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The India–Pakistan cricket rivalry is one of the most intense sports rivalries in the world.[1][2] The tense relations between the two nations, resulting from bitter diplomatic relationships and conflict that originated during the Partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947, the Indo-Pakistani Wars, and the Kashmir conflict, laid the foundations for the emergence of an intense sporting rivalry between the two nations who had shared a common cricketing heritage.

India–Pakistan cricket rivalry
Flickr - boellstiftung - Indisch-Pakistanische Friedenskonferenz 2010.jpg
The Indian and Pakistani flags
TeamsIndia India
Pakistan Pakistan
First meeting16–19 October 1952 (Test)
1 October 1978 (ODI)
14 September 2007 (T20I)
Statistics
Meetings totalTest: 59
ODI: 132
T20I: 8
Most winsTest: (Pakistan 12; India 9)
ODI: (Pakistan 73; India 55)
T20I: (India 6; Pakistan 1)

The two sides first played in 1952, when Pakistan toured India. Test and, later, limited overs series have been played ever since, although a number of planned tours by both sides have been cancelled or aborted due to political factors. No cricket was played between the two countries between 1962 and 1977 due to two major wars in 1965 and 1971 and the 1999 Kargil War and the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks have also interrupted cricketing ties between the two nations.[3][4]

The growth of large expatriate populations from both countries across the world led to neutral venues, including the United Arab Emirates and Canada, hosting bilateral and multilateral One Day International (ODI) series involving the two teams and the teams have met during International Cricket Council (ICC) competitions. Tickets for matches in which the two teams play each other at international competitions are in high demand, with over 800,000 applications for tickets made for the 2019 Cricket World Cup meeting between the two sides.[3][4]

Players from both teams routinely face intense pressure to win and are threatened by extreme reactions in defeat. Extreme fan reactions to defeats in key matches have been recorded, with a limited degree of violence and public disturbances.[3] At the same time, India–Pakistan matches have also offered opportunities for cricket diplomacy as a means to improve relations between the two countries by allowing heads of state to exchange visits and cricket followers from either country to travel to the other to watch the matches.[4]

Contents

History

The Partition of British India in 1947 that led to the creation of independent Indian and Pakistani states was characterised by bloody conflict between ethnic groups that left one million people dead and led to the mass-migration of an estimated ten million people to the nation of their choice. The legacy of Partition and subsequent territorial disputes have helped create intense rivalries in field hockey, association football and especially in cricket, which had been developed during British colonial rule and is the most popular sport in both nations.[5]

Pakistan became a member of the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1948,[A] becoming a Full Member[B] in July 1952. Their tour of India later the same year saw the team play their first Test matches. They lost the first Test in Delhi to India, but won the second Test in Lucknow, which led to an angry reaction from the home crowd against the Indian players. India clinched the Test series after winning the third Test in Bombay, but the intense pressure affected the players of both teams to the point that they pursued mainly defensive tactics that led to drawn matches and whole series without a victory. When India toured Pakistan in 1955, thousands of Indian fans were granted visas to go to the Pakistani city of Lahore to watch the Test match. But both the 1955 series and Pakistan's tour of India in 1961 ended in a drawn series with no Test yielding a winner or loser. Complaints about the fairness of umpires also became routine.

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and subsequent War of 1971 put hold on India–Pakistan cricket that lasted till 1978, when India toured Pakistan and cricket resumed for a brief period. In the post-1971 period, politics became a direct factor in the holding of cricketing events. India has suspended cricketing ties with Pakistan several times following terrorist attacks or other hostilities. The resumption of cricketing ties in 1978 came with the emergence of heads of government in both India and Pakistan who were not directly connected with the 1971 war and coincided with their formal initiatives to normalize bilateral relations. Shortly after a period of belligerency during the Operation Brasstacks war games, Pakistani president Zia-ul-Haq was invited to watch the India–Pakistan test match being played in the Indian city of Jaipur. This form of cricket diplomacy has occurred several times afterwards as well. Pakistan toured India in 1979, but an Indian tour of Pakistan in 1984 was cancelled mid-way due to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

In the late 1980s and for most of the 1990s, India and Pakistan squared-off on neutral venues such as Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates and in Toronto, Canada, where large audiences of expatriates regularly watched them play. The series between the teams in Canada in the 1990s and early 2000s were officially known as the "Friendship Cup". Sharjah even though a neutral venue was considered as the "back yard of Pakistan" given the close proximity and the massive support the team generated.[6]

The rise of multinational competitions such as the Cricket World Cup, ICC T20 World Cup, ICC Champions Trophy, the Austral-Asia Cup and the Asia Cup led to more regular albeit briefer contests.

In 1999, immediately following Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's historic visit to Pakistan, the Pakistani team toured India for Test matches and played in an ODI competition before the Kargil War again put bilateral relations in deep freeze. Prime Minister Vajpayee's peace initiative of 2003 led to India touring Pakistan after a gap of almost 15 years. Subsequent exchange tours were held in 2005 and 2006 before the 2008 Mumbai attacks led to the suspension of India's planned tour of Pakistan in 2009 and all future engagements in Pakistan. India was scheduled to begin the tour of Pakistan from 13 January to 19 February 2009, but was cancelled because of the tension existing between the two countries after the terrorist attacks in Mumbai.[7] India has refused to play series with Pakistan since then.[8]

The rise of domestic terrorism led to Pakistan not hosting international cricket since the Sri Lankan team was attacked in 2009, and Pakistan was stripped of its co-host status for the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. India and Pakistan qualified for the first semi-final in Chandigarh, India, and the Indian government invited the Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to watch the match along with his Indian counterpart, Dr. Manmohan Singh. Bilateral ties finally resumed when BCCI invited the Pakistan national team to tour India for three ODIs and two T20Is in December 2012. The ODIs were held in New Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai with Ahmedabad and Bangalore hosted T20I fixtures.[9]

In June 2014, the Pakistan Cricket Board stated that an agreement to play six bilateral series has been signed with the BCCI during the ICC annual conference in Melbourne.[10] After lengthy negotiations, involving offers and counter-offers on the venues and scheduling of the first of these series in December 2015, the boards were unable to reach an agreement, and the BCCI did not tour for a full series against Pakistan in the UAE, and communications petered out with no result.[11] In May 2017, BCCI secretary Amitabh Choudhary said that the BCCI would need approval from the Indian government before a bilateral series can go ahead.[12] There was no further progress, despite both members of both boards meeting in Dubai to discuss the matter.[13]

Summary of results

As of 12 July 2019

The two sides have played a total of 199 times. Pakistan have won 86 matches compared to India's 70 victories. In Test matches and ODIs Pakistan has won more matches than India, although India has won six of the eight T20 International between the two sides.[C]

Format Matches played India won Pakistan won Draw/Tie/No Result Notes
Test 59 9 12 38 [D]
ODI 132 55 73 4 [E]
T20I 8 6 1 1[C]
Total 199 70 86 43

ICC tournaments

India has the better record in ICC tournaments, with Pakistan yet to win a match in either the World Cup or T20 World Cup in meetings between the two sides. In the Champions Trophy, however, Pakistan have won three of the five meetings between the two sides, including the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy Final. This was the second time the two teams had met in an ICC final, with India winning the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 Final in South Africa.

Tournament Matches played India won Pakistan won Draw/Tie/No result
World Cup 7 7 0 0
T20 World Cup 5 4 0 1[C]
Champions Trophy 5 2 3 0

Continental tournaments

The teams have met on 14 occasions in the Asia Cup, including once when the competition used a Twenty20 format in 2016. India have won eight of these meetings compared to Pakistan's five victories with one match finishing as no result in 1987 due to rain and bad light.[15][F]

Tournament Matches played India won Pakistan won Draw/Tie/No result
Asia Cup ODI 13 7 5 1[F]
Asia Cup Twenty20 1 1 0 0
Asian Test Championship 1 0 1 0

List of Test series

Fifteen Test series have been played between the two sides, as well as a one off Test played in February 1999 as part of the Asian Test Championship. India have hosted eight of the series, with 32 matches played at home as well as the one-off match in 1999. Pakistan have hosted seven series with 26 matches played at home. Each side has four series wins, although Pakistan has won more Test matches than India in matches between the two nations.

Season Host Date first Test started Tests India won Pakistan won Drawn Winner
1952–53   India 16 October 1952 5 2 1 2   India
1954–55   Pakistan 1 January 1955 5 0 0 5 (drawn)
1960–61   India 2 December 1960 5 0 0 5 (drawn)
1978–79   Pakistan 16 October 1978 3 0 2 1   Pakistan
1979–80   India 21 November 1979 6 2 0 4   India
1982–83   Pakistan 10 December 1982 6 0 3 3   Pakistan
1983–84   India 14 September 1983 3 0 0 3 (drawn)
1984–85   Pakistan 17 October 1984 2 0 0 2 (drawn)
1986–87   India 3 February 1987 5 0 1 4   Pakistan
1989–90   Pakistan 15 November 1989 4 0 0 4 (drawn)
1998–99   India 28 January 1999 2[G] 1 1 0 (drawn)
2003–04   Pakistan 28 March 2004 3 2 1 0   India
2004–05   India 8 March 2005 3 1 1 1 (drawn)
2005–06   Pakistan 13 January 2006 3 0 1 2   Pakistan
2007–08   India 22 November 2007 3 1 0 2   India
Total 15 58[H] 9 11[H] 38

List of ODI series

The two sides have played a total of 17 ODI series.[I] Six of these have been played in India, while Pakistan has hosted seven series. Four series have been played in neutral venues, including three in Canada between 1996 and 1998 and one in the United Arab Emirates in 2006. Pakistan have won 11 of the series with India winning five. The two-match series held in the UAE was tied, each team winning one match.

Season Host Date of first match Matches India won Pakistan won Tie/No Result Winner
1978–79   Pakistan 1 October 1978 3 1 2 0   Pakistan
1982–83   Pakistan 3 December 1982 4 1 3 0   Pakistan
1983–84   India 10 September 1983 2 2 0 0   India
1984–85   Pakistan 12 October 1984 2 0 1 1   Pakistan
1986–87   India 27 January 1987 6 1 5 0   Pakistan
1989–90   Pakistan 16 December 1989 3 0 2 1   Pakistan
1996   Canada 16 September 1996 5 2 3 0   Pakistan
1997   Canada 13 September 1997 5 4 1 0   India
1997–98   Pakistan 28 September 1997 3 1 2 0   Pakistan
1998   Canada 12 September 1998 5 1 4 0   Pakistan
2003–04   Pakistan 13 March 2004 5 3 2 0   India
2004–05   India 13 November 2004 1 0 1 0   Pakistan
2004–05   India 2 April 2005 6 2 4 0   Pakistan
2005–06   Pakistan 6 February 2006 5 4 1 0   India
2005–06   UAE 18 April 2006 2 1 1 0 (drawn)
2007–08   India 5 November 2007 5 3 2 0   India
2012–13   India 30 December 2012 3 1 2 0   Pakistan
Total 65 27 36 2

List of T20I series

The teams have only played one Twenty20 International series, a two match series played in 2012 as part of Pakistan's tour of India. Each team won one match, leaving the series drawn.

Year(s) Host Date of first match Matches India won Pakistan won Tie/No Result Winner
2012–13   India 25 December 2012 2 1 1 0 (drawn)

Test records

Team records

Smallest victories
Margin Winning team Venue Season
12 runs   Pakistan Chennai 1998–99
16 runs   Pakistan Bangalore 1986–87
46 runs   Pakistan Kolkata 1998–99

Source: Derived from StatsGuru database at CricInfo[20]

Individual

ODI records

Team

Highest innings total
Score Team Venue Season
356/9 (50 overs)   India Visakhapatnam 2004–05
349/7 (50 overs)   India Karachi 2003–04
344/8 (50 overs)   Pakistan Karachi 2003–04
338/4 (50 overs)   Pakistan The Oval, London 2017
336/5 (50 overs)   India Manchester, England 2019

Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 19 November 2016.

Lowest innings total
Score Team Venue Season
79 (34.2 overs)   India Sialkot 1978–79
87 (32.5 overs)   Pakistan Sharjah, UAE 1984–85
112 (30.2 overs)   India Lahore 1989–90
116 (45 overs)   Pakistan Toronto, Canada 1997
125 (45 overs)   India Sharjah, UAE 1998–99

Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 30 November 2016.

Largest victory
Margin Winning team Venue Season
180 runs   Pakistan The Oval, London 2017
159 runs   Pakistan New Delhi 2004–05
143 runs   Pakistan Jaipur 1998–99
140 runs   India Dhaka, Bangladesh 2008
134 runs   Pakistan Toronto, Canada 1998

Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 18 June 2017.

Smallest victory
Margin Winning team Venue Season
4 runs   India Quetta 1978–79
4 runs   Pakistan Sharjah, UAE 1991–92
5 runs   India Karachi 2003–04
7 runs   Pakistan Gujranwala 1989–90
7 runs   Pakistan Peshawar 2005–06

Source: Cricinfo.com. Last updated 30 November 2016.

Individual

Most career runs
Runs Player Years
2,526 (67 innings)   Sachin Tendulkar 1989–2012
2,403 (64 innings)   Inzamam-ul-Haq 1992–2006
2,002 (48 innings)   Saeed Anwar 1989–2003
1,899 (55 innings)   Rahul Dravid 1996–2009
1,661 (59 innings)   Shoaib Malik 2000–present

Last updated: 30 November 2016[25]

Highest individual score
Runs Player Venue Date
194   Saeed Anwar Chennai 21 May 1997
183   Virat Kohli Dhaka, Bangladesh 18 March 2012
148   MS Dhoni Visakhapatnam 5 April 2005
143   Shoaib Malik Colombo, Sri Lanka 25 July 2004
141   Sachin Tendulkar Rawalpindi 16 March 2004

Last updated: 30 November 2016[26]

Most wickets in a career
Wickets Player Matches Bowling average
60   Wasim Akram 48 25.15
57   Saqlain Mushtaq 35 24.38
54   Anil Kumble 34 24.25
54   Aaqib Javed 39 24.64
54   Javagal Srinath 36 30.68

Last updated: 30 November 2016[27]

Best bowling figures
Bowling Player Venue Date
7/37   Aaqib Javed Sharjah, UAE 25 October 1991
6/14   Imran Khan Sharjah, UAE 22 March 1985
6/27   Naved-ul-Hasan Jamshedpur 9 April 2005
5/16   Sourav Ganguly Toronto, Canada 18 September 1997
5/19   Aaqib Javed Sharjah, UAE 7 April 1995

Last updated: 30 November 2016[28]

Twenty20 International records

The two sides have played each other eight times in Twenty20 Internationals (T20I). Five of these matches have taken place during T20 World Cups, including their meeting during the final of the 2007 competition, and one at the Asia Cup. A single two-match T20I series was played in India in 2012.

The highest team score made in a T20I between the two nations was India's 192/5 made at Ahmedabad in December 2012. In the same match Pakistan recorded their highest score against India, scoring 181/7.[29] The lowest score in a T20I between the two counties was Pakistan's 83 all out made at Dhaka during the 2016 Asia Cup.[30]

The highest individual score made in a T20I between the two sides was Virat Kohli's 78 runs made in September 2012 during the 2012 ICC World Twenty20 competition in Sri Lanka. Kohl also holds the record for the most runs scored overall in matches between the two sides with 254 runs score in six innings.[31] Pakistan's highest individual score was the 68 runs made by Mohammad Hafeez in December 2012.[32]

The best bowling performance in matches between the sides was the 4/18 taken by Mohammad Amir during the group stage meeting between the teams at the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 in South Africa. India's best bowling performance was the 3/8 taken by Hardik Pandya during the 2016 WorldT20.[33] Pakistan's Umar Gul has taken the most wickets in matches between the sides with 11.[34]

Players who have played for both teams

Prior to the Partition of India in 1947 India had played cricket, having first played as an international side in 1932. Following Partition, Pakistan was created and began playing as an independent nation, making their Test match debut in 1952 during a tour of India.

Three players played for Pakistan after appearing for India. They are:

  • Amir Elahi – One Test for India against Australia at Sydney in 1947; five Tests for Pakistan against India in 1952
  • Gul Mohammad – Eight Tests for India between 1946 and 1955); one Test for Pakistan in 1956
  • Abdul Hafeez Kardar – Three Tests for India in 1946; 23 Tests for Pakistan between 1948 and 1958

After Partition Gul Mohammad continued to play for India until 1955 and played against Pakistan in their first tour of India in 1951–52. Both Amir Elahi and Abdul Hafeez Kardar played for Pakistan on the tour. Abdul Hafeez Kardar went on to play for Pakistan against India during India's first tour of Pakistan in 1954–55.

Notes

  1. ^ The Imperial Cricket Conference was renamed the International Cricket Conference in 1965 and later became the International Cricket Council. It organises international cricket across the globe.
  2. ^ Full Member status grants the member the right to play in Test matches.
  3. ^ a b c The 2007 T20 World Cup match between the teams ended in a tie. India were awarded the points after a bowl-out. The official match result is recorded as a tie.[14]
  4. ^ One Test match between the two sides was cancelled following the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984.
  5. ^ In addition, four matches between the two sides have been abandoned without a ball being bowled and one match in 1984 was cancelled following the assassination of Indira Gandhi.
  6. ^ a b The 1987 Asia Cup match was abandoned after nine overs due to bad light and rain. It was due to be replayed the following day but this match was abandoned without a ball being bowled due to rain.[15][16]
  7. ^ One other match was played as part of the Asian Test Championship immediately after the second Test of the tour. Pakistan won this match. The Championship has only been played twice. On the second occasion India withdrew due to political tensions with Pakistan.
  8. ^ a b One additional match was played in February 1999 as part of the Asian Test Championship. Pakistan won this match
  9. ^ In cricket a series is a set number of matches played between two sides over a relatively short period of time. The two sides have also met in a number of other competitions featuring other teams, including ICC competitions and a number of one-off series of matches.

See also

References

  1. ^ Brett, Oliver (9 March 2004). "Cricket's most intense rivalry". BBC News.
  2. ^ Richards, Huw (8 March 2008). "Cricket: Passion and politics mix as India faces Pakistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b c Ingle S (2019) Not just cricket: India and Pakistan prepare to renew rivalry at World Cup, The Guardian, 14 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Wigmore T (2019) Why India vs Pakistan is the biggest game in all sport: When politics, passion and national identity collide, The Daily Telegraph, 16 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  5. ^ Ehantharajah, Vithushan (June 2017). "Frenemies forever". The Cricket Monthly. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  6. ^ Stats Guru Summary of Bilateral series between India and Pakistan
  7. ^ Herman, Steve (18 December 2008). "India Cancels Cricket Tour of Pakistan". VOA News. Voice of America. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  8. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/cricket/news/cant-force-india-to-play-bilateral-series-against-pakistan-icc/articleshow/60518531.cms
  9. ^ "Cricket spirit: Pakistan to tour India in December". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  10. ^ "India to play six bilateral series against Pakistan in next eight years". Patrika Group (in Hindi). Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  11. ^ "India–Pakistan series appears difficult – Thakur". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  12. ^ "Playing Pakistan depends on government – BCCI". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  13. ^ "No progress on India–Pakistan bilateral ties". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  14. ^ "10th Match, Group D: India v Pakistan at Durban, Sep 14, 2007 – Cricket Scorecard". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  15. ^ a b 4th Match, Pepsi Asia Cup at Colombo, Jul 20 1997, scorecard, CricInfo. Retrieved 2019-07-12.
  16. ^ 4th Match, Pepsi Asia Cup at Colombo, Jul 21 1997, scorecard, CricInfo. Retrieved 2019-07-12.
  17. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Highest totals". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  18. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Lowest totals". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Largest victories". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  20. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Smallest victories (including ties)". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  21. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Most runs". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  22. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Highest scores". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  23. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Most wickets". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  24. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Test matches / Best bowling figures in an innings". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  25. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / Most runs". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  26. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / High scores". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  27. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / Most wickets". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  28. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / One-Day Internationals / Best bowling figures in an innings". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  29. ^ Highest innings totals, Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  30. ^ Lowest innings totals, Cricinfo. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  31. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Twenty20 Internationals / Most runs". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Twenty20 Internationals / High scores". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Twenty20 Internationals / Best bowling figures in an innings". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  34. ^ "Records / India v Pakistan / Twenty20 Internationals / Most wickets". Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 November 2016.

External links