List of Indian intelligence agencies

India has a number of intelligence agencies, of which the best known are the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), India's external intelligence agency, and the Intelligence Bureau (IB), the domestic intelligence agency, responsible for counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism and overall internal security.

National Technical Research Organisation edit

The National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO)[1] is a technical intelligence agency under the National Security Advisor in the Prime Minister's Office, India.[2] It was set up in 2004.[3] It also includes the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) and the National Institute of Cryptology Research and Development (NICRD) for cryptologic education and research, which is first of its kind in Asia.[4]

Research and Analysis Wing edit

Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) is the primary foreign intelligence agency of India. The agency's primary function is gathering foreign intelligence, counter-terrorism, counterproliferation, advising Indian policymakers, and advancing India's foreign strategic interests. It is also involved in the security of India's nuclear programme.

Aviation Research Centre edit

Cameras of MiG-25RB for aerial surveillance

The Aviation Research Centre (ARC) is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) of the Cabinet Secretariat (Special Requirements) India. The first head of the ARC was R. N. Kao, the founding chief of R&AW. Over the years the ARC has grown into a large operation and flies a large and varied fleet. Aerial surveillance, SIGINT operations, photo reconnaissance flights (PHOTINT),[5] monitoring of borders, imagery intelligence (IMINT)[6] are the main functions of the Aviation Research Centre (ARC). The aircraft are fitted with state-of-the-art electronic surveillance equipment and long range cameras capable of taking pictures of targets from very high altitudes. ARC also takes the responsibility along with the IAF to transport Special Frontier Force (SFF) commandos from their trans-location at Sarsawa, 250 km north of New Delhi, though the SFF's own base is in Chakrata in Uttarakhand state.

Radio Research Centre edit

The Radio Research Centre (RRC) is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) of the Cabinet Secretariat (Special Requirements) India. The RRC is a premier communication and signal intelligence agency of India. RRC's tasks include – communication with the embassies abroad, send cyphered code to agents stationed abroad, interception fixed line and wireless communication and the department closely works with the Joint Cypher Bureau. The RRC has offices all across the country and the perform the intercepts communication and sends code.[7]

Electronics and Technical Services edit

The Electronics and Technical Services (ETS) is the Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) arm of India's external intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW). Established in the mid-1980s under the leadership of then R&AW's chief N. F. Suntook, the organisation, it is housed in the CGO complex in New Delhi. ETS is believed to be involved in ELINT roles, not restricted but also includes jamming and spoofing - Electronic Warfare (EW). ETS also involved in Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESMs), Telemetry (TELINT), Tracking and monitoring data links, interception and monitoring of navigation signals and other ELINT and EW methods.[8]

Intelligence Bureau edit

The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is India's internal intelligence agency.[9] The Intelligence Bureau (IB) (Hindi: आसूचना ब्यूरो; IAST: āsūcanā byūro) is India's domestic internal security and counter-intelligence agency under Ministry of Home Affairs. It was founded in 1887 as Central Special Branch, and is reputed to be the oldest such organization in the world.

National Cyber Coordination Centre edit

The National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC) is an operational cybersecurity and e-surveillance agency in India. It is intended to screen communication metadata and co-ordinate the intelligence gathering activities of other agencies.[10]

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence edit

The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian intelligence agency. It is India's apex anti-smuggling intelligence, investigations and operations agency. The DRI is run by officers from the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) who are posted in its various Zonal Units as well as in Indian embassies abroad as part of the Customs Overseas Intelligence Network. It is headed by a Director General of the rank of Special Secretary to the Government of India. The Agency works to secure India's national and economic security by preventing the outright smuggling of contraband such as firearms, gold, narcotics, counterfeit Indian currency notes, antiques, wildlife and environmental products. Moreover, it also works to prevent the proliferation of black money, trade based money laundering and commercial frauds.

Joint Cipher Bureau edit

The Joint Cipher Bureau works closely with the IB and R&AW. It is responsible for cryptanalysis and encryption of sensitive data.[citation needed] The inter-services Joint Cipher Bureau has primary responsibility for cryptology and SIGINT, providing coordination and direction to the other military service organizations with a similar mission. Most current equipment providing tactical intelligence is of Russian origin, including specialized direction finding and monitoring equipment.

The Joint Cipher Bureau is also responsible for issues relating to public and private key management. Cryptographic products are export-controlled licensed items, and licenses to India are not generally available for products of key length of more than 56 bits.[citation needed] The domestic Indian computer industry primarily produces PCs, and PC-compatible cryptographic products have been developed and are being used commercially. More robust encryption systems are not commercially produced in India, and progress in this field has been slow due to the general unavailability of technology and know-how. Customised cryptographic products have been designed and produced by organizations in the defence sector are engaged in the implementation of cryptographic techniques, protocols and the products.

All India Radio Monitoring Service edit

All India Radio Monitoring Service (AIRMS) is the central monitoring service that monitors broadcasts in India as well as from all foreign broadcasts of Interest to India.[11] AIRMS is located in Shimla.[12] It works in liaison with R&AW and Military intelligence.

Defence Intelligence Agency edit

The Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) was established on 5 March 2002 with the appointment of Lt. General Kamal Davar as the first Director General (DG). The DG reports to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). It is supposed to be the nodal agency for all defence-related intelligence, thus distinguishing it from the R&AW. Much of the agency's budget and operations are classified.

DIA has control of MoD's prized technical intelligence assets – the Directorate of Signals Intelligence and the Defence Image Processing and Analysis Centre (DIPAC). While the Signals Directorate is responsible for acquiring and decrypting enemy communications, the DIPAC controls India's satellite-based image acquisition capabilities. The DIA also controls the Defence Information Warfare Agency (DIWA) which handles all elements of the information warfare repertoire, including psychological operations, cyber-war, electronic intercepts and the monitoring of sound waves. Before the creation of the Defence Intelligence Agency, the military intelligence capability of India's armed forces was limited to Field Intelligence Units (FIU) and separate intelligence arms of the services.[13] These distinct services were not able to effectively coordinate intelligence operations and sharing of information.[14] The armed forces also heavily relied on civilian intelligence agencies such as the Research and Analysis Wing and the Intelligence Bureau.[13] With wide-ranging resources and functions, the DIA will be superior to and coordinate the Directorate of Military Intelligence, Directorate of Air Intelligence and the Directorate of Naval Intelligence.[14]

Signals Intelligence Directorate edit

The Signals Intelligence Directorate is a joint service organisation, manned by personnel from the Army, Navy and Air Force. It has a large number of Wireless Experimental Units (WEUs) that carry out the task of monitoring military links of other countries.

Central Monitoring Organisation edit

The Central Monitoring Organisation (CMO) is directly under the Ministry of Defence. It has several monitoring companies, located at different locations around the country. Task is to monitor the use of radio spectrum by all users, such as Defence, Police, AIR, Railways, PSUs, etc.

Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring edit

The Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM), formerly known as Vigilance Telecom Monitoring (VTM), is the vigilance and monitoring wing of the Indian Department of Telecommunications (DoT).[15] TERM is made up of 34 cells in India's 22 telecom circles and 10 large telecom districts. The main functions of TERM Cells are vigilance, monitoring and security of the network.[16] Apart from this, TERM Cells also operate the Central Monitoring System (CMS), a clandestine mass electronic surveillance program, and carry out other functions.[17]

National Crime Records Bureau edit

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing, crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL). NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.

NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.[18]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "National Technical Research Organisation".
  2. ^ Special Correspondent (6 May 2007). "Technical research agency planned in State". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 May 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  3. ^ Sandeep Unnithan (7 September 2007). "Spy versus spy". India Today. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  4. ^ Syed Amin (5 May 2007). "Top tech body to come up in Hyderabad". Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  5. ^ NSNL 52 - Intelligence profile : India
  6. ^ "CIAO".
  7. ^ "Radio Research Centre (RRC)". |url= Archived from the original on 12 September 2016.
  8. ^ "Strengthening India's External Intelligence Infrastructure: An Assessment" (PDF).
  9. ^ "Intelligence bureau (IB) - India Intelligence Agencies". 30 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 November 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Cyber protection body pushes ahead - Hindustan Times". Archived from the original on 19 January 2014.
  11. ^ Sandeep Balakrishna. "Intel agencies: Fact & Fiction". Niti Central. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  12. ^ Ball, Desmond (1996). Signals intelligence (SIGINT) in South Asia : India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Canberra, Australia: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 27. ISBN 0731524837.
  13. ^ a b "Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA)". Global Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  14. ^ a b "Narcotics Control Bureau - Ministry of Finance" (PDF). National Informatics Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "Radiation: DoT's monitoring wing to inspect tower sites". 30 July 2012.
  16. ^ "Request Rejected" (PDF).
  17. ^
  18. ^

Further reading edit

  • Military Intelligence in India: An Analysis Bhashyam Kasturi: The Indian Defence Review, 1997
  • Cryptography Technology and Policy Directions in the Context of NII Gulshan Rai, R.K.Dubash, and A.K.Chakravarti. Information Technology Group Dept. of Electronics Govt. of India December, 1997

External links edit