on to win five England caps. Internationals Bruce Grobbelaar and Stan Bowles were also on the books at one time in their careers.

Crewe's local rugby clubs are both based in or near Nantwich. The Crewe & Nantwich Steamers (formerly Crewe Wolves), who played in the Rugby League Conference, were based at Barony Park, Nantwich, while Crewe and Nantwich RUFC play their home games at the Vagrants Sports Ground in Willaston.

Speedway racing was staged in Crewe in the pioneer days of the late 1920s to early 1930s; the stadium in Earle Street also operated from 1969 until 1975 when the Crewe Kings raced in British League Division Two, then the National League. At the time the track was the longest and fastest in the UK.[54] Crewe Kings riders included Phil Crump (father of Jason Crump), Les Collins (brother of Peter Collins), Dave Morton (brother of Chris Morton), Geoff Curtis, John Jackson, Jack Millen and Dave Parry. Grand Junction Retail Park occupies the site of the now demolished stadium.[55]

The Crewe Railroaders are the town's American football team, currently competing in the BAFA Central League Division 2 and the subject of the film Gridiron UK, which premiered at the Lyceum Theatre on 29 September 2016.

Crewe also has its own roller derby team, Railtown Loco Rollers, founded in September 2013. They skate at Sir William Stanier Leisure Centre and compete with skaters and teams from all over the North West.

Crewe's main leisure facility is the Crewe Lifestyle Centre, which now houses Crewe's main public swimming pool after the Flag Lane premises closed in 2016.[56] Other notable leisure facilities include Sir William Stanier Leisure Centre and Victoria Community Centre.

Since 17 February 2018,[57][58] Crewe's Queens Park has hosted a parkrun each Saturday morning at 9am.

Notable people Edit

Gwyneth Dunwoody
William Hope
Lord Price
Adam Rickitt in 2010
Sir Philip Craven MBE

Politicians Edit

Public service and commerce Edit

Arts Edit

Sport Edit

Town twinning Edit

See also Edit

References Edit


  1. ^ a b "CREWE in Cheshire East (North West England) Built-up Area Subdivision". City Population. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  2. ^ "Coordinate Distance Calculator". Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  3. ^ "CREWE Parish in North West England". City Population. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  4. ^ Mills, David (20 October 2011). A Dictionary of British Place-Names. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199609086. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  5. ^ a b Glancey, Jonathan (6 December 2005), "The beauty of Crewe", The Guardian, London, retrieved 10 August 2007
  6. ^ "Cheshire Historic Towns Survey: Crewe – Archaeological Assessment". Cheshire County Council & English Heritage. 2003. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  7. ^ Ollerhead (2008, pp. 7, 10, 16); Chambers (2007, pp. 76, 94)
  8. ^ Youngs (1991, pp. 15–16); Dunn (1987, p. 26); Ollerhead (2008, p. 10)
  9. ^ Youngs (1991, p. 16); Chambers (2007, pp. 76, 94)
  10. ^ Youngs (1991, p. 16)
  11. ^ Crewe (near Wybunbury), GENUKI (UK & Ireland Genealogy), archived from the original on 1 December 2008, retrieved 3 February 2009
  12. ^ Ollerhead (2008, p. 10)
  13. ^ Curran et al. (1984, p. 2)
  14. ^ [1] Archived 21 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine states: "This can now be totally dispelled as records show the LNWR Co. originally thought their line to Chester would run alongside the river. However, it was discovered the ground was not firm enough and a more northerly route was decided upon. Had the original thought gone ahead it would have taken the land that was eventually used for Queens Park. It is obvious that a rumour became mixed with a proposal to open a station on the present Chester line called Queens Park Halt. To further clarify the situation an entry on 18 December 1886, in the Minute Book of the board of directors of the LNWR, refers to the area being given for a public park."
  15. ^ Discovering Wartime Cheshire 1939-1945. Cheshire County Council Countryside and Recreation. 1985. pp. 47–48. ISBN 0-906759-20-X.
  16. ^ [2] Archived 8 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine CWGC civilian casualty record, Crewe Municipal Borough.
  17. ^ Discovering Wartime Cheshire 1939-1945. p. 49.
  18. ^ "Crewe Town Council Contact Us". Crewe Town Council. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  19. ^ "1/11/2021 - Cheshire East Council supports town council's 'city status' bid". Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  20. ^ Joyner, Lisa (20 May 2022). "Queen's Platinum Jubilee city status: 8 new cities created as part of celebrations". Country Living. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  21. ^ "Crewe Climate".
  22. ^ Crewe Diesel depot is biggest loss as EWS prepares for closure Rail issue 475 26 November 2003 page 6
  23. ^ Hosking to lease Crewe depot Railways Illustrated issue 135 May 2014 page 10
  24. ^ Mark Gillies (10 May 2010). "Going Back in Time at the Bentley Factory". Car and Driver blog. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  25. ^ Fisher, Martyn (6 April 2018). "Bestway buys Bargain Booze". Better Wholesaling. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  26. ^ Developer confident of town upgrades in the face of downturn, Staffordshire Sentinel News and Media, 31 December 2008, retrieved 3 February 2009
  27. ^ "The Sentinel". Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  28. ^ "Cheshire East Council Crewe Vision documents". Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  29. ^ "HS2 Birmingham to Crewe link planned to open six years early". BBC News. 30 November 2015. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  30. ^ "Our latest timetables and ticket info". Avanti West Coast. May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  31. ^ "Timetables". Transport for Wales. May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  32. ^ "Train timetables and schedules". London Northwestern Railway. May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  33. ^ "Timetables". East Midlands Railway. May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  34. ^ "Timetables and engineering information for travel with Northern". Northern Railway. May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  35. ^ "Google Maps".
  36. ^ "Stops in Crewe". Bus Times. 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  37. ^ "Timetables | Potteries". First Bus. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  38. ^ "HQ Theatres". Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  39. ^ Axis Arts Centre website Archived 22 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Neil Mackenzie (Spring 2019). "Spring Season 2019 – Welcome and goodbye!". Axis Arts Centre. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  41. ^ "Crewe Places of Worship, for Places of Worship in Crewe, Cheshire, UK". Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  42. ^ Englsea Brook Chapel and Museum website Archived 30 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "Queen's Park, Crewe". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  44. ^ "Queens Park, Crewe". Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Council cancels this year's Pride event". Cheshire East Council. 20 May 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  46. ^ "Crewe - Cheshire Live". Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  47. ^ "About Us". The Cat 107.9. The Cat Community Radio C.I.C. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  48. ^ Secondary Education, Cheshire County Council, archived from the original on 14 October 2008, retrieved 3 February 2009
  49. ^ South Cheshire College (PDF), Ofsted, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2009, retrieved 3 February 2009
  50. ^ "Profile: Manchester Metropolitan University", Times Online, London: Times Newspapers, 19 June 2008, archived from the original on 8 May 2009, retrieved 25 September 2018
  51. ^ "MMU Cheshire". Study in Cheshire. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  52. ^ "2012 Pre-Games Training Camp". Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  53. ^ Darlington CEng FIET, Paul (26 February 2016). "New UTC for Crewe – Rail Engineer". Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  54. ^ Bamford, R & Jarvis J. (2001). Homes of British Speedway. ISBN 0-7524-2210-3
  55. ^ Sandhu, Nathan (14 October 2015). "Retail hotspot was once home of the Crewe Alexandra Cricket Club". Crewe Chonicle. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  56. ^ "Crewe Lifestyle Centre - Everybody Sport & Recreation". 31 May 2016. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  57. ^ "Results | Crewe parkrun".
  58. ^ Morse, Peter (21 February 2018). "Running: Parkrun has come to Crewe - and it's annoyingly brilliant". Crewe Chronicle. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  59. ^ HANSARD 1803–2005 → People (W) Mr William Wheeldon 1898-1960 Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine retrieved December 2017
  60. ^ The Guardian, Edward Pearce, Sat 19 Apr 2008 Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine retrieved December 2017
  61. ^ The Guardian, Fri 29 Oct 2010 Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine retrieved December 2017
  62. ^ Doughan, David (2004), "Chew, Ada Nield (1870–1945)", Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, retrieved 15 November 2008
  63. ^ The Guardian, John Garside, Wed 5 Aug 2009 Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine retrieved December 2017
  64. ^ The Guardian, Norman Shrapnel, Sat 7 Sep 2002 Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine retrieved December 2017
  65. ^ "Bangor City Players 1876-1939 Who Progressed Into The English Football League". The Citizens Choice. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  66. ^ Profile at
  67. ^ Crewe Lifestyle Centre officially opens Archived 31 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Cheshire East Council. 27 May 2016.
  68. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". (in Polish). Dzierżoniów. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2022.


  • Hornbrook, J (2009), Crewe and its People, Crewe, Cheshire: MPire Books, ISBN 978-0-9538877-2-9
  • Chambers, S (2007), Crewe: A history, Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore, ISBN 978-1-86077-472-0
  • Curran, H; Gilsenan, M; Owen, B; Owen, J (1984), Change at Crewe, Chester: Cheshire Libraries and Museums
  • Dodgson, J. McN. (1971), The place-names of Cheshire. Part three: The place-names of Nantwich Hundred and Eddisbury Hundred, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08049-5
  • Dunn, F. I. (1987), The ancient parishes, townships and chapelries of Cheshire, Chester: Cheshire Record Office and Cheshire Diocesan Record Office, ISBN 0-906758-14-9
  • Langston, K (2006), Made in Crewe: 150 years of engineering excellence, Horncastle, Lincolnshire: Mortons Media Group, ISBN 978-0-9552868-0-3
  • Ollerhead, P (2008), Crewe: History and guide, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7524-4654-7
  • Youngs, F. A. (1991), Guide to the local administrative units of England. (Volume 1: Northern England), London: Royal Historical Society, ISBN 0-86193-127-0

External links Edit