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The demographics of Russia are the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.

Population144,438,554 (excluding Crimea),[1][2] 146.8 million (including Crimea)[3]
Steady 146,793,744 as of January 1, 2019[4]
Birth rate12.05 births/1,000 population (2017)[5]
Death rate12.0 deaths/1,000 population (2017)[5]
Life expectancy72.90 years (2018)[6]
 • male67.51 years
 • female77.64 years
Fertility rate1.62 (2017)[7]
Infant mortality rate5.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017)[5]
Net migration rate1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)
0–14 years17.6%
15–64 years67.8%
65 and over14.6% (1 January 2018)
Total0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationalitynoun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnicRussians
SpokenRussian, others
YearPop.±% p.a.
1897 67,473,000—    
1926 93,459,000+1.13%
1939 108,377,000+1.15%
1959 117,534,000+0.41%
1970 130,079,000+0.93%
1979 137,552,000+0.62%
1989 147,386,000+0.69%
2002 145,166,731−0.12%
2010 142,856,836−0.20%
2019 146,780,720+0.30%
Source:[8] 2019 data[4]

As of 1 January 2019, the population of Russia is 144,438,554 excluding Crimea and Sevastopol, whose annexation is not recognised by most UN members. Including Crimea and Sevastopol, the population is 146,780,720 as of January 1, 2019.[9] Compared to the previous year, the population decreased in Russia by 99,712, the result of a net migration gain of 124,884, and a natural population loss of 224,566. Around 77% of its population lives in European Russia, while the 23% lives in its Asian part.[10]:6[10]:10

As of 2017, Russia's TFR of 1.62 children born/woman[7] was among the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe. In 2013, Russia experienced the first natural population growth since 1990 at 22,700.

According to the 2010 census, ethnic Russians make up 81% of the total population.[11] This share remained steady over the last few decades.[12][13] Six other ethnicities have a population exceeding 1 million – Tatars (3.9%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Bashkir (1.1%), Chuvash (1%), Chechens (1%) and Armenians (0.9%). In total, 160 different ethnic groups live within the Russian Federation's borders.

Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow and Saint Petersburg. 74% of the population is urban, making Russia a highly urbanized country.

Contents

Main trendsEdit

 
Natural population growth of Russia since 1950.[14][15][16]
  Birth rate
  Death rate
  Natural growth rate

The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union. Low birth rates and abnormally high death rates caused Russia's population to decline at a 0.5% annual rate, or about 750,000 to 800,000 people per year from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. The UN warned in 2005 that Russia's then population of about 143 million could fall by a third by 2050, if trends did not improve.[17][18] In 2018, the UN predicted that Russia's population will fall to 132 million by 2050.[19][20]

The decline slowed considerably in the late 2000s, and in 2009 Russia recorded population growth for the first time in 15 years, adding 23,300.[14][21] Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from ex-USSR countries. In 2012, Russia's population increased by 292,400.[22]

The number of Russians living in poverty has decreased by 50% since the economic crisis following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the improving economy had a positive impact on the country's low birth rate. The latter rose from its lowest point of 8.27 births per 1000 people in 1999 to 13.3 per 1000 in 2014. Likewise, the fertility rate rose from its lowest point of 1.157 in 1999 to 1.777 in 2015. 2007 marked the highest growth in birth rates that the country had seen in 25 years, and 2009 marked the highest total birth rate since 1991.[23]

While the Russian birth rate is comparable to that of developed countries, its death rate is much higher, especially among working-age males due to a comparatively high rate of fatalities caused by heart disease and other external causes such as accidents. The Russian death rate in 2010 was 14.3 per 1000 citizens.

Demographic crisis and recovery prospectsEdit

 
Children in Russia. The country is struggling with a demographic crisis.[24]

The causes for this sharp increase in mortality are widely debated. According to a 2009 report by The Lancet,[25] a British medical journal, mass privatization, an element of the economic-reform package nicknamed shock therapy, clearly correlates with higher mortality rates. The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. These conclusions were criticized by The Economist.[26] A WHO press-release in 2000, on the other hand, reported widespread alcohol abuse in Russia being used as the most common explanation of higher mortality among men.[27] A 2008 study produced very similar results.[28]

A 2009 study blamed alcohol for more than half the deaths (52%) among Russians aged 15 to 54 in the '90s. For the same demographic, this compares to 4% of deaths for the rest of the world. The study claimed alcohol consumption in mid-90s in Russia averaged 10.5 litres, and was based on personal interviews conducted in three Siberian industrial cities, Barnaul, Biysk and Omsk.[29] More recent studies have confirmed these findings.[30]

According to the Russian demographic publication Demoscope,[31] the rising male death rate was a long-term trend from 1960 to 2005. The only significant reversion of the trend was caused by Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, but its effect was only temporary. According to the publication, the sharp rise of death rates in the early 1990s was caused by the exhaustion of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign, while the market reforms were only of secondary importance. The authors also claimed the Lancet's study is flawed because it used the 1985 death rate as the base, while that was in fact the very maximum of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign.[31]

Other factors contributing to the collapse, along with the economic problems, include the dying off of a relatively large cohort of people born between 1925 and 1940 (between the Russian Civil War and World War II), when Russian birth rates were very high, along with, ironically enough, an "echo boom" in the 1980s that may have satisfied the demand of women for children, leading to a subsequent drop in birth rates.

Government measures to halt the demographic crisis was a key subject of Vladimir Putin's 2006 state of the nation address.[32] As a result, a national programme was developed with the goal to reverse the trend by 2020. Soon after, a study published in 2007 showed that the rate of population decrease had begun to slow: if the net decrease from January to August 2006 was 408,200 people, it was 196,600 in the same period in 2007. The death rate accounted for 357,000 of these, which is 137,000 less than in 2006.[33]

At the same time period in 2007, there were just over one million births in Russia (981,600 in 2006), whilst deaths decreased from 1,475,000 to 1,402,300. In all, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by 1.3 times, down from 1.5 in 2006. 18 of the 83 provinces showed a natural growth of population (in 2006: 16). The Russian Ministry of Economic Development expressed hope that by 2020 the population would stabilize at 138–139 million, and by 2025, to increase again to its present-day status of 143–145, also raising the life expectancy to 75 years.[33]

 
Young Russians in 2018.

The natural population decline continued to slow through 2008—2012 due to declining death rates and increasing birth rates. In 2009 the population saw yearly growth for the first time in 15 years.[14][21] In September 2009, the Ministry of Health and Social Development reported that Russia recorded natural population growth for the first time in 15 years, with 1,000 more births than deaths in August.[34] In April 2011 the Russian Prime Minister (Russian president as of 2012) Vladimir Putin pledged to spend the 1.5 trillion rubles (£32.5 billion or $54 billion) on various measures to boost Russia's declining birthrate by 30 per cent in the next four years.[35]

In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of 1.691, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below). In fact, Russia, despite having only slightly more people than Japan, has recently had nearly twice as many births as that country. The number of births was expected to fall over the next few years as women born during the baby bust in the 1990s enter their prime childbearing years, but this didn't occur thanks to the continued growth of the TFR. The figures for 2013–2015 again showed around 1.9 million births, about the same as in 2012, but because the number of women of childbearing age is dropping, especially for those in their early 20s, the TFR actually rose to 1.777, which places Russia at first 9 or 10 countries out of 50 developed nations, and at 6th place in Europe.

In 2017, the number of births took a drop mostly due to falling fertility rates, which, in turn, were affected by falling of fertility of 2nd children due to planned but postponed termination of maternal capital program, and falling of fertility of 1st children. Change of number of reproductive-age women also played a key role. However, the number of deaths also declined due to improving healthcare, decline in violent crime rates and declining consumption of alcohol, tobacco and hard drugs.

In 2018, the number of births kept falling, but at much slower pace. However, the number of deaths didn't decline by as much as it did the previous year because whilst life expectancy improved, the population aged leading to a higher mortality rate. By 2020 around 25.7% of Russians will be over 60 years, which is nearly double the percentage in 1985 of 12.7%. By the middle of the century it is possible that more than a third of the population will be over 60, similar to modern Japan.

ImmigrationEdit

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[36] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[37] Introduced in April 2014 new citizenship rules[38] allowing citizens of former Soviet countries to obtain Russian citizenship If they meet certain criteria (e.g. preferred language, ethnicity) have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).[39]

There are an estimated four million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[40] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in illegal migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia (Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants) [41] Under legal changes made in 2012, illegal immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[42][43][44]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Belarus, and China.[45]

Worker migrationEdit

Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia the Balkans and East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. While worker migrants are opposed by most Russians, the mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration, Alexei Navalny stated that if he came to power he would introduce a visa regime to non-Eurasian Union countries in the former Soviet Union and have a visa free regime with the European Union and The West to attract skilled migrants.[46] The problem of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[47][48]

Vital statisticsEdit

Total fertility rate, 1840–1926Edit

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[49]

In many of the following years, Russia has had the highest total fertility rate in the world.[49] These very high fertility rates did not increase even more the population due to the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and political killings.

Total fertility rate in Russia 1840–1926
Years 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849[49]
7 7 7 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.05 7.06 7.08 7.08
Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859[49]
7.07 7.07 7.07 7.06 7.05 7.03 7.01 7 6.98 6.97
Years 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869[49]
6.95 6.93 6.95 6.96 6.98 6.99 7.01 7.02 6.51 6.87
Years 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879[49]
6.74 7.03 6.85 7.24 7.17 7.15 7.02 6.87 6.58 6.98
Years 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889[49]
6.8 6.66 7.03 6.89 6.83 6.74 6.47 6.61 6.96 6.8
Years 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[49]
6.71 7.44 6.57 7.17 7.18 7.34 7.43 7.52 7.28 7.36
Years 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909[49]
7.36 7.2 7.36 7.2 7.24 6.72 7.04 7.08 7.44 7.12
Years 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919[49]
7.2 7.2 7.2 6.96 6.88 3.36 5.2 5.04 5.72 3.44
Years 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926[49]
6.72 4.72 6 6.48 6.72 6.8 6.72

Historical crude birth ratesEdit

Years 1801-1810 1811-1820 1821-1830 1831-1840 1841-1850 1851-1860[50]
Crude birth rates of Russia 43.7 40.0 42.7 45.6 49.7 52.4
Years 1861-1870 1871-1880 1881-1890 1891-1900 1901-1910 1911-1914 18th century
(only Orthodoxs)
1801-1860
(only Orthodoxs)[50]
Crude birth rates of Russia 50.3 50.4 50.4 49.2 46.8 43.9 51.0 50.0
 
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1927
 
Russian population by age and sex (demographic pyramid) on 01 January, 1946
Average population[51] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.73 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.56 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.23 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.83 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.63 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.09 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.15 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.57 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.31 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.54 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.4 5.08 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.99 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.91 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.26 35.7 41.9
Total Fertility Rate in Russia 1941–1945
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[49]
4.60 2.96 1.68 1.72 1.92

After WWIIEdit

Vital Statistics of Russia 1946–2018[51][52][53][54][55][56]
Total average midyear population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 1] Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.81 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.94 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.60 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.21 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.3 2.89 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 16.5 2.92 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 16.9 2.87 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.8 2.73 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.5 2.97 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.1 2.82 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.5 2.73 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.2 2.75 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 16.5 2.69 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.13 1.90 3.06 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.83 2.63 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.89 1.70 2.60 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.73 1.53 2.45 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.55 1.35 2.22 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 1.36 1.20 1.91 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 1.39 1.23 1.88 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 1.34 1.19 1.81 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 1.27 1.14 1.71 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 1.22 1.10 1.62 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 1.23 1.11 1.64 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.16 1.05 1.53 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 1.20 1.09 1.55 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 1.22 1.12 1.56 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.29 1.19 1.63 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.32 1.22 1.67 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.34 1.25 1.65 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 1.29 1.21 1.58 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 1.31 1.21 1.60 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 1.42 1.29 1.80 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 1.50 1.37 1.91 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.8 1.54 1.42 1.94 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.57 1.44 1.98 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 1.58 1.44 2.06 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 -0.0 1.69 1.54 2.22 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,506,995 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 1.71 1.55 2.26 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014 146,090,613 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,346 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.75 1.59 2.32 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,405,999 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.78 1.68 2.11 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,674,541 1,888,729 1,891,015 -2,286 12.9 12.9 -0.0 1.76 1.67 2.06 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
2017 146,842,402 1,690,307 1,826,125 -135,818 11.5 12.4 -0.9 1.62 1.53 1.92 67.51 77.64 72.70 779,848
2018[57] 146,830,576 1,604,344 1,828,910 -224,566 10.9 12.5 -1.5 1.58 1.49 1.87 67.75 77.81 72.91
Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban crude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban crude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1950 1,171,250 436,792 734,458 26.1 9.7 16.4 1,574,747 594,218 980,529 27.5 10.4 17.1
1960 1,332,812 436,709 896,103 20.4 6.7 13.7 1,449,541 449,831 1,000,160 26.5 8.2 18.3
1970 1,205,207 646,129 559,078 14.8 7.9 6.9 698,506 485,054 213,452 14.3 10.0 4.3
1980 1,535,723 970,256 565,467 15.8 10.0 5.8 667,056 555,499 111,557 16.1 13.4 2.7
1990 1,386,247 1,140,613 245,634 12.7 10.5 2.2 602,611 515,380 87,231 15.5 13.2 2.3
1995 933,460 1,554,182 -620,722 8.7 14.4 -5.7 430,346 649,269 -219,283 10.9 16.5 -5.6
2000 886,908 1,564,034 -677,126 8.3 14.6 -6.3 379,892 661,298 -281,406 9.8 17.1 -7.3
2001 928,642 1,592,254 -663,612 8.7 14.9 -6.2 382,962 662,602 -279,640 10.0 17.3 -7.3
2002 998,056 1,638,822 -640,766 9.4 15.4 -6.0 398,911 693,450 -294,539 10.5 18.2 -7.7
2003 1,050,565 1,657,569 -607,004 9.9 15.6 -5.7 426,736 708,257 -281,521 11.1 18.4 -7.3
2004 1,074,247 1,606,894 -532,647 10.1 15.2 -5.1 428,230 688,508 -260,278 11.2 18.1 -6.9
2005 1,036,870 1,595,762 -558,892 9.8 15.1 -5.3 420,506 708,173 -287,667 11.0 18.6 -7.6
2006 1,044,540 1,501,245 -456,705 10.0 14.3 -4.3 435,097 665,458 -230,361 11.4 17.4 -6.0
2007 1,120,741 1,445,411 -324,670 10.7 13.8 -3.1 489,381 635,034 -145,653 12.9 16.7 -3.8
2008 1,194,820 1,443,529 -248,709 11.4 13.8 -2.4 519,127 632,425 -113,298 13.7 16.7 -3.0
2009 1,237,615 1,397,591 -159,976 11.8 13.3 -1.5 524,072 612,952 -88,880 13.9 16.3 -2.4
2010 1,263,893 1,421,734 -157,841 12.0 13.5 -1.5 520,055 606,782 -81,727 14.0 16.1 -2.1
2011 1,270,047 1,356,696 -88,649 12.0 12.8 -0.8 526,582 569,024 -42,442 14.1 15.2 -1.1
2012 1,355,674 1,353,635 2,039 12.8 12.8 0.0 546,410 552,700 -6,290 14.7 14.8 -0.1
2013 1,357,310 1,332,505 24,805 12.8 12.5 0.3 538,512 539,304 -792 14.5 14.5 -0.0
2014 1,394,860 1,362,810 32,050 12.9 12.6 0.3 547,823 549,537 -1,714 14.4 14.5 -0.1
2015 1,455,283 1,361,891 93,392 13.4 12.6 0.8 485,296 546,650 -61,354 12.8 14.4 -1.6
2016 1,426,591 1,354,944 71,597 13.1 12.4 0.7 462,138 536,071 -73,933 12.2 14.2 -2.0
2017 1,269,527 1,310,235 -40,708 11.6 12.0 -0.4 420,780 515,890 -95,110 11.2 13.7 -2.5
2018 1,205,231 1,317,703 -112,472 11.0 12.0 -1.0 399,113 511,207 -112,094 10.6 13.6 -3.0

Note: Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014.

Age structureEdit

The population of Russia (without Finland) by age groups of ten years in %, according to the General Census of 1897[58]
Districts (1897) 0-9 years 10-19 years 20-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-59 years 60-69 years 70 years and over, and unknown figures
European Russia 27,3 21,4 15,8 12,4 9,4 6,7 4,4 2,6
Privislinsky Krai (Poland) 28,2 21,0 17,4 12,9 7,8 6,5 3,9 2,3
Caucasus 30,4 20,1 16,9 12,8 8,5 5,5 3,5 2,3
Siberia 26,0 20,1 15,9 12,8 10,2 7,2 4,7 3,1
Central Asia 24,2 19,3 18,7 14,0 10,5 6,8 4,2 2,3
Total empire (without Finland) 27,3 21,1 16,2 12,6 9,3 6,6 4,3 2,6

Current population statisticsEdit

 
Population pyramid of Russia in 1941
 
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2015. "Waves" are caused by huge losses in WWII. The sharp narrowing in the base of pyramid is caused by consequences of the economic collapse of the 1990s.
 
Population pyramid of Russia in 2017
 
Russian population by age and sex as on 1 January 2019
 
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1927-1940
 
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1950-2014

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[59]

  • One birth every 18 seconds
  • One death every 16 seconds
  • Net loss of one person every 8 minutes
  • One net migrant every 4 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the US based CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[60]

Population
142,122,776 (July 2018 est.)
142,257,519 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.21% (male 12,566,314 /female 11,896,416)
15-24 years: 9.41% (male 6,840,759 /female 6,530,991)
25-54 years: 44.21% (male 30,868,831 /female 31,960,407)
55-64 years: 14.51% (male 8,907,031 /female 11,709,921)
65 years and over: 14.66% (male 6,565,308 /female 14,276,798) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 17.12% (male 12,509,563/female 11,843,254)
15-24 years: 9.46% (male 6,881,880/female 6,572,191)
25-54 years: 44.71% (male 31,220,990/female 32,375,489)
55-64 years: 14.44% (male 8,849,707/female 11,693,131)
65 years and over: 14.28% (male 6,352,557/female 13,958,757) (2017 est.)
Median age
total: 39.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 52nd
male: 36.9 years
female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.6 years
female: 42.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 39.6 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 41.6 years (2009)[61]
Birth rate
10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 184th
11 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate
13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th
Total fertility rate
1.61 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 179th
Net migration rate
1.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 52nd
Population growth rate
-0.11% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 205th
-0.08% (2017 est.)
+0.19% (2014 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
24.6 years (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 155th
male: 65.6 years
female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate
total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163rd
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 16%. Country comparison to the world: 83rd
male: 15.3%
female: 16.9% (2015 est.)
Ethnic groups

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, Black 0.1% other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% note: nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented in Russia's 2010 census (2010 est.)

Religions

Russian Orthodox 15–20%, Muslim 10–15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule; Russia officially recognizes Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism as traditional religions.

Languages

Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%. Note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

Population distribution

Population is heavily concentrated in the westernmost fifth of the country extending from the Baltic Sea, south to the Caspian Sea, and eastward parallel to the Kazakh border; elsewhere, sizeable pockets are isolated and generally found in the south

Urbanization
urban population: 74.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)
74% urban, 26% rural (2010 Russian Census)
Population density

8.4 people per square kilometer (2010 Russian Census)[62]

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.4 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)[61]

Total fertility rate issueEdit

 
Changes in the Russian TFR since 1990.

In 2017, Russia's TFR of 1.62 children born/woman[7] was among the highest in Eastern Europe, meaning that the average Russian family had more children than an average family in most other Eastern European countries, but that the rate was below the replacement rate of 2.1. After experiencing a surge in births for several years, Russia's birth rate fell in 2017 by 10.6% percent, reaching its lowest level in 10 years.[24]

In 1990, just prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia's total fertility rate (TFR) stood at 1.89. Fertility rates had already begun to decline in the late 1980s due to the natural progression of Russia's demographic structure, but the rapid and widely negative changes in society following the collapse greatly influenced the rate of decline.[63] The TFR hit a historic low of 1.157 in 1999.[64] The only federal subject of Russia to see a decline in fertility since 1999 is Ingushetia, where the TFR fell from 2.443 to 2.278 in 2014.

In 2009, 8 of Russia's federal subjects had a TFR above 2.1 children per woman (the approximate minimum required to ensure population replacement), These federal subjects are Chechnya (3.38), Tuva (2.81), Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (2.73), Agin-Buryat Okrug (2.63), Komi-Permyak (2.16), Evenk Okrug (2.58), Altai Republic (2.36), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.1). Of these federal subjects, four have an ethnic Russian majority (Altai, Evenk, Ust-Orda and Nenets).[65][66] In 2011, the highest TFR were recorded in Chechnya (3.362), Tyva (3.249), Ingushetia (2.94), Altai Republic (2.836), Sakha Republic (2.057), Buryatia (2.027), and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.007).[67]

Until 2010, the Russian republic of Chechnya was the region with the highest birth rate in the former USSR (excluding Central Asia). However, in 2011, the Armenian province of Qashatagh overtook it (28.9 vs 29.3 per 1.000).[68]

In 2010, the average number of children born to women has decreased from 1513 to 1000 women from 2002 to 1469 in 2010 in urban areas the figure was 1328 children (2002–1350), and in the village – 1876 (in 2002, – 1993).

In recent years the percentage of children per woman 16 years or more were:

Year : 2002–2010

1 child : 30.5%–31.2%

2 children : 33.7%–34.4%

3 children : 8.9%–8.7%

4 or more children : 5.2%–4.2%

no children : 21.7%–21.5%

Despite a decrease in women who have not had children, the number of three-child and large families has declined between 2002 and 2010.

In every region in Russia, rural areas reported higher TFR compared to urban areas. In most of the federal subjects in Siberia and the Russian Far East, the total fertility rates were high, but not high enough to ensure population replacement. For example, Zabaykalsky Krai had a TFR of 1.82, which is higher than the national average, but less than the 2.1 needed for population replacement.[65]

Compared to the G7 countries, in 2015, Russian TFR of 1.78 children/ woman[69] was lower than that of France (1.93), the USA (1.84), the UK (1.82). Yet its TFR is higher than in other G7 countries like Canada (1.61), Germany (1.50), Japan (1.46) and Italy (1.35).

Compared to other most populous nations, Russia has a lower TFR than Nigeria (5.37), Pakistan (3.42), Indonesia (2.5), India (2.30), Mexico (2.19), the USA (1.84),[70] and higher TFR than Brazil (1.74), and China (1.5–1.6).

Children born per woman by oblast Total fertility rate/1990 Urban fertility rate/1990 Rural fertility rate/1990 Total fertility rate/2014 Urban fertility rate/2014 Rural fertility rate/2014
Russian Federation 1.89 1.70 2.60 1.75 1.59 2.32
North Caucasian Federal District 2.03 1.68 2.41
Chechnya 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.91 2.83 2.95
Ingushetia 2.84 2.16 3.35 2.28 2.13 2.39
Dagestan 3.07 2.57 3.52 2.08 1.50 2.68
North Ossetia-Alania 2.23 2.20 2.30 2.01 2.02 1.98
Kabardino-Balkaria 2.45 2.04 3.11 1.83 1.65 2.02
Karachay-Cherkessia 2.19 1.89 2.51 1.65 1.48 1.78
Stavropol Krai 2.10 1.73 2.64 1.62 1.43 1.96
Ural Federal District 1.88 1.73 2.68 1.96 1.82 2.76
Kurgan Oblast 2.15 1.82 2.72 2.10 1.78 2.87
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.19 1.94 3.19
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 2.09 2.07 2.41
Tyumen Oblast 1.99 1.85 2.55 2.07 1.94 2.71
Sverdlovsk Oblast 1.73 1.63 2.69 1.92 1.80 2.77
Chelyabinsk Oblast 1.89 1.74 2.80 1.86 1.70 2.78
Siberian Federal District 2.03 1.79 2.87 1.90 1.65 2.94
Tuva Republic 3.22 2.64 3.85 3.49 2.34 6.78
Altai Republic 2.52 1.62 3.08 2.88 1.70 5.20
Buriatia 2.49 2.10 3.37 2.26 1.87 3.12
Zabaykalsky Krai 2.49 2.10 3.38 2.08 1.75 3.13
Khakassia 2.27 2.04 3.04 2.01 1.72 2.82
Irkutsk Oblast 2.22 2.02 3.29 1.97 1.76 2.99
Altai Krai 1.91 1.66 2.42 1.84 1.52 2.66
Omsk Oblast 1.98 1.69 2.87 1.95 1.68 2.93
Kemerovo Oblast 1.92 1.84 2.62 1.78 1.69 2.43
Krasnoyarsk Krai 1.88 1.65 2.85 1.81 1.61 2.91
Novosibirsk Oblast 1.83 1.64 2.66 1.77 1.59 2.74
Tomsk Oblast 1.62 1.40 2.41 1.59 1.37 2.68
Far East Federal District 2.07 1.88 2.80 1.87 1.64 2.88
Sakha Republic 2.46 2.08 3.28 2.25 1.78 3.47
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 2.09 1.82 2.88 2.04 1.59 3.15
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 2.40 2.00 3.30 1.95 1.72 2.60
Amur Oblast 2.18 1.91 3.00 1.85 1.53 2.94
Sakhalin Oblast 2.00 1.94 2.47 1.96 1.83 2.85
Kamchatka Krai 1.69 1.57 2.25 1.85 1.75 2.29
Khabarovsk Krai 1.99 1.88 2.63 1.79 1.65 2.72
Magadan Oblast 1.89 1.83 2.56 1.66 1.63 2.88
Primorsky Krai 1.97 1.83 2.58 1.73 1.55 2.61
Volga Federal District 1.97 1.75 2.72 1.79 1.60 2.46
Orenburg Oblast 2.20 1.87 3.01 2.03 1.59 3.16
Perm Krai 1.99 1.80 2.85 1.98 1.72 3.16
Mari El 2.16 1.87 2.79 1.98 1.74 2.65
Udmurtia 2.05 1.81 2.80 1.96 1.58 3.13
Bashkortostan 2.18 1.84 3.09 1.95 1.74 2.53
Kirov Oblast 2.01 1.82 2.57 1.89 1.62 3.61
Chuvashia Republic 2.12 1.78 2.98 1.88 1.55 2.89
Tatarstan 2.05 1.86 2.87 1.84 1.75 2.22
Ulyanovsk Oblast 1.94 1.78 2.61 1.67 1.58 2.00
Samara Oblast 1.73 1.62 2.35 1.65 1.55 2.13
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1.69 1.59 2.20 1.59 1.52 1.96
Saratov Oblast 1.91 1.70 2.70 1.57 1.42 2.14
Penza Oblast 1.82 1.63 2.34 1.53 1.42 1.86
Mordovia 1.87 1.69 2.29 1.37 1.31 1.54
Southern Federal District 1.71 1.60 1.92
Astrakhan Oblast 2.14 1.81 2.93 1.97 1.82 2.27
Kalmykia 2.66 2.29 3.10 1.85 1.85 1.85
Krasnodar Krai 2.06 1.90 2.30 1.81 1.82 1.77
Adygea 2.06 1.88 2.37 1.73 1.55 1.93
Volgograd Oblast 1.91 1.72 2.67 1.57 1.42 2.11
Rostov Oblast 1.80 1.62 2.34 1.61 1.44 2.03
North-West Federal District 1.67 1.58 2.25 1.61 1.53 2.25
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2.42 1.83 6.09
Komi Republic 1.87 1.76 2.39 2.01 1.67 4.74
Vologda Oblast 2.02 1.81 2.60 1.86 1.64 2.77
Arkhangelsk Oblast 2.00 1.80 2.71 1.84 1.54 4.23
Novgorod Oblast 1.87 1.71 2.39 1.75 1.62 2.20
Pskov Oblast 1.84 1.70 2.30 1.70 1.52 2.36
Republic of Karelia 1.87 1.80 2.34 1.74 1.52 3.71
Kaliningrad Oblast 1.81 1.68 2.39 1.70 1.59 2.08
Murmansk Oblast 1.60 1.61 1.54 1.65 1.63 2.03
Saint Petersburg 1.40 1.40 1.52 1.52
Leningrad Oblast 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.28 1.33 1.19
Central Federal District 1.64 1.54 2.19 1.51 1.45 1.86
Kostroma Oblast 1.93 1.70 2.63 1.87 1.64 2.67
Kursk Oblast 1.85 1.68 2.33 1.70 1.51 2.30
Tver Oblast 1.81 1.63 2.45 1.66 1.54 2.17
Yaroslavl Oblast 1.69 1.60 2.27 1.64 1.55 2.20
Kaluga Oblast 1.78 1.65 2.19 1.69 1.62 1.94
Lipetsk Oblast 1.81 1.66 2.20 1.66 1.52 1.95
Vladimir Oblast 1.79 1.71 2.22 1.64 1.59 1.87
Ryazan Oblast 1.80 1.67 2.25 1.60 1.37 2.37
Ivanovo Oblast 1.72 1.61 2.46 1.57 1.52 1.87
Bryansk Oblast 2.02 1.82 2.75 1.56 1.42 1.91
Oryol Oblast 1.84 1.58 2.53 1.55 1.26 2.35
Belgorod Oblast 1.91 1.74 2.39 1.54 1.41 1.91
Moscow Oblast 1.44 1.39 1.66 1.60 1.63 1.47
Smolensk Oblast 1.79 1.63 2.38 1.53 1.43 1.89
Voronezh Oblast 1.78 1.64 2.12 1.47 1.37 1.80
Tula Oblast 1.68 1.60 2.16 1.47 1.41 1.65
Tambov Oblast 1.83 1.61 2.29 1.49 1.40 1.64
City of Moscow 1.42 1.42 1.34 1.34 1.69

Natural increase currentEdit

 
Natural population growth rates (per 1,000 population) by Federal subject in 2015

Experts were puzzled with a sharp increase in deaths coincided with a sharp increase in life expectancy. While they have found out that a decrease in potential mothers led to a decrease in births and a rapid rise in fertility.[71]

 
Birth rate by regions in 2012
 
Death rate by regions in 2012
 
TFR by regions in 2011
 
Urban TFR by regions in 2011
 
Rural TFR by regions in 2011
 
Population density as of 2017

Data from Federal State Statistics Service.[72]

  • Number of births during March 2018 =   132,937
  • Number of births during March 2019 =   117,793

The birth rate for January–March 2019 was 9.8 births per 1,000 population versus 10.8 during the same period in 2018

  • Number of births from January–March 2018 =   390,890
  • Number of births from January–March 2019 =   355,190

The number of deaths during March 2019 decreased by 18,332, for the period January–March 2019 total deaths decreased by 16,317 compared to the same months of the previous year.

  • Number of deaths during March 2018 =   169,408
  • Number of deaths during March 2019 =   151,076

The death rate for January–March 2019 was 12.8 per 1,000 population, versus 13.2 during the same period in 2018.

  • Number of deaths from January–March 2018 =   478,175
  • Number of deaths from January–March 2019 =   461,858

Total natural increase during January–March was reached −3.0 per thousand in 2019 comparing −2.4 per thousand in 2018.

  • Natural increase in March 2018 =   -36,471
  • Natural increase in March 2019 =   -33,283
  • Natural increase between January–March 2018 =   - 87,285
  • Natural increase between January–March 2019 =   -106,668

Natural increase 2017Edit

January–December Birth/2017 Birth/2016 Birth/2015 Birth/2014 Birth/2013 Death/2017 Death/2016 Death/2015 Death/2014 Death/2013
Russian Federation 11.5   12.9   13.3   13.3   13.2   12.4   12.9   13.1   13.1   13.0  
North Caucasian Federal District 14.9   15.9   16.6   17.3   17.2   7.6   7.8   7.9   8.1   8.0  
Chechnya 21.0   21.3   23.2   24.2   24.9   4.6   4.7   4.9   5.0   5.0  
Ingushetia 16.5   17.1   18.6   20.7   21.4   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.5   3.5  
Dagestan 16.4   17.4   18.2   19.1   18.8   5.1   5.2   5.4   5.6   5.5  
Kabardino-Balkaria 12.8   14.1   14.6   15.7   15.5   8.5   8.5   8.8   8.8   8.9  
North Ossetia-Alania 12.8   14.1   14.6   15.4   15.3   10.2   10.3   10.7   10.7   10.5  
Stavropol Krai 11.6   13.0   13.0   13.1   12.7   11.2   11.7   11.6   11.8   11.7  
Karachay-Cherkessia 11.0   11.9   12.4   13.6   13.8   9.3   9.4   9.6   9.7   9.5  
Ural Federal District 12.6   14.2   14.9   15.2   15.1   11.7   12.3   12.5   12.4   12.4  
Tyumen Oblast 14.2   15.8   16.7   17.2   17.0   7.9   8.2   8.3   8.3   8.2  
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 14.1   15.7   16.6   17.3   17.5   6.2   6.2   6.4   6.4   6.3  
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 14.0   15.4   16.5   16.9   16.4   4.9   5.2   5.2   5.1   5.1  
Sverdlovsk Oblast 12.4   13.8   14.4   14.5   14.5   13.3   14.0   14.2   14.0   13.8    
Chelyabinsk Oblast 11.5   13.3   13.9   14.3   14.2   13.0   13.6   13.9   13.8   13.9  
Kurgan Oblast 11.1   12,4   13.3   13.6   14.0   15.2   15.8   16.1   15.9   16.1  
Siberian Federal District 12.3   13.8   14.4   14.7   14.9   12.7   13.0   13.2   13.3   13.3  
Tuva 21.8   23.4   23.7   25.3   26.1   8.7   9.8   10.3   10.9   11.0  
Altai Republic 15.8   18.1   18.7   20.9   20.9   9.6   10.0   10.9   11.2   11.4  
Buriatia 14.5   16.4   17.3   17.5   17.6   10.6   11.2   11.4   11.5   11.8  
Irkutsk Oblast 13.3   14.7   15.4   15.4   15.6   12.9   13.3   13.7   13.8   13.7  
Zabaykalsky Krai 13.2   14.6   15.4   16.0   15.9   11.6   12.3   12.9   12.4   12.5  
Khakassia 12.4   14.1   14.8   15.3   15.7   12.6   12.8   13.5   13.2   13.1  
Krasnoyarsk Krai 12.4   13.9   14.4   14.5   14.5   12.3   12.5   12.7   12.7   12.8  
Novosibirsk Oblast 12.4   13.9   14.2   14.1   14.2   12.9   13.1   13.1   13.3   13.6  
Omsk Oblast 11.5   13.3   14.4   15.1   14.8   12.8   13.3   13.4   13.3   13.4  
Tomsk Oblast 11.7   13.2   13.6   13.7   13.8   11.4   11.4   11.5   11.8   11.8  
Altai Krai 10.8   12.2   12.6   13.2   13.5   14.0   14.0   14.2   14.2   14.2  
Kemerovo Oblast 10.5   12.1   12.5   13.2   13.6   14.1   14.3   14.5   14.6   14.6  
Far East Federal District 12.1   13.4   13.9   14.1   13.9   12.1   12.5   12.6   12.6   12.6  
Sakha Republic 14.4   16.0   17.1   17.8   17.5   8.1   8.4   8.6   8.6   8.7  
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 13.2   13.4   13.5   13.3   13.1   9.1   10.0   9.6   10.7   10.5  
Sakhalin Oblast 12.9   14.3   13.6   13.6   13.0   12.0   13.1   13.2   13.0   13.1  
Khabarovsk Krai 12.0   13.4   14.3   14.0   14.0   13.0   13.1   13.4   13.3   13.4  
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 11.7   13.3   14.0   13.8   13.7   13.2   15.0   15.4   14.9   14.5  
Amur Oblast 11.8   12.9   13.3   13.8   14.1   13.4   13.7   13.9   13.9   13.8  
Kamchatka Krai 11.8   12.9   13.1   13.2   13.0   11.0   11.6   11.4   11.5   11.4  
Primorsky Krai 10.9   12.2   12.7   12.8   12.6   13.2   13.6   13.5   13.4   13.5  
Magadan Oblast 10.9   11.1   11.8   12.2   12.5   11.3   11.3   11.8   11.9   11.9  
Volga Federal District 11.1   12.9   13.3   13.4   13.3   13.1   13.6   13.9   13.9   14.0  
Tatarstan 12.4   14.4   14.7   14.8   14.8   11.3   11.6   12.0   12.2   12.1  
Perm Krai 12.2   14.2   14.7   14.8   14.7   13.2   13.8   14.2   14.0   14.1  
Mari El 11.9   13.9   14.5   14.7   14.6   12.4   13.2   13.7   13.7   13.7  
Udmurtia 11.8   13.8   14.6   14.6   14.6   12.0   12.6   12.9   12.8   12.8  
Bashkortostan 12.1   13.7   14.5   14.9   14.6   12.4   12.8   13.3   13.2   13.2  
Orenburg Oblast 11.5   13.5   14.2   14.6   14.8   13.2   13.5   14.1   14.2   13.9  
Chuvashia Republic 11.3   13.3   13.8   13.9   14.0   12.6   13.1   13.1   13.3   13.2  
Samara Oblast 10.8   12.6   12.8   12.6   12.3   13.7   13.9   14.2   14.3   14.4  
Kirov Oblast 10.7   12.6   12.7   12.8   13.0   14.4   14.9   15.2   15.1   15.4  
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 10.6   11.9   12.3   11.9   11.8   14.7   15.4   15.6   15.9   15.9  
Ulyanovsk Oblast 10.0   11.6   11.9   11.9   11.6   14.0   14.8   14.9   14.6   14.4  
Saratov Oblast 9.5   11.0   11.5   11.5   11.5   13.6   14.0   14.2   14.2   14.4  
Penza Oblast 8.9   10.2   10.7   10.9   10.7   14.1   14.5   14.9   14.8   14.8  
Mordovia 8.5   9.9   9.7   10.1   10.1   13.5   14.1   14.2   14.3   14.8  
North-West Federal District 11.1   12.5   12.5   12.3   12.2   12.8   13.2   13.4   13.3   13.5  
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 15.3   18.3   17.5   16.6   16.6   8.5   8.8   9.3   8.9   10.7  
St-Petersburg 12.6   13.9   13.6   13.1   12.8   11.5   11.7   11.9   11.7   12.0  
Komi Republic 11.5   13.1   13.6   14.1   14.2   11.7   12.3   12.3   12.2   11.9  
Vologda Oblast 11.4   13.3   13.8   13.6   13.8   14.4   15.0   14.8   14.8   15.1  
Kaliningrad Oblast 11.1   12.5   12.8   12.7   12.5   12.5   12.6   13.3   13.3   13.2  
Arkhangelsk Oblast 10.6   12.0   12.4   12.6   12.7   12.9   13.5   13.4   13.2   13.4  
Republic of Karelia 10.3   11.9   12.2   12.4   12.0   14.5   14.8   15.3   14.6   14.7  
Murmansk Oblast 10.3   11.2   11.9   11.8   11.8   11.0   11.5   11.5   11.4   11.0  
Novgorod Oblast 10.2   11.8   11.9   11.8   12.0   17.1   17.4   17.6   17.3   17.8  
Pskov Oblast 9.5   11.1   11.1   10.9   11.0   17.4   17.9   18.2   18.5   18.6  
Leningrad Oblast 8.4   9.2   9.1   9.1   9.0   13.4   14.0   14.1   14.6   14.6  
Southern Federal District 11.1   12.4   12.8   12.9   12.6   13.0   13.5   13.6   13.4   13.2  
Astrakhan Oblast 12.1   14.0   14.5   15.0   14.8   11.4   12.0   12.3   12.7   12.3  
Krasnodar Krai 12.0   13.4   13.6   13.6   13.2   12.5   12.9   13.1   13.0   12.9  
Sevastopol 11.3   13.0   13.7   12.7   11.7   13.3   14.1   15.2   14.4   14.0  
Republic of Crimea 11.0   12.1   12.7   12.4   12.3   14.4   15.2   15.4   14.7   13.8  
Kalmykia 10.9   12.5   13.6   14.1   14.5   9.9   9.7   9.8   9.9   9.9  
Adygea 10.6   12.1   12.5   12.8   12.7   12.7   12.9   13.0   13.3   13.2  
Rostov Oblast 10.3   11.6   12.1   12.2   11.7   13.4   13.9   13.9   14.1   13.8  
Volgograd Oblast 9.9   11.2   11.5   11.5   11.6   13.1   13.6   13.8   13.7   13.5  
Central Federal District 10.5   11.7   11.8   11.5   11.4   12.9   13.5   13.5   13.7   13.7  
Moscow Oblast 12.0   13.2   13.1   12.6   12.1   12.4   13.1   13.0   13.9   14.1  
Kaluga Oblast 10.8   12.2   12.7   11.8   11.8   14.8   15.1   15.1   15.3   15.3  
City of Moscow 10.8   11.8   11.7   11.4   11.3   9.6   10.0   10.0   9.7   9.7  
Kostroma Oblast 10.7   12.0   12.5   12.6   12.7   14.8   15.6   16.0   15.9   16.2  
Yaroslavl Oblast 10.5   12.1   12.2   12.0   12.1   15.2   15.7   15.6   15.6   15.9  
Lipetsk Oblast 10.0   11.4   11.7