Thane (Marathi: [ˈʈʰaːɳeː]; also known as Thana, the official name until 1996) is a metropolitan city located on the northwestern side of the state of Maharashtra in India. It is an immediate neighbour of Mumbai city proper, and a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. It is situated in the north-eastern portion of the Salsette Island.

Thane
Thana
Thane
From top, left to right: Eastern express highway; Dadoji Kondadev Stadium; Upvan Lake; Hiranandani Estate; and Talao Pali
Nickname: 
City of Lakes
Thane is located in Mumbai
Thane
Thane
Location in Maharashtra, India
Thane is located in Maharashtra
Thane
Thane
Thane (Maharashtra)
Thane is located in India
Thane
Thane
Thane (India)
Coordinates: 19°11′50″N 72°58′20″E / 19.19722°N 72.97222°E / 19.19722; 72.97222
Country India
StateMaharashtra
DistrictThane
Founded byMohamedan and Portuguese Rule
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • Body
 • MayorVacant
 • Deputy MayorVacant
 • Municipal CommissionerMr. Abhijit Bangar
Area
 • Total147 km2 (57 sq mi)
 • Rank15
Elevation
7 m (23 ft)
Population
 (2023)
 • Total2,537,000
 • Rank15
 • Density17,258/km2 (44,700/sq mi)
DemonymThanekar
Language
 • OfficialMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
400601—15
Telephone code022
Vehicle registrationMH-04 (Thane City) MH-05 (Kalyan)
Lok Sabha constituenciesThane
Kalyan
Vidhan Sabha constituenciesThane
Kopri-Pachpakhadi
Ovala-Majiwada
Mumbra-Kalwa
Literacy (2017–18)91.36%
Websitethanecity.gov.in

Thane city is entirely within Thane taluka, one of the seven talukas of Thane district; also, it is the headquarters of the namesake district. With a population of 1,841,488 distributed over a land area of about 147 square kilometres (57 sq mi), Thane city is the 15th most populous city in India with a population of 1,890,000 according to the 2011 census.[1]

Etymology and other names edit

The ancient name of Thana was Śrīsthāna. It appears as Thāna in early medieval Arab sources.[2]

The name Thane has been variously Romanised as Tana,[3] Thana,[4] Thâṇâ,[5] and Thame.[6] Ibn Battuta and Abulfeda knew it as Kukin Tana; Duarte Barbosa as Tana Mayambu.[7] Before 1996, the city was called "Thana", the British spelling of the city, until it was replaced with the more-local name.

History edit

A copper plate dating to AD 1078 was discovered near the foundations of Thane Fort in 1787. A land grant from Arikesara Devaraja, lord of Tagara, wherein he addresses the inhabitants of a city called "Sri Sthanaka".[8] For a long time, it was a military training and recruitment center of the Maratha empire.

British occupied Salsette Island, Thana Fort, Fort Versova and the island fort of Karanja in start of First Anglo-Maratha War but after short time it were recaptured by forces of Haripant Phadke and Tukoji Holkar. It remained under control of Maratha empire until Second Anglo-Maratha War.[9]

Transport edit

Railways edit

Thana was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in Asia. On 16 April 1853, the passenger train service was inaugurated between Bori Bunder (Bombay) and Thane.[10] Covering a distance of 34 km (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives: Sahib, Sindh and Sultan.

Thane is connected with neighbouring suburbs through Central and Trans-Harbour Line Suburban railway network. Thane is a railway junction for the Thane-Vashi & Panvel Harbour Line and Central Line. It is one of the busiest stations in India and handles 654,000 passengers daily.[11][12]

Thane railway station will soon be revamped, Work to start soon on Rs 800-crore project.[13]

Metro edit

As of January 2021, the MMRDA, the nodal agency for building 300 km of vast Metro network, has proposed a plan to build an elevated depot for three Metro lines : 4 (Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali), 4A (Kasarvadavali-Gaimukh), 10 (Gaimukh-Shivaji Nagar) and 11 (Wadala-General Post Office, CSMT) at one stop. This depot is proposed at Mogharpada, Thane. The total project cost is estimated to be ₹ 596.60 crore.[14]

As of 2019, Wadala and Thane are being connected through a Metro line.[15]

On 26 August 2015, the MMRDA sanctioned ₹354 billion for 118 km Mumbai metro network. This includes a 40-km Wadala-Ghatkopar-Thane-Kasarvadavali Metro-4 corridor via Wadala GPO and R.A.Kidwai Marg costing ₹120 billion.[16]

Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) edit

Thane Municipal Corporation started its own transport service on 9 February 1989, known as Thane Municipal Transport (TMT). TMT provides services the city interior and Mumbai suburbs like Mulund, Andheri, Mira road, Nala Sopara, Bhiwandi, Vasai, Virar, Borivali, Vashi, Airoli, Ghatkopar, Dadar, Bandra, BKC, Bhayandar, Kalyan, and Panvel, among others.[17]

Number of — Details
Buses 299
Routes 45
Depots
  1. Anand Nagar (Ghodbunder Road)
  2. Kalwa Depot
  3. Kolshet Depot (proposed)
  4. Mulla Bagh Depot
  5. Wagle Estate Depot
Bus stands 8
Bus stops 874[17]
km travelled per day 63,135
Daily bus trips 7,114
Daily passengers 280,017
Daily income 1,388,547/-
km travelled per day per bus 211
Employees 2,558[17]

Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) edit

 
NMMT Buses

Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) ply in direction towards Vashi and Navi Mumbai. It goes through Airoli, Turbe etc. Most of NMMT buses ply in Thane from the Kalwa area. NMMT connects city of Thane to various parts of Navi Mumbai. NMMT operates buses to Airoli, Rabale, Mahape, Panvel, Vashi, Ghansoli, Nerul, CBD Belapur etc.

Mira Bhayandar Municipal Transport (MBMT) edit

 
MBMT Buses

Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Transport (MBMT) started from 2006. The buses ply from Dahisar Check naka towards Versova [Thane] Check naka. So till now majority of MBMT buses can be taken up at the Check naka only. MBMT has started new services to Thane City from January 2010.

Route Route No Starting Destination (Thane) Route Description
Ordinary 7 Bhayander Railway Station (West) Ghodbunder Village Kashimira[18]
Limited 10 LTD Bhayander Railway Station (West) Thane Railway Station (East) Ghodbunder Road
Ordinary 29 Mira Road Railway Station Marathon Chowk (Teen Haath Naka) Ghodbunder Road

Vasai-Virar Municipal Transport (VVMT) edit

VVMT is the newest public transport, operational from October 2013. The area of Thane City was connected to the Vasai & Virar by the VVMT.

Route Route No Starting Destination (Thane) Route Description
Ordinary 111 Vasai Court/Tahasildar Office Mulund East via Ahmedabad Highway, Ghodbunder Road, Eastern Express Highway, LBS Marg, Mulund West
Ordinary 112 Vasai Court/Tahasildar Office Thane Rly Station East via Ahmedabad Highway, Ghodbunder Road, Eastern Express Highway, Kopri[19]

Future of transport in Thane edit

A light rail network covering 42 km has been proposed in three phases. In the first phase, consultants have suggested connectivity between Balkum and Kolshet via Naupada. It will be 16.05 km long with 14.65 km elevated, and only 1.4 km on the surface, and 11 stations in all.[20]

Geography edit

 
Thane district: places of Interest (1896 map)

Climate edit

Thane has a tropical monsoon climate that borders on a tropical wet and dry climate. The overall climate is equable with high rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures.

In Thane, temperature varies from 22°C to 36°C. Winter temperatures can fall to 12°C at night while summer temperatures can rise to over 40°C at noon. The lowest daytime temperatures are witnessed during the peak of the summer monsoon in July and August when temperatures can drop to about 25°C. Out of total rainfall, 80% rainfall is experienced during June to October. Average annual rainfall is 2000–2500mm and humidity is 61–86%, making it a humid zone.

Climate data for Thane
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
31.3
(88.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
31.9
(89.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
31.0
(87.8)
31.7
(89.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
23.7
(74.7)
26.1
(79.0)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
20.5
(68.9)
18.2
(64.8)
22.1
(71.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.1
(0.12)
1.0
(0.04)
1.5
(0.06)
2.3
(0.09)
25.1
(0.99)
541.3
(21.31)
922.0
(36.30)
539.7
(21.25)
326.9
(12.87)
93.2
(3.67)
19.1
(0.75)
2.3
(0.09)
2,477.5
(97.54)
Source: Government of Maharashtra

Lakes edit

No. Name Image Details Coordinates Area
(in hectares)
1 Ambe Ghosale Lake At Meenatai Thakare Chowk, Castle Mill Naka (Opposite Desai Bunglow) in Uthalsar Ward committee 19°12′18″N 72°58′31″E / 19.2050793°N 72.9752154°E / 19.2050793; 72.9752154 2.77
2 Brahamala Lake Near Babubhai Petrol Pump in Uthalsar Ward Committee 19°12′10″N 72°58′16″E / 19.2027567°N 72.9709916°E / 19.2027567; 72.9709916 0.5173
3 Burbank Lake Inside Hiranandani Estate, between Park Avenue and Wood Street. To the west of it is Lake Enclave. 19°15′36″N 72°58′52″E / 19.2599707°N 72.9811942°E / 19.2599707; 72.9811942 0.5857
4 Datiwali Lake East side of Diva station situated in the marshland of Ulhas river in Mumbra Ward Committee Area 19°11′02″N 73°03′07″E / 19.1839962°N 73.0519473°E / 19.1839962; 73.0519473 0.77
5 Dawala Lake At Ovala in Majiwada-Manpada Prabhag Samiti 1.136
6 Desai Lake On westside of Ulhas river, in Desai village in Mumbra Ward Committee 19°09′51″N 73°04′10″E / 19.1641232°N 73.0694575°E / 19.1641232; 73.0694575 1.75
7 Devasar Lake At the end of Bhayanderpada at foothills of Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Majiwada-Manpada Ward Committee 0.516
8 Diaghar Lake At the outskirts of Diaghar village in Mumbra Ward Committee 19°08′17″N 73°03′05″E / 19.1379237°N 73.051289°E / 19.1379237; 73.051289 0.363
9 Diva Lake Situated just outside Diva station in Mumbra Ward Committee 0.405
10 Gokul Nagar Lake It is a small lake situated in the heart of the city in the midst of Gokulnagar slums in Uthalsar Ward Committee 19°12′32″N 72°58′34″E / 19.2089166°N 72.9761032°E / 19.2089166; 72.9761032 0.325
11 Hariyali Lake Near Thane Railway Station in Kopari Ward Committee 19°11′09″N 72°58′24″E / 19.1857429°N 72.9733627°E / 19.1857429; 72.9733627 0.7939
12 Jail Lake Opp. Post Office beside Jail Water Tank in Uthalsar Ward committee 19°11′59″N 72°58′35″E / 19.1997839°N 72.9762712°E / 19.1997839; 72.9762712 1.43
13 Jogila Lake Near Uthalsar Ward office approx 0.1
14 Kacharali Lake Opp. TMC Head Office in Naupada Ward Committee 19°11′48″N 72°57′50″E / 19.196585°N 72.96397553°E / 19.196585; 72.96397553 2
15 Kalwa Lake Kalwa Ward office. Located close to railway station 2
16 Kasar-Wadavali Lake Majivada, Manpada Ward office 19°16′18″N 72°58′11″E / 19.2715869°N 72.9697747°E / 19.2715869; 72.9697747 4.5173
17 Kausa Lake Mumbra Ward office, Kausa 19°09′56″N 73°01′36″E / 19.1655582°N 73.0266244°E / 19.1655582; 73.0266244 1.5173
18 Kavesar Lake Situated at Waghbill road 2.1746
19 Khardi Lake The lake is situated in premises of khardipada, Shil approx. 1.15
20 Kharegaon Lake Kalwa Ward office 0.7377
21 Khidkali Lake Mumbra Ward office Khidkali Lake is situated on the eastern side of the Thane creek near the Shil phata 1.7
22 Kolbad Lake Uthalsar Ward office 19°12′18″N 72°58′14″E / 19.2050383°N 72.9705398°E / 19.2050383; 72.9705398 1
23 Kolshet Lake Manpada Ward office 19°14′18″N 72°59′16″E / 19.2382826°N 72.9877929°E / 19.2382826; 72.9877929 1
24 Makhamali Talav Uthalsar Ward office 19°11′55″N 72°58′02″E / 19.1985078°N 72.9670846°E / 19.1985078; 72.9670846 1
25 Masunda Lake (Talao Pali)   Masunda Lake ( also known as Talao Pali) is located on West of Thane, in the heart of Thane city. The lake is surrounded by important historic places like Gadkari Rangayatan, St. John church, Kopineshwar temple and Jambli market. There is a Mahadev Dhyan Mandir at the centre of the lake and also a statue of Shivaji Maharaj near the lake. 19°11′35″N 72°58′26″E / 19.193°N 72.974°E / 19.193; 72.974 7.2
26 Naar Lake Naar Lake is situated on outskirts of Thane along the Ghodbunder road 0.7550
27 Phadakepada Lake Mumbra Ward office 19°09′28″N 73°02′11″E / 19.1577508°N 73.0362564°E / 19.1577508; 73.0362564 1.71
28 Railadevi Lake Railadevi Ward office 19°11′21″N 72°57′26″E / 19.1893°N 72.9571°E / 19.1893; 72.9571 8
29 Rewale Lake Majivada-manpada Ward office 19°13′08″N 72°58′44″E / 19.2188281°N 72.9788438°E / 19.2188281; 72.9788438 0.5173
30 Shill Lake Mumbra Ward office 6
31 Shivaji Nagar, Balkumb Lake The lake is situated along old agra road next to water supply line in Balkum area 0.2247
32 Siddheshwar Lake Uthalsar Ward office 19°12′05″N 72°57′51″E / 19.2013031°N 72.9641928°E / 19.2013031; 72.9641928 3
33 Upvan Lake   Lake is located at the foothills of Yeoor. A statue of Lord Shiva is situated in the middle of the lake. A Ganesh temple is situated near lake. 19°13′17″N 72°57′18″E / 19.2213999°N 72.9549703°E / 19.2213999; 72.9549703 6
Reference:[21]

Sports edit

Cricket is the most popular sport in this settlement. Dadoji Kondadev Stadium, a sports arena of cricket is present in the city. Thane comes under jurisdiction of Mumbai Cricket Association, the governing body for cricket in Mumbai. Its players play for Mumbai cricket team in Indian domestic cricket.[22]

Demographics edit

Religion in Thane (2011)[23]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
73.91%
Islam
17.96%
Buddhism
4.18%
Christianity
1.88%
Jainism
1.40%
Others
0.67%
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1901 16,011—    
1911 15,591−2.6%
1921 22,639+45.2%
1931 21,816−3.6%
1941 29,751+36.4%
1951 74,310+149.8%
1961 109,215+47.0%
1971 207,352+89.9%
1981 431,667+108.2%
1991 803,389+86.1%
2001 1,262,551+57.2%
2011 1,841,488+45.9%
Source: Government of India[24]

The population of Thane according to the 2011 census is 1,886,941.[25] The average literacy rate of Thane city is 91.36 percent for where male and female literacy was 94.19 and 88.14 percent respectively. The sex ratio of Thane city is 882 females per 1000 males. Child sex ratio is 900 girls per 1000 boys. Total children (0–6) in Thane city are 186,259 as per Census India report on 2011. There were 98,017 boys while 88,242 are girls. Children form 10.24% of total population of Thane City.

The dominant language spoken in Thane is Marathi. Hindi too is well understood and spoken. Around 70% of population speaks Marathi. Some of the East Indian families in the Khatri ward of Thane still speak Portuguese.[26] About 1,800 of India's approximately 5,000 Jews live in Thane.[27]

Languages in Thane (2011)[28]

  Marathi (48.50%)
  Hindi (19.59%)
  Urdu (12.99%)
  Gujarati (3.93%)
  Bhojpuri (2.44%)
  Kannada (1.37%)
  Malayalam (1.29%)
  Bengali (1.21%)
  Tamil (1.15%)
  Marwari (1.14%)
  Konkani (0.94%)
  Others (5.45%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 48.50% of the population spoke Marathi, 19.59% Hindi, 12.99% Urdu, 3.93% Gujarati, 2.44% Bhojpuri, 1.37% Kannada, 1.29% Malayalam, 1.21% Bengali, 1.15% Tamil, 1.14% Marwari and 0.94% Konkani as their first language.[28]

Education edit

Schools edit

Colleges and Institutes edit

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "District Profile | Thane District, Govt. of Maharashtra | India". Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  2. ^ Verdon, Noémie (2015), "Conceptualisation of al-Hind by Arabic and Persian writers", in Himanshu Prabha Ray (ed.), Negotiating Cultural Identity: Landscapes in Early Medieval South Asian History, Routledge, p. 38, ISBN 978-1-317-34130-7
  3. ^ Butler, Alban; Peter Doyle, eds. (c. 1756), "Bd Thomas of Tolentino", Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, A&C Black, p. 68, ISBN 9780860122531.
  4. ^ Habig, Marion Alphonse (1979), The Franciscan Book of Saints, Franciscan Herald Press, cited in "Thomas of Tolentino and Companions", Roman Catholic Saints, retrieved 9 November 2016.
  5. ^ Cunha, J. Gerson da (1876), Notes on the History and Antiquities of Chaul and Bassein, Bombay, p. 174, ISBN 9788120608450{{citation}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link).
  6. ^ "Bl. Thomas of Tolentino", Catholic Online.
  7. ^ Cunha (1876), p. 16.
  8. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 112.
  9. ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 53–54. ISBN 9788131300343.
  10. ^ Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural and Political encyclopedia By Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, page 135 Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Thane is busiest railway station in Mumbai – Times Of India Archived 11 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (19 May 2013). Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Kalyan, Kurla and Thane among the 10 dirtiest stations in the country". Archived from the original on 30 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Work to start soon on Rs 800-crore revamp of Thane railway station: Maharashtra minister". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 31 May 2023.
  14. ^ "Elevated Metro depot in Thane for 3 lines to cost Rs 596.60 crore". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  15. ^ Soon, take a metro from south Mumbai to Thane Archived 30 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Hindustan Times (23 April 2013). Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  16. ^ Reporter, B. S. (26 August 2015). "MMRDA sanctions Rs 35,400 cr for 118 km Mumbai metro network". Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  17. ^ a b c [1] Archived 13 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Know your Town Better Archived 9 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Mira-Road.com.
  19. ^ [2]. Vasai.com.
  20. ^ Times of India report. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. (26 December 2005).
  21. ^ "Thane Municipal Corporation | Lakes in Thane City". Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  22. ^ "महिला आयपीएल लिलावा ठाण्यात" [Women's Premier League auction in Thane.]. Lokmat. 2 February 2023. p. 10. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  23. ^ "Table C-16 Population By Religion: Maharashtra". census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  24. ^ "Census Tables". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  25. ^ Census of India: Sub-District Details Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  26. ^ Thane Gazetteer: Population: Christians – Speech Archived 10 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  27. ^ "Jew in Thane". The Times of India. 20 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  28. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population By Mother Tongue: Maharashtra (Town level)". census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  29. ^ "Podar International School". podareducation.org. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Best Vocational Education & Training Courses Institute in India | RAGC". Rustomjee Academy For Global Careers. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.

External links edit