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India national cricket team

The India national cricket team, also known as Team India and Men in Blue, represents India in international cricket. Governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), it is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test, One Day International (ODI) and Twenty20 International (T20I) status.

India
Flag of India.svg
Flag of India
Personnel
Captain Virat Kohli
Coach Ravi Shastri
History
Test status acquired 1932
International Cricket Council
ICC Rankings Current [1] Best-ever
Test 1st 1st
ODI 3rd 1st
T20I 5th 1st
Tests
First Test v  England at Lord's, London; 25–28 June 1932
Last Test v  Sri Lanka at Pallekele International Cricket Stadium, Kandy; 12–14 August 2017
Tests Played Won/Lost
Total [2] 515 142/158
(214 draws, 1 tie)
This year [3] 8 6/1 (1 draw)
One Day Internationals
First ODI v  England at Headingley Cricket Ground, Leeds; 13 July 1974
Last ODI v  Sri Lanka at Rangiri Dambulla International Stadium, Dambulla; 20 August 2017
ODIs Played Won/Lost
Total [4] 918 466/405
(7 ties, 40 no result)
This year [5] 14 9/4
(0 ties, 1 no result)
World Cup Appearances 11 (first in 1975)
Best result Champions (1983, 2011)
Twenty20 Internationals
First T20I v  South Africa at Wanderers Stadium, Johannesburg; 1 December 2006
Last T20I v  West Indies at Sabina Park, Jamaica; 9 July 2017
T20Is Played Won/Lost
Total [6] 82 48/31
(1 tie, 2 no result)
This year [7] 4 2/2
(0 ties, 0 no result)
World Twenty20 Appearances 6 (first in 2007)
Best result Champions (2007)

Test kit

ODI kit

As of 20 August 2017

Although cricket was introduced to India by European merchant sailors in the 18th century, and the first cricket club was established in Calcutta in 1792, India's national cricket team did not play its first Test match until 25 June 1932 at Lord's, becoming the sixth team to be granted Test cricket status. In its first fifty years of international cricket, India was one of the weaker teams, winning only 35 of the first 196 Test matches it played. From 1932 India had to wait until 1952, almost 20 years for its first Test victory. The team, however, gained strength in the 1970s with the emergence of players such as batsmen Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath, all-rounder Kapil Dev and the Indian spin quartet of Erapalli Prasanna, Srinivas Venkataraghavan, Bhagwat Chandrasekhar and Bishen Singh Bedi.

Traditionally much stronger at home than abroad, the Indian team has improved its overseas form, especially in limited-overs cricket, since the start of the 21st century, winning Test matches in Australia, England and South Africa. It has won the Cricket World Cup twice – in 1983 under the captaincy of Kapil Dev and in 2011 under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni. After winning the 2011 World Cup, India became only the third team after West Indies and Australia to have won the World Cup more than once,[8] and the first cricket team to win the World Cup at home. It also won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, under the captaincy of MS Dhoni. It was also the joint champions of 2002 ICC Champions Trophy, along with Sri Lanka.

As of 03 August 2017, India is ranked first in Tests, third in ODIs and fifth in T20Is by the ICC.[9] Virat Kohli is the current captain of the team across all formats, while the head coach is Ravi Shastri.[10] The Indian cricket team has rivalries with other Test-playing nations, most notably with Pakistan, the political arch-rival of India. However, in recent times, rivalries with nations like Australia and England have also gained prominence.

Contents

History

Early History

 
Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji Jadeja was an Indian who played for the English cricket team

The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721.[11] In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans eventually invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877.[12] By 1912, the Parsis, Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year.[12] In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the England cricket team. Some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were greatly appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy – two major first-class tournaments in India. In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of the British Isles, but only played English county teams and not the England cricket team.[13]

Test-Match Status

India was invited into The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926, and made their debut as a Test playing nation in England in 1932, led by CK Nayudu, who was considered as the best Indian batsman at the time.[14] The one-off Test match between the two sides was played at Lord's in London. The team was not strong in their batting at this point and went on to lose by 158 runs.[15] In 1933, the first Test series in India was played between India and England with matches in Bombay, Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Madras (now Chennai). England won the series 2–0.[16] The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and '40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period. In the early 1940s, India didn't play any Test cricket due to the Second World War. The team's first series as an independent country was in late 1947 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles (a name given to the Australia national cricket team of that time). It was also the first Test series India played which was not against England. Australia won the five-match series 4–0, with Bradman tormenting the Indian bowling in his final Australian summer.[17] India subsequently played their first Test series at home not against England against the West Indies in 1948. West Indies won the 5-Test series 1–0.[18]

India recorded their first Test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Madras in 1952.[19] Later in the same year, they won their first Test series, which was against Pakistan.[20] They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides. On 24 August 1959, India lost by an innings in the Test to complete the only 5–0 whitewash ever inflicted by England. The next decade saw India's reputation develop as a team with a strong record at home. They won their first Test series against England at home in 1961–62, and also won a home series against New Zealand. They managed to draw home series against Pakistan and Australia, and another series against England. In this same period, India also won its first series outside the subcontinent, against New Zealand in 1967–68.

Panoramic View of the Eden Gardens Stadium during IPL 2008

The key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartetBishen Bedi, E.A.S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan. This period also saw the emergence of two of India's best ever batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath. Indian pitches have had tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting line-ups. These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar. Gavaskar scored 774 runs in the West Indian series while Dilip Sardesai's 112 played a big part in their one Test win.

One-Day Cricket and World Cup Success

 
A graph showing India's Test match results against all Test match teams from 1932 to September 2006

The advent of One Day International (ODI) cricket in 1971 created a new dimension in the cricket world. However, India was not considerably strong in ODIs at this point and batsmen such as the captain Gavaskar were known for their defence-based approaches to batting. India began as a weak team in ODIs and did not qualify for the second round in the first two editions of the Cricket World Cup. Gavaskar infamously blocked his way to 36 not out off 174 balls against England in the first World Cup in 1975, India scored just 132 for 3 and lost by 202 runs.

In contrast, India fielded a strong team in Test matches and were particularly strong at home where their combination of stylish batsman and beguiling spinners were seen at their best. India set a then Test record in the third Test against the West Indies at Port-of-Spain in 1976 when they chased 403 to win thanks to 112 from Viswanath. This West Indian defeat is considered to be a watershed in the history of their cricket because it led to captain Clive Lloyd dispensing with spin altogether and relying entirely on a four-man pace attack. In November 1976, the team established another record by scoring 524 for 9 declared against New Zealand at Kanpur without an individual scoring a century. There were six fifties, the highest being 70 by Mohinder Amarnath. The innings was the eighth instance in Test cricket where all eleven batsmen reached double figures.

During the 1980s, India developed a more attack-minded batting line-up with stroke makers such as the wristy Mohammed Azharuddin, Dilip Vengsarkar and all-rounders Kapil Dev and Ravi Shastri. India won the Cricket World Cup in 1983, defeating the favourites and two-time defending champions West Indies in the final, owing to a strong bowling performance. In spite of this, the team performed poorly in the Test arena, including 28 consecutive Test matches without a victory. In 1984, India won the Asia Cup and in 1985, won the World Championship of Cricket in Australia. Apart from this, India remained a weak team outside the Indian subcontinent. India's Test series victory in 1986 against England remained the last Test series win by India outside the subcontinent for the next 19 years. The 1980s saw Gavaskar and Kapil Dev (India's best all-rounder to date) at the pinnacle of their careers. Gavaskar made a Test record 34 centuries as he became the first man to reach the 10,000 run mark. Kapil Dev later became the highest wicket-taker in Test cricket with 434 wickets. The period was also marked by an unstable leadership, with Gavaskar and Kapil exchanging the captaincy several times.

Late 20th Century

 
With 619 wickets, Anil Kumble is the world's third highest wicket taker in Tests and India's highest Test and ODI wicket taker .[21]

The addition of Sachin Tendulkar and Anil Kumble to the national side in 1989 and 1990 further improved the team. The following year, Javagal Srinath, India's fastest bowler since Amar Singh made his debut. Despite this, during the 1990s, India did not win any of its 33 Tests outside the subcontinent while it won 17 out of its 30 Tests at home. After being eliminated by neighbours Sri Lanka on home soil at the 1996 Cricket World Cup semifinal, the team underwent a year of change as Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid, later to become captains of the team, made their debut in the same Test at Lord's. Tendulkar replaced Azharuddin as captain in late 1996, but after a personal and team form slump, Tendulkar relinquished the captaincy and Azharuddin was reinstated at the beginning of 1998. With the captaincy burden removed, Tendulkar was the world's leading run-scorer in both Tests and ODIs, as India enjoyed a home Test series win over Australia, the best ranked team in the world.

After failing to reach the semifinals at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, Tendulkar was again made captain, and had another poor run, losing 3–0 on a tour of Australia and then 2–0 at home to South Africa. Tendulkar resigned, vowing never to captain the team again. Ganguly was appointed the new captain and the team was further damaged in 2000 when former captain Azharuddin and fellow batsman Ajay Jadeja were implicated in a match-fixing scandal and given life and five years bans respectively. This period was described by the BBC as "the Indian cricket's worst hour". However, the new core – Tendulkar, Dravid, Kumble and Ganguly – swore not to let this happen to them again, and lead Indian cricket out of the dark times. And the first three put aside personal ambitions to let Ganguly lead them into a new era.[22]

Turn of the Millenium

Since 2000, the Indian team underwent major improvements with the appointment of John Wright as India's first ever foreign coach. India maintained their unbeaten home record against Australia in Test series after defeating them in 2001. The series was famous for the Kolkata Test match, in which India became only the third team in the history of Test cricket to win a Test match after following on. Australian captain Steve Waugh labelled India as the "Final Frontier" as a result of his side's inability to win a Test series in India.[23] Victory in 2001 against the Australians marked the beginning of a dream run for India under their captain Ganguly, winning Test matches in Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, West Indies and England. The England series is also known for India's highest ODI run-chase of 325 runs at Lord's which came in the Natwest ODI Series final against England. In the same year, India were joint-winners of the ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka, and then went to the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa where they reached the final only to be beaten by Australia. The 2003–04 season also saw India play out a Test series in Australia where they drew 1–1 with the world champions, and then win a Test and ODI series in Pakistan.

Controversy and World Cup Flop

 
The Indian cricket team in action in the Wankhede Stadium

At the end of the 2004 season, India suffered from lack of form and fitness from its older players. A defeat in a following home Test series against Australia was followed by an ODI home series defeat against Pakistan followed by a Test series levelled 1–1. Greg Chappell took over from John Wright as the coach of the Indian cricket team following the series, and his methods proved to be controversial during the beginning of his tenure. The tension resulted in a fallout between Chappell and Ganguly, resulting in Rahul Dravid being made captain. This triggered a revival in the team's fortunes, following the emergence of players like Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Suresh Raina, and the coming of age of players like Irfan Pathan and Yuvraj Singh. A thumping home series victory over Sri Lanka in 2005 and a drawn series with South Africa put India at second place in the ICC ODI rankings. Dravid, Tendulkar and Virender Sehwag were selected to play for the ICC World XI in the 2005 "SuperTest" against Australia. A convincing ODI series win in Pakistan in early 2006, following a loss in the Test series, gave India the world record of 17 successive ODI victories while batting second.[24] Towards the middle of 2006, however, a 4–1 series loss in the West Indies gave rise to a slump in India's ODI form, while they achieved a 1–0 victory in the Test series that followed, giving them their first Test series victory in the Caribbean since 1971. India's ODI form slumped further with a disappointing performance in the 2006 Champions Trophy and a drubbing in the ODI series in South Africa. This was followed yet again by an initial good performance in the Tests, giving India its first Test match win in South Africa, although they went on to lose the series 2–1. This Test series was marked by Ganguly's comeback to the Indian team.[25]

In December 2006, India played and won its first ever Twenty20 international in South Africa, becoming the most recent Test team to play Twenty20 cricket. The beginning of 2007 had seen a revival in the Indian team's ODI fortunes before the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Series victories against the West Indies and Sri Lanka, marked by the comeback of Ganguly, and strong form by Tendulkar, and the emergence of young players like Robin Uthappa saw many pundits to tip India as a real contender to win the 2007 Cricket World Cup. However, defeats to Bangladesh and Sri Lanka saw India fail to reach the second round.

Success under Dhoni

After winning the Test series against England in August 2007, Dravid stepped down as the captain of the team following which Dhoni was made the captain of the Twenty20 and ODI team. In September 2007, India won the first-ever Twenty20 World Cup held in South Africa, beating Pakistan by 5 runs in the final. In 2007–08, they toured Australia where India lost the highly controversial home Test series 2–1, but managed to win the CB series the following month with a whitewash final of Australia.

In April 2009, India secured their first Test series win in New Zealand in 41 years. After beating Sri Lanka 2–0 in December 2009, India became the No. 1 Test team in the world. They retained the ranking by drawing series against South Africa and Sri Lanka. In October 2010, India whitewashed Australia 2–0 in the home test series, giving them back-to-back series wins against them. Later that year, India managed to draw the Test series in South Africa at 1–1.[26]

India's results in international matches
  Matches Won Lost Drawn Tied No result Inaugural Match Latest Match
Test[27] 515 142 158 214 1 25 June 1932 14 August 2017
ODI[28] 918 466 405 7 40 13 July 1974 20 August 2017
T20I[29] 82 48 31 1 2 1 December 2006 9 July 2017

On 2 April 2011, India won the 2011 Cricket World Cup by defeating Sri Lanka in the final, thus becoming the third team after West Indies and Australia to win the World Cup twice, the previous win being in 1983. Gautam Gambhir and the skipper Dhoni led the way with 97 and 91* respectively.[30] India also became the first team to win the World Cup on home soil.

Transition Period

India were whitewashed 4–0 in away Test series by England in August 2011 due to which England replaced India as the No. 1 Test team in the rankings.[31] This series was followed by another 4–0 whitewash of India in January 2012 in Australia. The disastrous whitewashes saw the retirement of Dravid and VVS Laxman from Test cricket in 2012. Tendulkar retired in November 2013 after his 200th Test match. With Ganguly having retired in 2008, this period signalled the end of the fabled middle-order batting line-up Indian had for a decade. 2012 signalled a rough period for Indian cricket as they were beaten 2–1 by England at home in the Test series. This was the first Team India were beaten by England at home in the modern era. This was followed by a 2–1 loss in the ODI series against Pakistan, India's arch rivals, at home. India were then knocked out in the second round of the 2012 ICC World Twenty20. India also failed to qualify for the 2012 Asia Cup final which closed out a disappointing 2012 for the Indian cricket team. 2013 saw a resurgence in Indian cricket.

Worldwide Limited-Overs Success

In early 2013, India returned the favour to Australia and whitewashed them 4–0 at home in a Test series. India then beat the Aussies 3–2 in the 7-match ODI series and won the one-off T20I. However, India lost heavily against New Zealand and South Africa away from home and led to heavy criticism of Indian cricketers for not being able to perform overseas. India defeated England in the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy final and Mahendra Singh Dhoni became the first captain in history to win the three major ICC trophies, namely- ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20 and ICC Champions Trophy. This was followed by a victory in the West Indies Triangular Series in 2013 consisting of India, West Indies and Sri Lanka. In 2014, India toured Bangladesh and England. Although they beat the former 2–0 in 3 One Day Internationals, Team India were beaten 3–1 in 5 Test matches by England. This series included a famous win for the Indian team in the first match of the series at Lord's. The Test series was followed by a 3–1 win for the Indians in a 5-match ODI series and a loss in a one-off T20, both against England.

India failed to reach the final of the Asia Cup yet again in 2014. In the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 hosted in Bangladesh, India narrowly missed out on another ICC trophy by losing to Sri Lanka in the final. This tournament saw the rise of Virat Kohli as one of the best limited overs batsmen in world cricket as he was adjudged the man of the series. India soon comprehensively beat Sri Lanka and West Indies in ODI series to cement their position at the top of the ODI rankings. India toured Australia towards the end of 2014 for a 4-match Test series, which is remembered for MS Dhoni's sudden retirement from Test cricket after the end of the second Test. Virat Kohli was appointed captain of Team India in Test matches but he was unable to turn the series around and India lost 2–0. Kohli's first series win as captain came away from home in a 3-match Test series vs Sri Lanka which signalled the beginning of an unbeaten Test series run for India.

Dominance at Home under Kohli

2015 saw the beginning of India's dominance at home in Test matches under new captain Virat Kohli when they comprehensively beat South Africa. This series was the beginning of an unbeaten streak of 19 Test matches for India which was brought to an end by Australia in early 2017. This series also saw the emergence of Ravichandran Ashwin and Ravindra Jadeja as two of the best spinners and all rounders. They spun webs around touring batsmen, much like the spinning quartet of the 1970s. This was followed by limited overs victories over Australia and Sri Lanka away from home. India were knocked out of the 2015 World Cup in the semi-final stage, to eventual winners Australia. India began 2016 by winning the 2016 Asia Cup, remaining unbeaten throughout the tournament, beating Pakistan along the way. India were favourites to win the 2016 ICC World Twenty20 which was being held at home, but they lost in the semi final to eventual champions West Indies. Virat Kohli was again named man of the series.

In 2016, "The Grand Home Season" began for India, including series at home against New Zealand, England, Bangladesh and Australia. India whitewashed New Zealand to regain the number one ranking in Test cricket after almost 10 years. Before the series against England in November 2016, MS Dhoni resigned as captain of India in limited overs, thus handing the captaincy to Virat Kohli across all formats. India beat England across all three formats, with a notable 4–0 win in the Test series. This was followed by Test series wins against Bangladesh and Australia, which meant India reclaimed the Border Gavaskar Trophy. Ravichandran Ashwin became the fastest cricketer of all time to reach 250 wickets; he and Ravindra Jadeja occupied the top two spots in both the ICC Bowlers and All-Rounders rankings at the time. In the process, India became the third team (after South Africa and Australia) to have won their most recent Test series against all the other Test-playing nations. India hold an unbeaten streak of 8 consecutive Test series wins as of 19 August 2017.

2017 ICC Champions Trophy and onwards

India defeated Pakistan in their first game of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, winning by a convincing 124-run margin[32], but lost their second game of the group against Sri Lanka by 7 wickets despite posting a total of 321.[33] In their final group game against South Africa, a must-win encounter, India won comfortably and sealed a spot in the semi-finals, against Bangladesh.[34] India comfortably won the match by 9 wickets, and faced arch-rivals Pakistan in the final, the first time they had met at this stage of a tournament since 2007.[35] In an anti-climax, considering India were the clear favourites, Pakistan defeated India comfortably by 180 runs in the final, outclassing them across all three departments.[36]

India beat the West Indies 3–1 in a 5-match ODI series in the Caribbean in July 2017[37], but lost to the same opposition in a one-off T20I.[38] India then toured Sri Lanka, and comprehensively defeated them 3-0 in a three-match Test series, the first time India had whitewashed a team away from home in a Test series with at least three games.[39]

Governing body

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the governing body for the Indian cricket team and first-class cricket in India. The Board has been operating since 1929 and represents India at the International Cricket Council. It is amongst the richest sporting organisations in the world. It sold media rights for India's matches from 2006–2010 for US$612,000,000.[40] It manages the Indian team's sponsorships, its future tours and team selection.

The International Cricket Council determines India's upcoming matches through its future tours program. However, the BCCI, with its influential financial position in the cricketing world, has often challenged the ICC's program and called for more series between India, Australia and England which are more likely to earn more revenue as opposed to tours with Bangladesh or Zimbabwe.[41] In the past, the BCCI has also come into conflict with the ICC regarding sponsorships[42] and the legitimacy of the ICC Champions Trophy.

Selection committee

Selection for the Indian cricket team occurs through the BCCI's zonal selection policy, where each of the five zones is represented with one selector and one of the members nominated by BCCI as the Chairman of the selection committee. This has sometimes led to controversy as to whether these selectors are biased towards their zones.[43]

The current chairman of selection committee is M. S. K. Prasad. Devang Gandhi, Sarandeep Singh, Jatin Paranjpe, and Gagan Khoda are the other members of the selection committee from 21 September 2016.

Team colours

Since colours have made their way into international cricket, the Indian cricket team has chosen blue as their primary colour and orange/red as their secondary colour and have worn one or the other shade of blue. The blue colour of their uniform has also earned them the nickname of "Men in Blue". With the advent of the World Series Cup in the 1970s, each team was to don a primary and secondary colour on their uniforms. The Indian team elected to wear light-blue as their primary colour and yellow as their secondary colour. Even during the 1999 Cricket World Cup, the secondary colour on the Indian cricket team's clothing was yellow. However, this has since been replaced with the tricolour. In the past, the Indian ODI outfits were changed to different shades of blue, mostly darker than the current,[44] and the team donned navy blue during 1992[45], and then the sky blue colour for the next decade. Indian team has got a new kit from 2009 which is feroza blue with India written on it in orange.[46] Currently, from October 2010, the team is once again using a light blue shade though not as light as the previous sky blue one, with India written in orange, and shades of the tricolour at the sides. The kit sponsor for the Indian cricket team is Nike, which in 2005 bought the kit rights in a $27.2 million contract with BCCI.[47]

Due to their love for blue colour Nike with Board for Control of Cricket in India launched the mega campaign called "Bleed Blue" for the support of Indian team in 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which turned out to be a huge success and people over the internet and places adopted this to cheer for India.[48]

A new ultramarine blue coloured jersey of the one-day cricket team was released on 20 October 2010[49] for the upcoming tours and ICC Cricket World Cup. The jersey has been designed by team's apparel and kit sponsor Nike. Previously, the Indian cricket team has worn a darker shade of blue and before that the team has worn sky blue. The vertical tricolour band has been made on both sides in comparison to just one side in previous shirt. OPPO, the manufacturer of Chinese electronics is the official team sponsor logo is on the central part of the jersey (above orange coloured INDIA logo and on the right arm Nike logo is visible. The name and jersey number of the player is printed in orange at the back while on the chest the logo of BCCI is on the left side. The one-day cap was also sky blue with the BCCI logo on the front.

When playing first-class cricket, in addition to their cricket whites, Indian fielders sometimes wear a sunhat, which is dark blue and has a wide brim, with the BCCI logo in the middle of the front of the hat. Helmets are coloured similarly. Some players sport the Indian flag on their helmet. The current kit sponsor for the Indian team is Nike, Inc. and current team sponsor is Oppo Electronics.

International grounds

Locations of all stadiums which have hosted an international match within India

There are numerous world-renowned cricket stadiums located in India. Most grounds are under the administration of various state cricket boards as opposed to being under the control of the BCCI. The Bombay Gymkhana was the first ground in India to host a full-scale cricket match featuring an Indian cricket team. This was between the Parsis and the Europeans in 1877. The first stadium to host a Test match in India was also the Gymkhana Ground in Bombay in 1933, the only Test it ever hosted. The second and third Tests in the 1933 series were hosted at Eden Gardens and Chepauk. The Feroz Shah Kotla in Delhi was the first stadium to host a Test match after independence, a draw against the West Indies in 1948, the first of a 5-Test series. 21 stadiums in India have hosted at least one official Test match. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of world-class cricket stadiums in India, with multiple Test venues in Indore, Chandigarh Mohali, Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Rajkot, Ranchi, Pune, Dharamsala and Nagpur.

Eden Gardens in Kolkata has hosted the most Tests, and also has the second-largest seating capacity of any cricket stadium in the world, being capable of holding more than 66,000 spectators. Founded in 1864, it is one of the most historical stadiums in India, having hosted numerous historical and controversial matches.[50] Other major stadiums in India include the Feroz Shah Kotla, which was established in 1883 and hosted memorable matches including Anil Kumble's ten wickets in an innings haul against Pakistan. For the last two years, the ground has been undergoing renovation.[51]

The Bombay Gymkhana hosted the first ever Test match in India which is the only Test it has hosted to date. Wankhede Stadium, established in 1974, has a capacity to hold 33,000 spectators and is currently the most popular venue in the city. It has hosted 24 Test matches. It was the unofficial successor of the Brabourne Stadium, which is also located in Mumbai. Mumbai is often considered the cricketing capital of India because of its fans and the talent it produces (see Mumbai cricket team) and thus the stadium regularly hosts major Test matches.[52] The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chepauk is also considered to be an important historical Indian cricket ground, established in the early 1900s it was the site of India's first Test victory.[53]

Stadium City Test matches Ref
Eden Gardens Kolkata 40 [54]
Feroz Shah Kotla Ground Delhi 33 [55]
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium Chepauk, Chennai 32 [56]
Wankhede Stadium Mumbai 25 [57]
Green Park Kanpur 22 [58]
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium Bangalore 22 [59]
Brabourne Stadium Mumbai 18 [60]
Punjab Cricket Association Stadium Mohali, Chandigarh 13 [61]
Sardar Patel Stadium (Gujarat) Motera, Ahmedabad 12 [62]
Nehru Stadium Chennai 9 [63]
Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground Nagpur 9 [64]
Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium Nagpur 5 [65]
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium Hyderabad 4 [66]
Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium Hyderabad 3 [67]
Barabati Stadium Cuttack 2 [68]
Holkar Stadium Indore 1 [69]
Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium Rajkot 1 [70]
ACA-VDCA Cricket Stadium Visakhapatnam 1 [71]
Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium Pune 1 [72]
JSCA International Stadium Complex Ranchi 1 [73]
Himachal Pradesh Cricket Association Stadium Dharamsala 1 [74]
Bombay Gymkhana Mumbai 1 [75]
Gandhi Stadium Jalandhar 1 [76]
K. D. Singh Babu Stadium Lucknow 1 [77]
Sawai Mansingh Stadium Jaipur 1 [78]
Sector 16 Stadium Chandigarh 1 [79]
University Ground Lucknow 1 [80]

Captains

Thirty-two men have captained the Indian cricket team in at least one Test match, although only six have led the team in more than 25 matches, and six have captained the team in ODIs but not Tests. India's first captain was CK Nayudu, who led the team in four matches against England: one in England in 1932 and a series of three matches at home in 1933–34. Lala Amarnath, India's fourth captain, led the team in its first Test match after Indian independence. He also captained the side to its first Test victory and first series win, both in a three-match series at home against Pakistan in 1952–53. From 1952 until 1961–62, India had a number of captains such as Vijay Hazare, Polly Umrigar and Nari Contractor.

The Nawab of Pataudi, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, was the team's captain for 36 Test matches from 1961–62 to 1969–70, returning for another four matches against West Indies in 1974–75. In the early years of his captaincy tenure, the team was whitewashed in the West Indies, England and Australia. However, in 1967–68, Pataudi led India on its maiden New Zealand tour, which ended in India winning the Test series 3–1. In 1970–71, Ajit Wadekar took over the captaincy from Pataudi. Under Wadekar's captaincy, India registered its first Test series wins in the West Indies and England. India played its first ODI in 1974, also under his captaincy. India won its first ODI under the captaincy of Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan in the 1975 Cricket World Cup, against East Africa. Between 1975–76 and 1978–79, Bishen Singh Bedi captained the team in 22 Tests and 4 ODIs, winning 6 Tests and one ODI.

Sunil Gavaskar took over as Test and ODI captain in 1978–79, leading India in 47 Test matches and 37 ODIs, winning 9 Tests and 14 ODIs. He was succeeded by Kapil Dev in the 1980s, who continued for 34 Test matches, including 4 victories. Kapil Dev led India to victory in 39 of his 74 ODIs in charge, including the 1983 Cricket World Cup. Kapil Dev also captained India's 2–0 Test series victory in England in 1986. Between 1987–88 and 1989–90, India had three captains in Dilip Vengsarkar, Ravi Shastri and Krishnamachari Srikkanth. Vengsarkar took over the captaincy from Kapil Dev after the 1987 Cricket World Cup. Although he started with two centuries in his first series as captain, his captaincy period was turbulent[citation needed] and he lost the job following a disastrous tour of the West Indies in early-1989 and a stand-off with the Indian cricket board (BCCI).

India has had six regular Test captains since Mohammad Azharuddin took charge in 1989. Azharuddin led the team in 47 Test matches from 1989–90 to 1998–99, winning 14, and in 174 ODIs, winning 90. He was followed by Sachin Tendulkar, who captained the team in 25 Test matches and 73 ODIs in the late 1990s; Tendulkar was relatively unsuccessful[81][82] as a captain, winning only 4 Test matches and 23 ODIs. He was replaced as ODI captain by Ajay Jadeja and then by Sourav Ganguly.

 
Mahendra Singh Dhoni holds the record for most Tests wins (27) by an Indian captain.

Ganguly became the regular captain of the team in both Tests and ODIs in 2000. He remained captain until 2005–06 and became the then most successful Indian captain, winning 21 of his 49 Test matches in charge and 76 of his 146 ODIs. Under his captaincy, India became the joint-winners of the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka, and the runners-up of the 2003 Cricket World Cup. India lost only three Tests at home under Ganguly and managed to draw Test series in England and Australia. Rahul Dravid took over as Test captain in 2005. In 2006, he led India to its first Test series victory in the West Indies in more than 30 years.

In September 2007, Mahendra Singh Dhoni was named as the new captain of the ODI and T20I teams, after Dravid stepped down from the post. Soon after taking up the captaincy, Dhoni led the team to the inaugural World Twenty20 title. Anil Kumble was appointed Test captain in November 2007, but retired from international cricket in November 2008 after captaining in 14 Tests. Dhoni succeeded him as the Test captain, making him the captain in all formats. Under the captaincy of Dhoni, the Indian team held the number one position in the Test rankings for 21 months (from November 2009 to August 2011), and set a national record for most back-to-back ODI wins (nine straight wins).[83] Dhoni also led the team to victory in 2011 Cricket World Cup and 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. Thus, Dhoni became the first captain in history to win all three major ICC trophies, namely- ICC Cricket World Cup in 2011, ICC World Twenty20 in 2007 and ICC Champions Trophy in 2013. He is widely regarded as India's best ever captain. However, the team performed poorly in away Tests from 2011 to 2014 and Dhoni retired from Test cricket in December 2014, with Virat Kohli being named as the new Test captain. Dhoni resigned as captain of the ODI and T20 teams in January 2017 and Kohli succeeded him at the position.

Under Kohli's captaincy, India were unbeaten in 19 Test matches starting from a 3–0 series win over New Zealand and ending with a 2–1 series win over Australia. India have an unbeaten streak of winning 7 consecutive Test series as of May 2017, starting with a 2–1 series win over Sri Lanka. India also became only the third team after Australia and South Africa to have won their most recent Test series simultaneously against all the other Test playing nations. As per winning percentage in Test matches, Kohli is India's most successful test captain having won more than 61% of Test matches (at least 2 games).

Results and fixtures

The recent results and forthcoming fixtures of India in international cricket:

Bilateral series and tours
Date Against H/A/N Results [Matches]
Test ODI T20I
July–August 2016   West Indies Away 2–0 [4] 0–1 [2]
September–October 2016   New Zealand Home 3–0 [3] 3–2 [5]
November 2016 – February 2017   England Home 4–0 [5] 2–1 [3] 2–1 [3]
February 2017   Bangladesh Home 1–0 [1]
February–March 2017   Australia Home 2–1 [4]
June–July 2017   West Indies Away 3–1 [5] 0–1 [1]
July–September 2017   Sri Lanka Away 3–0 [3] [5] [1]
October 2017   Australia Home [5] [1]
December 2017–   South Africa Away [4] [5] [3]
Multiteam series and tournaments
Date Series Format Position Results [Matches]
June 2017 2017 ICC Champions Trophy ODI Runner-up 3–2 [5]
March 2018 Tri-series vs Sri Lanka and Bangladesh T20I
2018 2018 Asia Cup ODI

Personnel

Squad

This lists all the players who have played for India in the past 12 months and the forms in which they have played. Correct as of 31 May 2017.

Key

  • C/G = Contract grade
  • S/N = Shirt number
Name Age Batting style Bowling style Domestic team Zone C/G[84] Forms S/N
Captain and middle-order batsman
Virat Kohli 28 Right-handed Right medium Delhi North A Test, ODI, T20I 18
Test vice-captain and middle-order batsman
Ajinkya Rahane 29 Right-handed Right medium Mumbai West A Test, ODI, T20I 27
Opening batsmen
Shikhar Dhawan 31 Left-handed Off break Delhi North C Test, ODI, T20I 25
Gautam Gambhir 35 Left-handed Leg break Delhi North Test
Abhinav Mukund 27 Left-handed Leg break Tamil Nadu South Test
K. L. Rahul 25 Right-handed Off break Karnataka South B Test, ODI, T20I 2
Murali Vijay 33 Right-handed Off break Tamil Nadu South A Test 8
Middle-order batsmen
Kedar Jadhav 32 Right-handed Off break Maharashtra West C ODI, T20I 81
Karun Nair 25 Right-handed Off break Karnataka South C Test 69
Manish Pandey 27 Right-handed Right medium Karnataka South C ODI, T20I 9
Cheteshwar Pujara 29 Right-handed Leg break Saurashtra West A Test 16
Suresh Raina 30 Left-handed Off break Uttar Pradesh Central T20I 3
Rohit Sharma 30 Right-handed Off break Mumbai West B Test, ODI, T20I 45
All-rounders
Ravichandran Ashwin 30 Right-handed Off break Tamil Nadu South A Test, ODI, T20I 99
Stuart Binny 33 Right-handed Right medium Karnataka South T20I 84
Ravindra Jadeja 28 Left-handed Slow left arm Saurashtra West A Test, ODI, T20I 8
Hardik Pandya 23 Right-handed Right medium-fast Baroda West C Test, ODI, T20I 33
Axar Patel 23 Left-handed Slow left arm Gujarat West C ODI 20
Parvez Rasool 28 Right-handed Off break Jammu and Kashmir North T20I
Yuvraj Singh 35 Left-handed Slow left arm Punjab North B ODI, T20I 12
Jayant Yadav 27 Right-handed Off break Haryana North C Test, ODI 22
Wicket-keepers
Mahendra Singh Dhoni 36 Right-handed Right medium Jharkhand East A ODI, T20I 7
Dinesh Karthik 32 Right-handed Off break Tamil Nadu South ODI, T20I 21
Rishabh Pant 19 Left-handed Delhi North C T20I 77
Parthiv Patel 32 Left-handed Gujarat West C Test 42
Wriddhiman Saha 32 Right-handed Bengal East B Test 24
Pace bowlers
Jasprit Bumrah 23 Right-handed Right fast-medium Gujarat West B ODI, T20I 93
Dhawal Kulkarni 28 Right-handed Right medium-fast Mumbai West C ODI 91
Bhuvneshwar Kumar 26 Right-handed Right medium-fast Uttar Pradesh Central B Test, ODI, T20I 15
Ashish Nehra 38 Right-handed Left medium-fast Delhi North C T20I 64
Mohammed Shami 27 Right-handed Right fast-medium Bengal East B Test, ODI, T20I 11
Ishant Sharma 28 Right-handed Right fast-medium Delhi North B Test 1
Umesh Yadav 29 Right-handed Right fast Vidarbha Central B Test, ODI 19
Spin bowlers
Yuzvendra Chahal 26 Right-handed Leg break Haryana North C T20I, ODI 3
Amit Mishra 34 Right-handed Leg break Haryana North C Test, ODI, T20I 9
Kuldeep Yadav 22 Left-handed Left arm chinaman Uttar Pradesh Central Test, ODI, T20I 23

Other players with a central contract who have not played for India in the past 12 months: Ambati Rayudu, Mandeep Singh, Shardul Thakur (all Grade C)

The BCCI awards central contracts to its players, its pay graded according to the importance of the player. Players' salaries are as follows:

  • Grade A – 2 crore per annum ($316,000)
  • Grade B – 1 crore per annum ($158,000)
  • Grade C – 50 lakh per annum ($79,000)

Players also receive a match fee of 15 lakh (US$23,000) per Test match, 6 lakh (US$9,400) per ODI, and 3 lakh (US$4,700) per T20I.[85]

Coaching staff

Tournament history

World Cup record
Host Year Round Position GP W L T NR
England 1975 Round 1 6/8 3 1 2 0 0
England 1979 7/8 3 0 3 0 0
England 1983 Champions 1/8 8 6 2 0 0
India/Pakistan 1987 Semi-finals 4/8 7 5 2 0 0
Australia/New Zealand 1992 Round 1 7/9 8 2 5 0 1
India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka 1996 Semi-finals 4/12 7 4 3 0 0
England 1999 R2 (Super 6s) 6/12 8 4 4 0 0
South Africa/Zimbabwe/Kenya 2003 Runners-up 2/14 11 9 2 0 0
West Indies 2007 Round 1 10/16 3 1 2 0 0
India/Sri Lanka/Bangladesh 2011 Champions 1/14 9 7 1 1 0
Australia/New Zealand 2015 Semi-finals 3/14 8 7 1 0 0
England 2019 -
India 2023 -
Total 12/12 2 titles 75 46 27 1 1
World Twenty20 record
Host Year Round Position GP W L T NR
South Africa 2007 Champions 1/12 7 4 1 1 1
England 2009 Super 8s 7/12 5 2 3 0 0
West Indies 2010 8/12 5 2 3 0 0
Sri Lanka 2012 5/12 5 4 1 0 0
Bangladesh 2014 Runners-up 2/16 6 5 1 0 0
India 2016 Semi-finals 3/16 5 3 2 0 0
Total 6/6 1 title 33 20 11 1 1
Other Major Tournaments
ICC Champions Trophy Asia Cup
Defunct Tournaments
Commonwealth Games Hero Cup Asian Test Championship Austral-Asia Cup World Championship of Cricket

Cricket was played only at the 1998 Commonwealth Games.The Indian team that won the 1985 World Championship of Cricket was adjudged by Wisden as the 'Team of the Century'.

Individual records

 
Sachin Tendulkar celebrates his 38th Test century during a match against Australia in 2008. Tendulkar holds multiple world records including the world's leading run-scorer and century maker in both Tests and ODIs.[88]

Sachin Tendulkar, who began playing for India as a 16-year-old in 1989 and has since become the most prolific run-scorer in the history of both Test and ODI cricket, holds a large number of national batting records. He holds the record of most appearances in both Tests and ODIs, most runs in both Tests and ODIs and most centuries in Tests and ODIs. The highest score by an Indian is the 319 scored by Virender Sehwag in Chennai. It is the second triple century in Test cricket by an Indian, the first being a 309 also made by Sehwag although against Pakistan. The team's highest ever score was a 759/7 against England at MA Chidambaram Stadium, Chennai in 2016, while its lowest was 42 against England in 1974. In ODIs, the team's highest score is 418/5 against West Indies at Indore in 2011–12. India score 413–5 in a match against Bermuda in 2007 World Cup which is the highest score ever in Cricket World Cup history. In the same match, India set a world record of the highest winning margin in an ODI match of 257 runs.

India has also had some very strong bowling figures, with spin bowler Anil Kumble being a member of the elite group of 3 bowlers who have taken 600 Test wickets. In 1999, Anil Kumble emulated Jim Laker to become the second bowler to take all ten wickets in a Test match innings when he took 10 wickets for 74 runs against Pakistan at the Feroz Shah Kotla in Delhi.

Many of the Indian cricket team's records are also world records, for example Sachin Tendulkar's century tally (in Tests and ODIs) and run tally (also in both Tests and ODIs). Mahendra Singh Dhoni's 183 not out against Sri Lanka in 2005 is the world record score by a wicketkeeper in ODIs. The Indian cricket team also holds the record sequence of 17 successful run-chases in ODIs,[89] which ended in a dramatic match against the West Indies in May 2006, which India lost by just 1 run when Yuvraj Singh was bowled by Dwayne Bravo's full toss.

Sachin Tendulkar was the first batsman to score 200 runs (he was unbeaten on 200 from 147 deliveries including 25x4 and 3x6) in a single ODI innings, on 24 February 2010 against South Africa in Gwalior. On 8 December 2011, this achievement was eclipsed by compatriot Virender Sehwag, who scored 219 runs from 149 deliveries (25x4 | 7x6) versus West Indies in Indore. On 13 November 2014 the record was broken by another Indian opening batsmen, Rohit Sharma, who scored 264 runs from 173 deliveries (33x4 | 9x6) against Sri Lanka in Kolkata. In 2013, MS Dhoni became the first captain in history to win all three major ICC trophies- ICC Cricket World Cup in 2011, ICC World Twenty20 in 2007 and ICC Champions Trophy in 2013.

In 2014, Virat Kohli became the first cricketer to win back-to-back man of the series awards in the 2012 ICC World Twenty20 and 2014 ICC World Twenty20. In 2017, Ravichandran Ashwin became the fastest cricketer in history to reach 250 wickets. He and Ravindra Jadeja are considered to be the best bowlers in Test cricket and occupy the top two spots in the rankings for Test bowlers as of May 2017. Virat Kohli became the first captain in history to score double tons in three consecutive series, against New Zealand, England and Bangladesh in 2017.

Statistics