|Formerly known as||Indian Imperial Police|
|Date of Establishment|
|Staff College||Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad|
|Cadre Controlling Authority||Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India|
|Minister Responsible||Amit Shah, Union Cabinet Minister for Home Affairs.|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Civil Service|
|Cadre Strength||5,047 members (2023) |
(4,344 officers in position; 703 position vacant)
|Selection||Civil Services Examination|
|Association||IPS (Central) Association|
Along with the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the IPS is one of the All India Services – its officers are employed by both the Union Government and the individual states.
The service commands and provides leadership to State police forces and Union territories' police forces, Central Armed Police Forces (BSF, SSB, CRPF, CISF, and ITBP), the National Security Guard (NSG), National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Special Protection Group (SPG), National Investigative Agency (NIA) and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).
There is no alternative to this administrative system... The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work... If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else... these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing, but a picture of chaos all over the country.
Indian Imperial Police edit
In 1861, the British Parliament introduced the Indian Councils Act, 1861. The act created the foundation of a modern and professionalised police bureaucracy in India. It introduced a new cadre of police, called Superior Police Services, later known as the Indian Imperial Police. The highest rank in the service was the inspector general for each province. The rank of inspector general was equated and ranked with brigadier, and similar ranks in the Indian Armed Forces, as per central warrant of precedence in 1937.[a]
In 1902–03, a police commission was established for the Police reforms under Sir Andrew Fraser and Lord Curzon. It recommended the appointment of Indians at officer level in the police. Indians could rise only to the ranks of Inspector of police, the senior N.C.O. position. However they were not part of Indian Imperial Police.
From 1920, Indian Imperial Police was open to Indians and the entrance examination for the service was conducted both in India and England.
Prior to Independence, senior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the secretary of state on the basis of a competitive examination. The first open civil service examination for admission to the service was held in England in June 1893 and the ten top candidates were appointed as probationers in the Indian (Imperial) Police. It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date on which the Indian Police came formally into being.
Around 1907, the secretary of state's officers were directed to wear the letters "IP" on their epaulettes in order to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the secretary of state through examination. In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point. In 1948, a year after India gained independence; the Imperial Police was replaced by IPS.
Indian Police Service edit
Medals and decorations edit
Despite being a very small cadre strength many IPS officers have been awarded highest gallantry awards (Ashok Chakra, Kirti Chakra). The present National Security Advisor of India, Ajit Doval, who was an IPS officer was awarded Kirti Chakra for his gallant actions during operation Black Thunder. Though generally deployed in supervisory capacity at senior levels it's not uncommon for even a three star general rank IPS officers to be seen on the road taking active part in law and order maintenance. IPS officers have been posted to various UN Missions have been awarded United Nations Medal. Many exceptional IPS officers have been awarded with Padma awards from time to time.
The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined the police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law, and to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Central Armed Police Forces. Its members are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service's objectives were updated and redefined, the current roles and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows:
- To fulfil duties based on border responsibilities, in the areas of maintenance of public peace and order, crime prevention, investigation, and detection, collection of intelligence, VIP security, counter-terrorism, border policing, railway policing, tackling smuggling, drug trafficking, economic offences, corruption in public life, disaster management, enforcement of socio-economic legislation, bio-diversity and protection of environmental laws etc.
- Leading and commanding the Indian Intelligence Agencies like Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Criminal Investigation Department (CID) etc., Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Civil and Armed Police Forces in all the states and union territories.
- Leading and commanding various Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) which include the Central Police Organisations (CPO) such as Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), National Security Guard (NSG), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Vigilance Organisations and Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies.
- To lead and command the force with courage, uprightness, dedication and a strong sense of service to the people.
- Endeavor to inculcate in the police forces under their command such values and norms as would help them serve the people better.
- Inculcate integrity of the highest order, sensitivity to aspirations of people in a fast-changing social and economic milieu, respect for human rights, broad liberal perspective of law and justice and high standard of professionalism.
IPS officers are recruited from Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC. They are also promoted from State Police Services and DANIPS. However, at present, recruitment from Limited Competitive Examination has been put on hold.
The training of IPS officer recruits is conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy in Hyderabad. The authorised cadre strength of Indian Police Service is 4920. (3270 Direct Recruitment Posts and 1650 Promotional Posts). The Civil List of IPS officers is an updated (annual) list maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India that lists the posting details of all IPS officers in India. This Civil List can be accessed from the MHA website. It allows searching for an IPS officer on the basis of their name, Batch or Cadre.
State cadres edit
Cadre allocation policy edit
The Union Government announced a new cadre allocation policy for the All India Services in August 2017, touting it as a policy to ensure national integration of the bureaucracy as officers and ensure All-India character of the services. Under the new policy, the existing 26 cadres have been divided into five zones in the new policy by the Department of Personnel and Training of Government of India.
Under the new policy, a candidate has to first give their choice in the descending order of preference from amongst the various Zones. Subsequently, the candidate has to indicate one preference of cadre from each preferred zone. The candidate indicates their second cadre preference for every preferred zone subsequently. The process continues till a preference for all the cadres is indicated by the candidate. The preference for the zones/cadres remains in the same order and no change is permitted.
|Zone-I||AGMUT (Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram and Union Territories, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana.|
|Zone-II||Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha.|
|Zone-III||Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.|
|Zone-IV||West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Nagaland.|
|Zone-V||Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.|
Old cadre allocation policies edit
Till 2008 there was no system of preference of state cadre by the candidates; the candidates, if not placed in the insider vacancy of their home states, were allotted to different states in alphabetical order of the roster, beginning with the letters A, H, M, T for that particular year. For example, if in a particular year the roster begins from 'A', which means the first candidate on the roster will go to the Andhra Pradesh state cadre of IPS, the next one to Bihar, and subsequently to Chhattisgarh, Gujarat and so on in alphabetical order. The next year the roster starts from 'H', for either Haryana or Himachal Pradesh (if it has started from Haryana on the previous occasion when it all started from 'H', then this time it would start from Himachal Pradesh). This highly intricate system, in vogue since the mid-1980s, had ensured that officers from different states are placed all over India.
The system of permanent State cadres has also resulted in wide disparities in the kind of professional exposure for officers, when we compare officers in small and big and also developed and backward states. Changes of state cadre is permitted on grounds of marriage to an All India Service officer of another state cadre or under other exceptional circumstances. The officer may go to their home state cadre on deputation for a limited period, after which one has to invariably return to the cadre allotted to him or her.
From 2008 to 2017 IPS officers were allotted to State cadres at the beginning of their service. There was one cadre for each Indian state, except for two joint cadres: Assam–Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh–Goa–Mizoram–Union Territories (AGMUT). The "insider-outsider ratio" (ratio of officers who were posted in their home states) is maintained as 1:2, with one-third of the direct recruits as 'insiders' from the same state. The rest were posted as outsiders according to the 'roster' in states other than their home states, as per their preference.
Career progression edit
Pay structure of Indian Police Service edit
|Insignia||Grade/level on pay matrix||Position in the state government(s)||Other positions or designation in the state government(s) or the Government of India (GOI)||Position in Indian order of precedence||Basic salary (monthly)|
|Apex scale (pay level 17)||
|Secretary (R), Secretary (Security) in the Cabinet Secretariat.||
|Director General of Police/Commissioner of Police
(Head of State Police Force)
|HAG+ Scale (pay level 16)||Director General of Police/Commissioner of Police||
|₹205,400 (US$2,600)—₹224,400 (US$2,800)|
|HAG scale (pay level 15)||Additional Director General of Police/Joint Commissioner of Police||₹182,200 (US$2,300)—₹224,100 (US$2,800)|
|Senior administrative grade (pay level 14)||Inspector General of Police/Additional Commissioner of Police||
||₹144,200 (US$1,800)—₹218,200 (US$2,700)|
|Super time scale (DIG/Conservator grade) (pay level 13A)||Deputy Inspector General of Police/Additional Commissioner of Police||
||₹131,100 (US$1,600)—₹216,600 (US$2,700)|
|Selection grade (pay level 13)||Senior Superintendent of Police/Deputy Commissioner of Police
|Deputy commissioner of police in Delhi.||₹118,500 (US$1,500)—₹214,100 (US$2,700)|
|Junior administrative grade (pay level 12)||Superintendent of Police/Deputy Commissioner of Police||Deputy commissioner of police in Delhi.||₹78,800 (US$990)—₹191,500 (US$2,400)|
|Senior time scale (pay level 11)||Additional Superintendent of Police/Deputy Commissioner of Police||Additional deputy commissioner of police in Delhi.||₹67,700 (US$850)—₹160,000 (US$2,000)|
|Junior time scale (pay level 10)||Assistant Superintendent of Police/
Deputy Superintendent of Police/Assistant Commissioner of Police
|Assistant commissioner of police in Delhi.||₹56,100 (US$700)—₹132,000 (US$1,700)|
Ranks and insignia edit
Though the standard uniform colour is khaki, the ranks, posts and designations of IPS officers vary from state to state as law and order is a state matter. But generally the following pattern is observed.
Ranks of IPS officers edit
IPS officers are appointed on the basis of either Civil Service Examination or promoted from the state police service cadre (state civil service officers). Vacancy in an IPS cadre are determined on the basis of vacancy on an Superintendent of Police rank. Consequently, there are two level of gradations for SP rank. These are level 11 and 12 as per the Seventh Pay Commission. Resultantly, IPS officers remain on the rank on SP till the 13th year after which they are eligible for being promoted as Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). ASP rank is the junior most rank on an IPS state cadre. Consequently, fresh recruits to IPS are variously posted as Assistant Superintendent of Police in a supernumerary capacity (only for training purpose for two years and after that for 1 year) till they are formally placed as Superintendent of Police In-Charge of an area (when they get the pay of level 11 and level 12) and as district in charge (when they get the pay of level 12) (only in non-metropolitan districts). When the officers get promoted to the rank of SSP, some of them are posted as the district in-charge of metropolitan districts.
|Rank||Director General of Police||Additional Director General of Police[note 1]||Inspector General of Police||Deputy Inspector General of Police||Senior Superintendent of Police||Superintendent of Police||Additional superintendent of police||Deputy superintendent of police||Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 2 years of service)||Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 1 year of service)|
Reform committees edit
India's police continue to be governed by a colonial police law passed in 1861[clarification needed]. The Indian Constitution makes policing a state subject and therefore the state governments have the responsibility to provide their communities with a police service. However, after independence, most have adopted the 1861 Act without change, while others have passed laws heavily based on the 1861 Act[clarification needed].
The need for police reform in India has long been recognised. There have been almost 30 years of debate and discussion by government-created committees and commissions on the way forward for police reform, but India remains saddled with an outdated and old-fashioned law[clarification needed], while report after report gathers dust on government bookshelves without implementation. Many committees on police reform have recommended major reforms in the police system coupled with systematic accountability.
National Police Commission (1977–81) edit
The National Police Commission was the first committee set up by the Indian government to report on policing. The National Police Commission began sitting in 1979, in the context of a post-Emergency India, and produced eight reports, including a Model Police Act, between 1979 and 1981.
Ribeiro Committee (1998–99) edit
In 1996, two former senior police officers filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court, asking for the Court to direct governments to implement the recommendations of the National Police Commission. The Supreme Court directed the government to set up a committee to review the commission's recommendations, and thus the Ribeiro Committee was formed. The committee, under the leadership of J. F. Ribeiro, a former chief of police, sat over 1998 and 1999, and produced two reports.
Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) edit
In 2000, the government set up a third committee on police reform, this time under the stewardship of a former union Home Secretary, K. Padmanabhaiah. This Committee released its report in the same year.
Malimath Committee Report (2003) edit
The Malimath Committee Report submitted in March 2003 has very articulately laid down the foundation of a restructured and reoriented police system. The Committee in its report observed that the success of the whole process of Criminal Justice Administration depended completely on the proper functioning of the police organisation especially in the investigation stage. Apart from the investigation of offences, the police also have the duty of maintaining law and order.
Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005) edit
In 2005, the government put together a group to draft a new police Act for India. It was headed by Soli Sorabjee (former Attorney General). The committee submitted a Model Police Act to the union government in late 2006.
Supreme Court intervention (2006) edit
In 1996, Prakash Singh (a former chief of Assam Police and Uttar Pradesh Police and subsequently Director General of the Border Security Force) initiated a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court of India, asking the court to investigate measures to reform the police forces across India to ensure the proper rule of law and improve security across India. The Supreme Court studied various reports on police reforms. Finally, in 2006, a bench of Justice Y.K. Sabharwal, Justice C.K. Thakker and Justice P.K. Balasubramanyan ordered the state governments to implement several reforms in police force.
Several measures were identified as necessary to professionalise the police in India:
- A mid or high ranking police officer must not be transferred more frequently than every two years.
- The state government cannot ask the police force to hire someone, nor can they choose the Director General of the State Police.
- There must be separate departments and staff for investigation and patrolling, which will include the creation of:
- A State Security Commission, for policies and direction
- A Police Establishment Board, which will decide the selection, promotions and transfers of police officers and other staff
- A Police Complaints Authority, to inquire into allegations of police misconduct.
Follow-up from Supreme Court edit
In 2006, due to a lack of action by all the state governments, the Supreme Court ordered the state governments to report to it why the reform measures outlined were not implemented. After being questioned in front of the judges of the Supreme Court, the state governments are finally starting to reform the police forces and give them the operational independence they need for fearless and proper law enforcement. Tamil Nadu Police has been in the forefront of application of the new referendum.
Again, in October 2012, a Supreme Court bench of Chief Justice Altamas Kabir and justices Surinder Singh Nijjar and Jasti Chelameswar asked all state governments and Union territories to inform about compliance of its September 2006 judgement. The order was passed when Prakash Singh through his lawyer Prashant Bhushan said that many of the reforms (ordered by the Supreme Court) have yet not been implemented by many state governments.
Major concerns and public debates edit
Due to the immense amount of power and responsibility that IPS officers hold, there are many issues that can arise when personal beliefs, desires, emotions, safety, and security are at play.
One of the primary concerns is the issue of politicization. The police force is often subject to political interference, which can undermine its independence and impartiality. Political pressure can influence the decision-making process, compromise investigations, and create a lack of trust in the police among the public. The ambition of the senior IPS officers to occupy posts of importance is a major contributory factor to the politicisation. The appointment of subordinate police officers is in the hands of their seniors. When the seniors surrender their authority by complying with requests from politicians, corruption increases and the investigation of crime in sensitive cases are based not on facts and law but on the wishes and interests of the politician in power.
Political interference edit
Members of one of the two most elite services in the country (the other being the Indian Administrative Service), IPS officers are arguably the most visible face of the government, overseeing law and order, investigation, internal and border security, and intelligence, among other functions. IPS officers often encounter political interference in their day-to-day functioning. Politicians may attempt to influence police investigations, transfers, and postings for their own interests or to fulfill political agendas. Such interference can undermine the impartiality and integrity of the police force.
Some IPS officers have been accused public corruption, money laundering, drug trafficking and unjust use of power. There have been various instances of abuse of the public by officers. High-ranking officers often enjoy many luxuries for no cost. There is also opportunity to receive extra payment for doing specific tasks on the job.
VIP Culture edit
VIP culture within the Indian Police Service (IPS) refers to a phenomenon where certain individuals, especially those holding positions of power or influence, receive preferential treatment or special privileges from the police force. This culture often results in the diversion of police resources and manpower towards catering to the needs and demands of these individuals, often at the expense of the general public. VIP culture in India, including within the IPS, has been a subject of criticism and public debate for many years. It is seen as a reflection of the country's broader issue of social and political inequality. One manifestation of VIP culture within the IPS is the deployment of police personnel for personal security and escort duties even their personal needs for senior IPS officers. These personnel are often diverted from their regular law enforcement duties, which can affect the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the police force. VIP culture also extends to the use of special privileges such as flashing red or blue beacons on vehicles, known as "lal batti," which signify authority and grant the right-of-way on the roads. The practice of using sirens and escort vehicles to navigate through traffic, often at high speeds, is another common aspect of VIP culture within the IPS.
- Security - High-ranking IPS officials is provided with a significant security detail, which includes armed police personnel, vehicles, and sometimes even dedicated security units. This leads to the concentration of resources on protecting VIPs, sometimes at the expense of maintaining law and order in other areas.
Misuse of Power edit
There are lot of incidents were Misuse of Power by IPS officers in india. In a notable incident in Kochi, there was an alarming misuse of government vehicles and police personnel during the marriage ceremony of a IPS officer. This incident raised concerns as several government-owned vehicles, belonging to the Kerala police, were utilized as a shuttle service for the wedding festivities. Additionally, a number of police officers were deployed as valets to assist with carrying luggage and other items for the guests. This incident highlights a misuse of power and resources, which is a matter of great concern. Such actions not only demonstrate a disregard for proper usage of government assets but also raise questions regarding the principles of fairness and equality.
Extra-judicial killings, Custodial torture edit
In June 2023, an incident of alleged abuse of power by Tamil Nadu IPS officer came to light, resulting in his suspension. an assistant superintendent of police (ASP) from the Tamil Nadu cadre, was accused of engaging in custodial torture at Ambasamudram police station in Tirunelveli district. The allegations against IPS officer included forcefully extracting the teeth of approximately ten individuals and repeatedly assaulting at least two of them in their genital areas while they were in custody.
Violence against women and sexual misconduct edit
Mental health and suicide edit
IPS officers have complained of high levels of stress due to long work hours and unrealistic demands of political bosses. Retired Director General of Police in Uttar Pradesh Vikram Singh believes job discontent is a combination of "no holidays, lack of sleep, the sinking feeling of failure, public treatment of policemen with contempt, indifference of political bosses and almost no connect with superiors". Professional stress ruins personal lives and leads to martial discord. The inability to balance professional and personal lives has led some IPS officers to commit suicide.
Fake encounters edit
IPS (Central) Association edit
In 2019, Ministry of Home Affairs said it never recognised or approved the formation of IPS (Central) Association and the police force does not have the right to form any association without the permission of the federal Government of India.
Promotions and entry reforms edit
The entry for Police Force in India has been made up by 4 levels - constables, sub-inspectors, state service DSPs, and IPS. This has caused disunity in the force, with constables being treated as slaves or personal servants for senior officers. The lack of merit based promotions has caused constables to remain constables till retirement. This type of police system has been severely criticized by several current and retired police officials, demanding a single entry into the force from constable, which has met resistance from other officials and political establishment.
Women in the Indian Police Service edit
In 1972, Kiran Bedi became the first woman Indian Police Service officer and was the only woman in a batch of 80 IPS Officers, she joined the AGMUT Cadre. She was followed by Jija Madhavan Harisingh in 1975, who became the first woman Indian Police Service officer from South-India (Karnataka cadre) and she remained in service for 36 years before retirement in 2011 as Director General of Police (DGP), and Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya, the second woman IPS officer belonging to the 1973 Batch, becoming the first woman Director General of Police of a state in India when she was appointed DGP of Uttarakhand Police.
In 1992, Asha Sinha, a 1982 Batch IPS officer, became the first woman Commandant in the Paramilitary forces of India when she was posted as Commandant, Central Industrial Security Force in Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited and she remained in service for 34 years before retirement in 2016 as Director General of Police (DGP). In 2018, an IPS Officer Archana Ramasundaram of 1980 Batch became the first woman to become the director general of police of a Central Armed Police Force as DG, Sashastra Seema Bal.
Notable people edit
- Ajit Doval
- R. N. Kao
- Prakash Singh
- Raghavendra suhas IPS
- Kiran Bedi
- KPS Gill
- Julio Francis Ribeiro
- Rakesh Maria
- H. T. Sangliana
- K. Vijay Kumar
- Amitabh Thakur
- Vibhuti Narain Rai
- Namo Narain Meena
- Kishore Kunal
- Jagmohan Yadav
- Sulkhan Singh
- Manoj Yadava
- Vipul Aggarwal
- Sukhmohinder Singh Sandhu
- Joginder Sharma
- Rahul Sharma (Gujarat police)
- Lalit Vijay Singh
- Yogesh Pratap Singh
- D Roopa
- Amit Lodha
- Navniet Sekera
- Laxmi Singh
- R. Sreelekha
See also edit
- The rank of IGP is ranked and equated with the rank of Brigadier / equivalent rank of the Indian Armed Forced as per Warrant of Precedence – 1937, as per Ministry of Home Affairs' directions contained in Letter No 12/11/99-Pub II dated 26 December 1966. This Warrant of Precedence is compiled from a joint consideration of the existing Central Warrant of Precedence (which is till the rank of Major General) and Warrant of Precedence – 1937, as per Ministry of Home Affairs' directions contained in Letter No 12/11/99-Pub II dated 26 December 1966, the validity of which has been confirmed by Letter No 12/1/2007-Public dated 14 August 2007. The MHA has confirmed in 2007 that the Old Warrant of Precedence shall be taken as a guide to determine ranks below the ones mentioned in the current WoP.
- Rank insignia of DGP is similar to additional DGP.
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Further reading edit
- History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.
- The peace keepers: Indian Police Service (IPS), by S. R. Arun, IPS, DGP Uttar Pradesh. Published by Berghahn Books, 2000. ISBN 978-81-7049-107-1.
- The Indian Police Journal (IPJ), by Bureau of Police Research and Development, Ministry of Home Affairs. Published by Govt. of India, October–December 2009 Vol.LVI-No.4. ISSN 0537-2429.
- History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.