Nashik (/ˈnɑːʃɪk/), Marathi: [naːʃik], formerly Nasik (listen))[13] is a city in the northern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Situated on the banks of the river Godavari. The population of Nashik city is around 2.2 million and is emerging as one of the fastest-growing cities in India. Nashik is located about 165 km (103 mi) northeast of the state capital Mumbai, and about 210 km (130 mi) north of Pune. The Mumbai-Pune-Nashik region is called the "Golden Triangle of Maharashtra". With its high agricultural production, Nashik is dubbed the Napa Valley of India and the "Wine Capital of India" as more than half of India's vineyards and wineries are located here. Around 90% of all Indian wine comes from the Nashik Valley.[1][14] Nashik is one of the Hindu pilgrimage sites of the Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years.[15][16]

Clockwise from top left: Nashik city skyline, Godavari Ghat, Pandavleni Caves, Kalaram Temple, View of Nashik mountains
Wine Capital of India[1]
Nashik is located in Maharashtra
Location of Nashik in Maharashtra
Nashik is located in India
Nashik (India)
Coordinates: 19°59′51.0″N 73°47′23.3″E / 19.997500°N 73.789806°E / 19.997500; 73.789806[1]
Country India
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyNashik Municipal Corporation
 • MayorVacant[2][3]
 • Guardian MinisterVacant
 • Municipal CommissionerChandrakant Pulkundwar, IAS[4]
 • AdministratorChandrakant Pulkundwar, IAS
 • Member of ParliamentHemant Godse (SS)
 • Metropolis267 km2 (103 sq mi)
602.48 m (1,976.64 ft)
 • Metropolis1,486,053
 • Density5,600/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Metro1,562,769
 • Metro rank
India: 29th
Demonym(s)Nashikkar, Nashikites
 • OfficialMarathi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
422 001[8]
Telephone code91(253)
Vehicle registrationMH-15 (Nashik City), MH-41(Malegaon)
Nominal GDP (Nashik District)153,198 crore (US$18 billion) (2021-22)[9]
Sex ratio894 / 1000 [10]
HDIIncrease 0.746 (high)[11]



The name, Nashik, is derived from the Sanskrit word 'nāsikā' which literally means 'nose'.

According to the Ramayana, Nashik is the location on the banks of the Godavari River where Lakshmana cut the nose of the demoness Surpanakha, hence the name "Nashik."[16] It is also known by the name Panchavati.[17]

It was known as "Gulshanabad" during the Mughal period.[18][19]





Nashik was known by many names. It was known as "Padmanagar" during the Satya Yuga, "Trikantak" during the Treta Yuga, "Janasthana" during the Dvapara Yuga, and finally "Navashikh" or "Nashik" during the Kali Yuga, according to Hindu traditions.[20] Nashik is significant in mythology, history, social life, and culture. The city is located on the banks of the Godavari River, making it a sacred site for Hindus around the world. During his 14-year exile from Ayodhya, Rama, the king of Ayodhya, is said to have made Nashik his home.[21]

Nashik Tram


Nashik Tram was started from the Old Municipal Building on the main road to Nashik Road railway station around 1889. The tram served the people of Nashik for almost 44 years. The tram station was at the Main Road, and the tram reached the Nashik Road railway station via the present Main Road, Bhadrakali Market, Ghasbazar, and Phalke Road. It covered a distance of about eight to ten km, and the stretch used to be covered with dense jungle at the time. In the article ‘Nashik-then’, poet Kusumagraj has written passionately about trams. He writes, "If the carriages were full, the tram would leave. It would ring the bell and drive out of the village to the main road and then to the grass market.[22]

Revolutionary activities


In the 1900s Vinayak Savarkar along with his brother founded a secret society Abhinav Bharat in Nasik Mitra Mela which was one amongst many in Maharashtra. On 21 December 1909 a member of Abhinav Bharat, Anant Kanhere a student from Aurangabad assassinated Nashik's governor A. M. T. Jackson while he was watching a play in a theatre. Kanhere was arrested on the spot and after investigation, police arrested Vinayak Savarkar and others for conspiring against the government to instigate an armed rebellion. The case was known as the "Nasik Conspiracy Case - 1910". In the court trial in Bombay, police alleged Savarkar was the brain, moving spirit and inspiration of the conspiracy extending over many years. Bombay court sentenced him to life imprisonment, and transportation to notorious Cellular Jail at Andaman; Savarkar's elder brother Babarao Savarkar also received the same punishment and others received varying degrees of imprisonment. ICS officer Jakson's assassination created a sensation in Poona, Nasik and Bombay, the case and subsequently imprisonment made Savarkar famous.[23][24][25] In 1930, the Nashik Satyagraha was launched under the leadership of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar for the entry of Dalits in Kalaram Mandir (Temple). In 1931, a meeting of the Bombay Province Charmkar Parishad was organised in Nashik to work out the Chambhars' position concerning the Second Round Table Conference in which Babasaheb was going to participate. In 1932, Babasaheb organised his temple entry movement for the abolition of untouchability in Nashik.[26]


Nashik has lush mountainous terrain

Nashik lies in the northern part of Maharashtra state, at 584 m (1,916 ft)[27] from the mean sea level, which gives it ideal temperature variation, particularly in winters.[1]

The river Godavari originates from the Brahmagiri Mountain, Trimbakeshwar about 24 km (15 mi) from Nashik, and flows through the old residential settlement, now in the central part of the city. Due to the high pollution created by factories in proximity to the city, the river was dying at an alarming rate. It has since been successfully cleaned.[28]

Nashik lies on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, an ancient volcanic formation.[29]

Trimbakeshwar is about 30 km (19 mi) from the city, it is where from river Godavari originates. The land area of the city is about 259.13 km2 (100.05 sq mi).[30]



The city's tropical location and high altitude combine to give it a relatively mild version of a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw). Temperatures rise slightly in October, but this is followed by the cool season from November to February. The cool season sees warm temperatures of around 28 °C or 82.4 °F during the day, but cool nights, with lows averaging 10 °C or 50 °F, and extremely dry air.

Climate data for Nashik (Ozar Airport) 1991–2020, extremes 1965–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.2
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 10.4
Record low °C (°F) 0.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.6
Average rainy days 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.1 1.1 6.6 14.4 12.5 10.0 4.5 1.7 0.3 52.0
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 32 25 20 20 30 64 81 82 78 54 44 39 47
Source: India Meteorological Department[31][32][33]


Religions in Nashik City (2011)[34]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

Nashik is the fourth largest city in Maharashtra in terms of population after Mumbai, Pune, and Nagpur. According to the Census of India, 2011, Nashik had a population of 1,486,053. Males constitute 782,517 of the population, and females 703,536. The Metropolitan Nashik population was 1,561,809, in which 821,921 were males and 739,888 were females. Nashik city had an average literacy rate of 89.85%: male literacy was 93.40%, and female literacy was 85.92%.[35]

The sex ratio is 894 per 1,000 males for Nashik city. The child sex ratio is 865 girls per 1,000 boys. In Nashik, 11.42% of the population is under 6 years of age.[36] In the census year 2001, the Nashik Urban Agglomeration had a population of 1,152,326. Thus, it was the fourth largest urban area of Maharashtra State after Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur. The projected population of Nashik urban agglomeration (which includes abutting urban areas like Deolali) as of 11 November 2012 is 1,562,769.[37]

Language in Nashik City (2011)[38]

  Marathi (76.69%)
  Hindi (11.80%)
  Urdu (3.26%)
  Gujarati (2.16%)
  Marwari (1.26%)
  Others (4.83%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 76.69% of the population spoke Marathi, 11.80% Hindi, 3.26% Urdu, 2.16% Gujarati and 1.26% Marwari as their first language.[38]

Governance and politics


Civic administration


Nashik city is governed by the Nashik Municipal Corporation.[39] Nashik is the district headquarters of the Nashik District, 185 km (115 mi) away from Mumbai. The city has developed on both banks of the Godavari, which divides the city into almost equal halves.[40]

The municipal commissioner of Nashik is Ashok Karanjkar.[41]

The ward committee consists of councillors representing the electoral wards within the territorial area of the ward committee.[42] There are six ward committees namely Nashik (E), Nashik (W), Nashik Road, Panchavati, CIDCO and Satpur.[42] The main function of the committees is to approve the cost of works for the wards, incorporate the expenses in the budget etc.

Civic services


The Nashik Municipal Corporation (NMC) is planning to start major civic projects in 2020. Projects like the creation of more smart roads, setting up of 800 CCTVs, installation of LED streetlights, Goda beautification project, construction of two major water treatment projects (WTPs), upgradation of STPs, making smart parking operational, etc. would be given priority by the municipal corporation.[43]

Solid waste management


In the Nashik Municipal Corporation area about 225 MT of solid waste is generated per day. Unlike other Indian cities, this garbage is collected by vehicles titled 'Ghantagadi' (meaning the vehicle with a bell): a system which has resulted in smaller versions of the ghantagadi ply in the congested old city areas. A plant has been set by the Nashik Municipal Corporation near Pandav Leni (Pandavleni Caves) to process the garbage and convert it into compost.[44]

Digital services


The NMC provides an online website for various civic services like birth certificate registration, medical services, taxes, development services, etc.[45]




A grape vineyard in Nashik.
Tasting cellar at Sula Vineyards

In early 1925, the table grape revolution was started in Ojhar, a small town near Nashik, by Raosaheb Jairam Krishna Gaikwad. Today, table grapes are exported to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.[46] Onion is one of the majorly produced crop in Nashik district.

The total cultivable area in Nashik district is 864,000 hectares, of which the average Kharip crop area is 663,200 hectares, while the average Rabbi crop area is 136,500 hectares. The sown area is 658,763 hectares (99%) and the forest land is 340,000 hectares (21.75%). The uncultivable area is 23,000 hectares (1.48%).[47]


Sukhoi Su-30MKI is manufactured at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited plant in Nashik

The Igatpuri-Nashik-Sinnar investment region is an important node in the US$90 billion Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project.[48][49]

Nashik is a defence and aerospace manufacturing hub with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited aircraft manufacturing plant located at Ozar.[50] The Currency Note Press[51] and India Security Press are on Nashik Road, where Indian currency and government stamp papers are printed respectively.[52]

Existing industrial areas in Nashik district are Satpur, Ambad, Sinnar, Igatpuri, Dindori and Vinchur. The proposed additional areas are Sinnar, Malegaon and Rajur Bahula.[53]

Large-scale industries present in Nashik district are Atlas Copco, Robert Bosch GmbH, CEAT Limited, Crompton Greaves, Graphite India, ThyssenKrupp, Epcos, Everest Industries, Gabriel India, GlaxoSmithKline, Hindustan Coca-Cola, Hindustan Unilever Limited, Jindal Polyster, Jyoti Structures, Kirlosker Oil Engines, Dabur India Limited, KSB Pumps, Larsen & Toubro, Mahindra and Mahindra, Mahindra Sona, United Spirits Limited, Perfect Circle Industries, Mahindra Ugine Steel, Samsonite, Shalimar Paints, Siemens, VIP Industries, Indian Oil Corporation, XLO India Limited and Jindal Saw.[54]

Apart from manufacturing, Nashik is an emerging investment destination for Information Technology companies. Tata Consultancy Services has invested in Nashik under the government of India BPO promotion scheme (IBPS). Also WNS, Accenture, TCS[55] has set up Digital Impact Square, or DISQ, which is a social innovation center.[56]

Nashik has a textile industry.[27] National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development has selected Yeola Block for development of Paithani Cluster.[27] To facilitate exports, a container freight station was started at MIDC Ambad by the Central Government.[57]

Wine industry


Nashik has been described as "The Wine Capital of India". The Nashik region reportedly produced 10,000 tonnes of grapes per year.[58]

In 2013, there were 22 wineries in Nashik, out of 46 wineries throughout India.[59] The largest vineyard in Nashik is the Sula Vineyards.[1]

In the harvest season, Nashik is home to several wine festivals, such as the India Grape Harvest and SulaFest.[60][61]

Culture and cityscape

108 feet Rishabdev Bhagwan at Mangi Tungi
Trimbakeshwar Temple near Nashik

In February 2016, The Statue of Ahimsa, a 108 ft (33 m) idol of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhdev carved in monolithic stone was consecrated at Mangi Tungi nearly 122 km (76 mi) from Nashik city. It is recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as the tallest Jain idol in the world.[62]

Trirashmi Caves

Cave No.10 "Nahapana Vihara" at Pandavleni Caves, (circa 120 CE).

The Trirashmi (Pandavleni) Caves, or Nashik Caves, are a group of 24 caves carved between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE,[63] representing the Hinayana Buddhist caves.


  • Gangapur Dam is on the river Godavari near Gangawadi village and is an earthen dam, Nashik.[64]
  • Chankapur dam on the Girna river is one of the big dams built by the British in the 19th century. It is 3 km (1.9 mi) from the village Abhona in Kalwan tehsil and 60 km (37 mi) from Nashik.
  • Kashypi Dam is on the Kashypi river near Rajapur, Nashik.
  • Girna Dam is an earth-fill dam on the Girna river near Nandgaon, Nashik District.
  • Darna Dam is a gravity dam on the Darna river near Igatpuri, Nashik district.

Kumbh Mela


The Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Prayagraj and Maha Kumbh takes place every twelve years at four places: Prayagraj, Haridwar, Ujjain, and Nashik. According to the Puranas, it is believed that Kumbh derives its name from an immortal pot of nectar, which the devatas (Gods) and rakshasas (Demons) fought over. The four places where the nectar fell are at the banks of the river Godavari in Nashik, river Kshipra in Ujjain, river Ganges in Haridwar and at Triveni Sangam of Ganga, Yamuna and invisible Saraswati River in Prayagraj.[15][65]



There are numerous gardens built and maintained by NMC throughout the city. Shivaji Garden on Main Road is one of the oldest.



Sarvajanik Vachanalaya Nashik is one of the oldest libraries and reading rooms of India established around 1840 by Britishers. Spread across several stories and over numerous rooms, the collection of 1,75,000 books includes English, Marathi, Hindi and Sanskrit books.



Kalidas Kala Mandir and Parshuram Saykhedkar Natyagruh are drama theatres regularly visited by the public.



By Air

Nashik airport

Nashik has its airport located at Ozar and an old airport at Gandhinagar which connects Nashik to Mumbai. The Gandhinagar Airport is now reserved for the military. Nashik Airport is a domestic airport and is connected to Ahmedabad, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Indore, and Nagpur.

By Rail


Nashik Road railway station is city railway station along with Deolali which lies within the city boundary.

By Road


Nashik is served by National Highway 60.[66] Mumbai-Nashik Expressway connects Nashik to Mumbai.[67] India's first 10-lane expressway is going to be built between Nashik and Pune[citation needed]. The Surat-Nashik-Chennai expressway goes through Nashik city. The Samruddhi Highway also goes 15 km (9.3 mi) from Nashik city.

Public transport

  • Nashik Municipal Corporation (NMC) rolled out its city bus service Citilinc on 8 July 2021. The previous state government had given its nod to the NMC to take over the city bus service from the ailing Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC).[68]
  • Metro – Greater Nashik Metro is proposed by Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Limited. It will be operational in 2024.
  • Trams [1889–1933] - Nashik was the third city in India after Kolkata and Mumbai to get trams. Trams started operation in 1889. It originated from the Old Municipal Corporation building located on Main Road and terminated at the Nashik Road railway station (8–10 km). It passes through areas of Ganjamal (the now defunct bus stop was earlier a tram stop) and behind the Fame Multiplex. Brady's; a private company funded the project and later introduced India's first petrol-engine-driven tram under the aegis of Nasik Tramway Co. The tramway closed down in around 1933 owing to the successive years of famine and plague, it had run into heavy losses.[69][22]
  • AutoRickshaws - The city has a huge number of autorickshaws that work on sharing as well as direct fare basis.



The city has two state-run universities: the Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University and the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences. There are several engineering, medical, pharmacy, law, and management colleges within the city.



Since June 2023, Nashik-based cricket franchise 'Eagles Nashik Titans' has participated in Maharashtra Premier League, Rahul Tripathi is leading it in the ongoing season.[70] Nasik Gymkhana, formerly known as King Edward Club was established in 1911 during the British Raj. During the last 108+ years, it has witnessed numerous historical events in the country in all walks of life and more so in the field of sports. Located in the heart of Nashik in a 5-acre campus it boasts of state-of-the-art stadia and infrastructure catering to multidisciplinary sports viz. Badminton, Lawn Tennis, Table–Tennis, Basketball, Cricket, Chess, Billiards & Snooker as well as a Shooting Range.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Tehsils of Nashik:

Notable people



  1. ^ Madhav Mantri played for team India, Maharashtra cricket team and Mumbai cricket team.


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