Open main menu

Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: Валенти́на Влади́мировна Терешко́ва, IPA: [vɐlʲɪnʲˈtʲinə vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvnə tʲɪrʲɪʂˈkovə] (About this soundlisten); born 6 March 1937) is a retired cosmonaut, engineer, and a member of the Russian State Duma. She is the first and youngest woman to have flown in space with a solo mission on the Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. Tereshkova also became the first civilian to fly in space[1] as she was only honorarily inducted into the Soviet Air Force in order to join the Cosmonaut Corps.[2]

Valentina Tereshkova
Valentina Tereshkova (2017-03-06).jpg
Valentina in March 2017
Born (1937-03-06) 6 March 1937 (age 82)
NationalitySoviet
Russian
Other namesValentina Nikolayeva Tereshkova
OccupationPilot
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union
Order "For Merit to the Fatherland"
Order of Lenin (2)
Order of the October Revolution
Order of Alexander Nevsky
Order of Honour
Order of Friendship
Space career
Soviet cosmonaut
RankRAF AF F6MajGen 2010-1.png Major general, Soviet Air Force
Time in space
2 days, 22 hrs, and 50 mins
SelectionFemale group
MissionsVostok 6
Signature
Valentina Tereshkova Signature.svg

Before her recruitment as a cosmonaut, Tereshkova was a textile-factory assembly worker and an amateur skydiver. After the dissolution of the first group of female cosmonauts in 1969, she became a prominent member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, holding various political offices. She remained politically active following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Having orbited Earth 48 times, Tereshkova remains the only woman to have been on a solo space mission.[3][4]

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Valentina Tereshkova was born on 6 March 1937 in the Bolshoye Maslennikovo, a village on the Volga River[5] 270 kilometres (170 mi) northeast of Moscow and part of the Yaroslavl Oblast in central Russia.[6] Her parents had migrated from Belarus.[7] Her father, Vladimir Tereshkov, was a former tractor driver and a sergeant in command of a tank in the Soviet Army. He died in the Finnish Winter War during World War II when Tereshkova was two years old.[5] Tereshkova's parents had three children and, after her father's death, her mother moved the family to Yaroslavl, seeking better employment opportunity,[8] and became employed at the Krasny Perekop cotton mill.[5]

Tereshkova was first enrolled in school at age 10 and graduated at 17.[5] She began working at a tire factory and later at a textile mill but continued her education by correspondence courses to graduate from the Light Industry Technical School in 1960.[5][8][9] Tereshkova also became interested in parachuting from a young age, and trained in skydiving at the local Aeroclub, making her first jump at age 22 on 21 May 1959. While still employed as textile worker, she trained as a competitive parachutist, which she kept a secret from her family.[6] Tereshkova also joined the local Komsomol (Communist Youth League) in Yaroslavl, serving as the secretary of the organisation in 1960 and 1961.[8][10] She became a member of the Communist Party in 1962.[8]

Soviet space programEdit

Selection and trainingEdit

 
Tereshkova in uniform with honours, 1969

Tereshkova's experience in skydiving would contributed to her selection as a cosmonaut.[11] After the flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961, Sergey Korolyov, the chief Soviet rocket engineer, envisioned the idea of putting a woman in space. The latest qualifications for the space program included being a parachutists under 30 years of age, less than 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) in height, and no more than 70 kg (154 lb) in weight. On 16 February 1962, Valentina Tereshkova was selected to join the female cosmonaut corps. Out of more than 400 applicants, five were selected: Tatyana Kuznetsova, Irina Solovyova, Zhanna Yorkina, Valentina Ponomaryova, and Tereshkova,[6][12] who was considered a particularly worthy candidate partly due to her "proletarian" background and because her father was a war hero.[citation needed]

Training included weightless flights, isolation tests, centrifuge tests, rocket theory, spacecraft engineering, 120 parachute jumps, and pilot training in MiG-15UTI jet fighters.[citation needed] Tereshkova studied at the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy and graduated with distinction as a cosmonaut engineer.[13] The group spent several months in intensive training concluding with examinations in November 1962, after which four remaining candidates were commissioned Junior Lieutenants in the Soviet Air Force. Tereshkova, Solovyova, and Ponomaryova were the leading candidates, and a joint mission profile was developed that would see two women launched into space, on solo Vostok flights on consecutive days in March or April 1963.[14]

Originally it was intended that Tereshkova would launch first in Vostok 5 while Ponomaryova would follow her into orbit in Vostok 6. However, this flight plan was altered in March 1963. Vostok 5 would now carry a male cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky flying the joint mission, with a solo woman aboard Vostok 6 in June 1963. The State Space Commission nominated Tereshkova to pilot Vostok 6 at their meeting on 21 May and this was confirmed by Nikita Khrushchev.[15]

Vostok 6Edit

 
Vostok 6 capsule on display

After the successful launch of Vostok 5 on 14 June, Tereshkova began final preparations for her own flight. On the morning of 16 June 1963, Tereshkova and her backup Solovyova were both dressed in spacesuits and taken to the launch pad by bus. Following the tradition set by Gagarin, Tereshkova also urinated on the bus tire, becoming the first woman to do so.[16] After completing her communication and life support checks, she was sealed inside the Vostok. After a two-hour countdown, Vostok 6 launched faultlessly, and Tereshkova became the first woman in space;[17] she remains to be the only woman to fly to space solo and the youngest at 26 years old.[18][19][a] Her call sign in this flight was Chaika (Russian: Ча́йка, lit. 'Seagull'), later commemorated as the name of an asteroid, 1671 Chaika.[21]

 
From left to right: Yuri Gagarin, Pavel Popovich, Valentina Tereshkova, and Nikita Khrushchev at the Lenin Mausoleum, during a celebration honouring the Soviet cosmonauts, 1963

Although Tereshkova experienced nausea and physical discomfort for much of the flight,[22] she orbited the earth 48 times and spent almost three days in space. With a single flight, she logged more flight time than the combined times of all American astronauts who had flown before that date.[23] Tereshkova also maintained a flight log and took photographs of the horizon, which were later used to identify aerosol layers within the atmosphere.[24]

Vostok 6 was the final Vostok flight[25] and was launched two days after Vostok 5 which carried Valery Bykovsky into a similar orbit for five days,[26] landing three hours after Tereshkova.[27] The two vessels spent three days in adjacent orbits and,[26] at one point, approached each other to within 5 km (3.1 mi). Tereshkova was able to communicate with Bykovsky via radio.[25] As planned in all Vostok missions, she ejected from the capsule during its descent at about four miles above the Earth and landed by parachute.[28]

After her mission, she was asked how the Soviet Union should thank her for her service to the country; Tereshkova asked that the government search for and publish the location of where her father was killed in action. This was done, and a monument was erected at the site in the Lemetti, Karelia—now on the Russian side of the border.[5] Tereshkova has since visited Finland several times.[citation needed] Even though there were plans for further flights by women, it took 19 years until the second woman, Svetlana Savitskaya, flew into space. None of the other four in Tereshkova's early group flew, and in October 1969, the pioneering female cosmonaut group was dissolved.[14]

In September 1963, Tereshkova donated a silver cup at the women's 1963 European Rowing Championships held in Khimki near Moscow for the most successful nation, which went to the team from the Soviet Union as they won gold in all five boat classes.[29]

Political careerEdit

In April 1977, she earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering.[30]

 
Tereshkova with civil rights activist Angela Davis in 1973

Due to her prominence, Tereshkova was chosen for several political positions: from 1966 to 1974 a member of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, from 1974 to 1989 a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, and from 1969 to 1991 a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In 1997, she retired from the Russian Air Force and the cosmonaut corps by presidential order. She was a major general in the air force.[11]

Beyond her recognised political offices within the Soviet Union, Tereshkova also became a well-known representative of the Soviet Union abroad. She became a member of the World Peace Council in 1966 and a member of the Yaroslavl Soviet in 1967. She was also the Soviet representative to the UN Conference for the International Women's Year in Mexico City in 1975. She also led the Soviet delegation to the World Conference on Women in Copenhagen and played a critical role in shaping the socialist women's global agenda for peace.[31] She attained the rank of deputy to the Supreme Soviet, membership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee, Vice-President of the International Woman’s Democratic Federation and President of the Soviet-Algerian Friendship Society.[citation needed]

 
Tereshkova with South Korean President Moon Jae-in in the Russian State Duma, 2018

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tereshkova lost her political office but none of her prestige. She is still revered as a hero, and to some her importance in Russian space history is only surpassed by Yuri Gagarin and Alexei Leonov.[11] She was elected to the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian legislature, in 2011 as a member of United Russia where she continues to serve.[32]

Tereshkova was invited to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's residence in Novo-Ogaryovo for the celebration of her 70th birthday. While there she said that she would like to fly to Mars, even if it meant that it was a one-way trip.[33][34]

On 4 December 2011, Tereshkova was elected to the Russian State Duma representing the Yaroslavl Oblast, as a member of the United Russia party.[35][36] In the 6th State Duma, together with Yelena Mizulina, Irina Yarovaya and Andrey Skoch, she was a member of the inter-factional committee for the protection of Christian values. In this capacity, she supported the introduction of amendments to the preamble of Constitution of Russia, to add that "Orthodoxy is the basis of Russia's national and cultural identity".[37]

On 18 September 2016, Tereshkova was re-elected to the 7th State Duma.[38] She serves as deputy chairperson of the Committee on the Federal Structure and Local Government.[36]

Personal lifeEdit

 
The wedding ceremony of pilot-cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Andriyan Nikolayev, 3 November 1963

Tereshkova married cosmonaut Andriyan Nikolayev on 3 November 1963 at the Moscow Wedding Palace with Khrushchev presiding at the wedding party together with top government and space programme leaders.[39] The marriage was encouraged by the Soviet space authorities as a "fairy-tale message to the country".[40] General Nikolai Kamanin, head of the space program, described it as "probably useful for politics and science".[41] On 8 June 1964, nearly one year after her space flight, she gave birth to their daughter Elena Andrianovna Nikolaeva-Tereshkova,[42] the first person with both a mother and father who had travelled into space.[43]

She and Nikolayev divorced in 1982 and Tereshkova married Yuli Shaposhnikov, a surgeon. They remained married until his death in 1999.[40]

Awards and honoursEdit

 
Valentina Tereshkova and Neil Armstrong, 1970
 
Tereshkova visiting the Lviv confectionery, Ukrainian SSR, 1967
 
Valentina Tereshkova among delegates at the 24th Congress of the CPSU, 1971
 
Valentina Tereshkova and NASA astronaut Catherine Coleman at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in December 2010

SovietEdit

She was decorated with the Hero of the Soviet Union medal, the USSR's highest award. She was also awarded the Order of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution, numerous other medals, and foreign orders including the Karl Marx Order, United Nations Gold Medal of Peace, and the Simba International Women’s Movement Award. She was also bestowed the titles of the Hero of Socialist Labor in Czechoslovakia, Hero of Labor in Vietnam, and Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic.

Other Warsaw Pact awardsEdit

Streets in Ukraine that bore Tereshkova's name have been renamed due to the country's 2015 decommunisation law.[51][52]

Other international awardsEdit

RussianEdit

  • Order of Merit for the Fatherland:[48]
    • 1st class (1 March 2017)[55]
    • 2nd class (6 March 2007)[47] – for outstanding contribution to the development of domestic space[citation needed]
    • 3rd class (6 March 1997)[47] – for services to the state and the great personal contribution to the development of domestic space[citation needed]
  • Order of Alexander Nevsky (2013)[56][57]
  • Order of Honour (10 June 2003)[47] – for outstanding contribution to the development and strengthening of international scientific, cultural and social ties
  • Order of Friendship (2011) – for outstanding contribution to the development of national manned space flight and long-term fruitful public activity[58]
  • Russian Federation State Prize for outstanding achievements in the field of humanitarian action in 2008 (4 June 2009)[47]
  • Certificates of appreciation from the Government of the Russian Federation;
    • 16 June 2008, – for long-term fruitful state and public activities, considerable personal contribution to the development of manned space flight and in connection with the 45th anniversary of spaceflight
    • 12 June 2003, – for large contribution to the development of manned space flight
    • 3 March 1997, – for the contribution to the development of space, the strengthening of international scientific and cultural ties and years of diligent work

Scientific, social, and religious organisationsEdit

RecognitionEdit

 
Vintage Soviet era Russian matryoshka doll celebrating Valentina Tereshkova

In 1967, Gregory Postnikov [ru] created a sculpture of Tereshkova for Cosmonaut Alley in Moscow.[61][62] There is a monument in Bayevsky District of Altai Territory, Siberia, close to her landing place of 53°N, 80°E.[63] In August 1970, Tereshkova was among first group of living people to have a lunar crater named after them.[64] Tereshkova crater is located on the far side of the Moon.[65]

A proposal was brought forward in 2015 to move a monument to Tereshkova in Lviv, Ukraine to the Territory of Terror Memorial Museum. Monuments of communist leaders are removed from the public and placed in the museum.[66]

Novopromyshna Square in Tver was renamed Tereshkova Square in 1963.[67]

In 1990 she received an honorary doctorate from the University of Edinburgh.[68]

 
1963 USSR postage stamp

In 1997, London-based electronic pop group Komputer released a song entitled "Valentina" which gives a more-or-less direct account of her career as a cosmonaut.[69][70] It was released as a single and appears on their album The World of Tomorrow.[71][72] The 2000 album Vostok 6 by Kurt Swinghammer is a concept album about Tereshkova.[73] The 2015 album The Race for Space by Public Service Broadcasting also has a song featuring the Smoke Fairies entitled "Valentina".[74][75] In the same year, Findlay Napier's album VIP: Very Interesting Persons included a song "Valentina", written in her honour by Napier and Boo Hewerdine.[76] In 2015, a short film entitled Valentina's Dream was released by Meat Bingo Productions. The film stars Rebecca Front as Tereshkova and is based on an interview by the former cosmonaut where she expressed a desire to journey to Mars.[77]

The Cosmos Museum was opened 25 January 1975 near Yaroslavl. Among its exhibits is a replica of her childhood home.[78] The city library was named after her in 2013.[79] The school she attended as a child was renamed for her.[80] A planetarium in Yaroslavl was built and named for her in 2011.[81][82] The International Women of the Year association named her as the "greatest woman achiever of the 20th century".[83][84] Tereshkova was a torchbearer of the 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay in Saint Petersburg[85] and the 2014 Winter Olympics torch relay in Sochi.[86]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ German Titov is the youngest man to fly in space at 25 years old.[20]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova". Yaroslavl Region. 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  2. ^ "Cosmonautics Day: Russia's Space Exploration In Photos". The Moscow Times. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019. In 1963, Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space aboard Vostok 6. Selected from more than 400 applicants, Tereshkova was honorarily inducted into the Soviet Air Force, which also made her the first civilian to fly in outer space.
  3. ^ "8 surprising facts about stellar career of Valentina Tereshkova, the 1st woman in space". RT. 6 March 2017. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  4. ^ Dejevsky, Mary (29 March 2017). "The first woman in space: 'People shouldn't waste money on wars'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Evans, Ben (2 April 2010). Escaping the Bonds of Earth: The Fifties and the Sixties. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-387-79094-7.
  6. ^ a b c "Preface". The 'First Lady of Space': In Her Own Words. Middletown, Delaware: SpaceHistory101.com Press. 2015. p. 4–7. ISBN 978-1-887022-99-6. Reprint of "The 'First Lady of Space' Remembers". Quest: The History of Spaceflight Quarterly. 10 (2). First printed in 2003.
  7. ^ "Першая жанчына‑касманаўт ў дзяцінстве гаварыла па‑беларуску" [The first woman in space spoke Belarusian as a child]. Nasha Niva (in Belarusian). 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Sylvester 2011, p. 198
  9. ^ "Valentina Tereshkova". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  10. ^ Clements, Barbara Evans (2008). Smith, Bonnie G. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 214–15. ISBN 978-0-19-514890-9.
  11. ^ a b c Siegel, Ethan (6 March 2017). "The First Woman In Space Turns 80, And You Probably Never Heard Of Her". Forbes. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  12. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (17 September 2015). "Valentina Tereshkova: USSR was 'worried' about women in space". BBC News. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  13. ^ David, Shayler; Moule, Ian A. (29 August 2006). Women in Space – Following Valentina. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84628-078-8.
  14. ^ a b Sever, Megan (June 2014). "June 16, 1963 & June 18, 1983: Valentina Tereshkova and Sally Ride Become First and Third Women in Space". Earth. 59 (6): 60–61. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  15. ^ Burgis, Colin; Vis, Bert (2015). Interkosmos: The Eastern Bloc's Early Space Program. Springer Paxis Books. ISBN 978-3-319-24161-6.
  16. ^ "First Woman in Space ‹ HistoricWings.com :: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers". fly.historicwings.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  17. ^ Sylvester, Roshanna P. (2011). "She Orbits over the Sex Barrier". In Andrews, James T.; Siddiqi, Asif A. (eds.). Into the Cosmos: Space Exploration and Soviet Culture. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-8229-7746-9.
  18. ^ Wall, Mike (23 April 2019). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Who was the first woman in space?". Royal Museums Greenwich. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  20. ^ Reichhardt, Tony (5 August 2011). "The First Photographer in Space". Air & Space. Smithsonian. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  21. ^ Knight, Kelly (June 2003). "Earth calling Seagull". Astronomy. 31 (6): 30.
  22. ^ "Валентина Терешкова: чьей воле покорялась женщина, покорившая космос" [Valentina Tereshkova: the Woman who Conquered Space]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 16 June 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  23. ^ Kennedy, Maev (17 September 2015). "First woman in space recalls mission's teething troubles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  24. ^ Tereshkova, Valentina (4 January 1964). "Three days in outer space". The Saturday Evening Post. 237 (1): 62–63.
  25. ^ a b "NASA – NSSDCA – Spacecraft – Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  26. ^ a b Harvey, Brian (2007). Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration. Springer New York. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-387-21896-0.
  27. ^ Obituaries, Telegraph (1 April 2019). "Valery Bykovsky, cosmonaut who held the record for the longest solo space flight – obituary". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  28. ^ Knapton, Sarah (17 September 2015). "Russia forgot to send toothbrush with first woman in space". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  29. ^ "Fünf Europatitel für UdSSR-Ruderinnen". Neues Deutschland (in German). 18 (247). 9 September 1963. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  30. ^ Magill, Frank N. (13 May 2013). The 20th Century O-Z: Dictionary of World Biography. Routledge. p. 3641. ISBN 978-1-136-59362-8.
  31. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (Winter 2012). "Rethinking State Socialist Mass Women's Organizations: The Committee of the Bulgarian Women's Movement and the United Nations Decade for Women, 1975–1985". Journal of Women's History. 24 (4): 49–73. doi:10.1353/jowh.2012.0044.
  32. ^ "Терешкова Валентина Владимировна" [Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna]. The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  33. ^ "First woman in space dreams of flying to Mars". Reuters. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  34. ^ "First female astronaut Valentina Tereshkova wants one-way Mars ticket". News.com.au. 9 June 2013. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Валентина Терешкова - депутат от "Единой России"" [Valentina Tereshkova – United Russia deputy]. Телекомпания НТМ [NTM Broadcasting Company]. 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Кто есть кто: Терешкова Валентина Владимировна" [Who's who: Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna]. United Russia. 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  37. ^ "Госдума может изменить Конституцию, чтобы выделить историческую роль православия". Новая газета (in Russian). 22 November 2013. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  38. ^ "Терешкова Валентина Владимировна". Государственная Дума (in Russian). Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  39. ^ Eidelman, Tamara (2013). "A Cosmic Wedding". Russian Life. 56 (6): 22–25.
  40. ^ a b Dejevsky, Mary (29 March 2017). "The first woman in space: 'People shouldn't waste money on wars'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  41. ^ "Fifty years ago, Tereshkova became first woman in space". ABC. AFP. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  42. ^ Feldman, Heather (2003). Valentina Tereshkova: The First Woman in Space. Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-6246-4.
  43. ^ Gibson, Karen (2014). Women in Space: 23 Stories of First Flights, Scientific Missions, and Gravity-Breaking Adventures. Chicago Review Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-61374-847-3.
  44. ^ "Space Couple Wins Title". The Evening Sun. Associated Press. 20 June 1963. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ "First Girl in Space Gets a Rousing Welcome from Communist Women". The Town Talk. Alexandria, Louisiana. UPI. 24 June 1953. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
  46. ^ a b "Space Woman Gets Bear Hug, Kiss from Nik". The Greenville News. Greenville, South Carolina. Associated Press. 23 June 1963. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h "Биография Валентины Терешковой" [Biography of Valentina Tereshkova] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 6 March 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  48. ^ a b c d Cavallaro, Umberto (2 March 2017). Women Spacefarers: Sixty Different Paths to Space. Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-319-34048-7.
  49. ^ "Čestný titul Hrdina socialistické práce s právem nosit zlatou hvězdu Hrdiny socialistické práce" [Honorary title, Hero of socialist work with the right to wear golden star, Heroes of Socialist Labor] (PDF) (in Czech). ARCHIV KANCELÁŘE PREZIDENTA REPUBLIKY. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  50. ^ "Rednauts Get Top Marx". Daily News. New York, New York. 22 October 1963. p. 210 – via Newspapers.com.
  51. ^ "Muscovite renamed all the streets Valentina Tereshkova". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 12 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  52. ^ "The scandal with the renaming in Odessa: the city Council gave the answer". z-news.link. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  53. ^ "The Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor Recipients". Eduard Rhein Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  54. ^ "Ring of Honor 2007 – Dr. techn. Dr.h.c.mult. Valentina V. Tereschkova". Eduard Rhein Foundation (in German). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  55. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 1 марта 2017 года № 95 «О награждении государственными наградами Российской Федерации»" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 1 March 2017 No. 95 "On awarding state awards of the Russian Federation"] (in Russian). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  56. ^ "The Japan News". the-japan-news.com.
  57. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 12 июня 2013 года № 557 «О награждении государственными наградами Российской Федерации»" [Presidential Decree of June 12, 2013 No. 557 "On awarding state awards of the Russian Federation"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
  58. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 12 апреля 2011 года № 434 «О награждении орденом Дружбы»" [Presidential Decree of 12 April 2011 No. 434 "On awarding the Order of Friendship"] (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  59. ^ "Red Cosmonaut Meets Queen, Down-to-Earth". The Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City, Utah. Reuters. 6 February 1964. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com.
  60. ^ "FAI Awards". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  61. ^ Egorov, Boris (13 April 2018). "Why was a sculptor who promoted Communism executed by the Bolsheviks?". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  62. ^ "САМЫЙ ЗАГАДОЧНЫЙ РЫБИНСКИЙ ПАМЯТНИК" [THE MOST MYSTERIOUS MONUMENT TO RYBINSK] (in Russian). РЫБИНСКА Неделя. 6 December 2018.
  63. ^ Rosen, Rebecca J. (16 June 2013). "The Remote Siberian Monument to the First Woman in Space, Who Launched 50 Years Ago Today". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  64. ^ "500 Men Have Moon Craters Named for Them". Messenger-Inquirer. Owensboro, Kentucky. Associated Press. 22 August 1970. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  65. ^ Andersson, Leif E.; Whitaker, Ewen A. (October 1982). "NASA Catalogue of Lunar Nomenclature" (PDF). NASA. p. 68. RP-1097. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2019.
  66. ^ "Во Львове предложили отправить памятник Терешковой в музей террора" [In Lviv, a proposal to send a monument to Tereshkova to the Territory of Terror Memorial Museum] (in Russian). RBC. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  67. ^ "Площадь Терешковой" [Tereshkova Square]. Tver Planet. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  68. ^ "Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova, DSc, Hero of the Soviet Union, Order of Lenin". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  69. ^ Chao, Tom (6 March 2011). "The Astronaut's Playlist: Groovy Songs for Space Travelers". Space.com. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  70. ^ Koli, Monika (2018). 20 Greatest Astronauts of the World. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-8184305593.
  71. ^ "Valentia – Komputer". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  72. ^ Bush, John. "The World of Tomorrow – Komputer". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  73. ^ Carruthers, Sean. "AllMusic Review by Sean Carruthers". AllMusic.
  74. ^ Burrows, Marc (17 February 2015). "Album Review: Public Service Broadcasting – The Race for Space". DrownedInSound. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  75. ^ Rivers, Joe (3 February 2015). "Public Service Broadcasting – The Race For Space". Clash Magazine. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  76. ^ Woodgate, Paul (4 March 2015). "Findlay Napier – VIP: Very Interesting Persons". Folk Radio UK. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  77. ^ Keywood, Sean (4 August 2014). "Rebecca Front to star in Exmouth filmmakers' new short". Exmouth Journal. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  78. ^ Tatarkenkov, Oleg (17 June 2003). "На родине Валентины Терешковой" [In the homeland of Valentina Tereshkova]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 28 July 2003. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  79. ^ "Детская библиотека № 4" [Children's library № 4]. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  80. ^ Williams, Matt (29 November 2016). "Who Was The First Woman To Go Into Space?". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  81. ^ "Who Was The First Woman To Go Into Space?". Universe Today. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  82. ^ Vesti.ru, 8 April 2011 Archived September 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Vesti.ru.
  83. ^ Kamalakaran, Ajay (8 March 2016). "5 Russian women who built a great legacy". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  84. ^ "Cosmonaut is Woman of the Century". BBC. 11 October 2000. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  85. ^ "Олимпийский огонь понесут Друзь, Фрейндлих и Плющенко". Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  86. ^ Sharp, Tim (22 January 2018). "Valentina Tereshkova: First Woman in Space". Space.com. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

Further readingEdit

  • Bill O’Neil, "Whatever became of Valentina Tereshkova?" New Scientist 8/14/93, Vol. 139, Issue 1886p. 21.
  • A. Lothian, Valentina: The First Woman in Space, The Pentland Press, 1993, ISBN 978-1858210643.
  • Tamara Eidelman, "The First Woman in Space," Russian Life. May/Jun 2008, Vol. 51, Issue 3, p. 19-21.
  • Tamara Eidelman, "The Extraordinary Destiny of an ‘Ordinary’ Woman," Russian Life. May/June 2003, Vol. 46, Issue 3, p.19.
  • Daniel Gauthier, "Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova." Ad Astra. Jul/Aug 1991, Vol. 3, Issue 6, p. 29.
  • Robert Griswold, ""Russian Blonde in Space": Soviet Women in the American Imagination, 1950–1965." Journal of Social History. Summer 2012, Vol. 45, Issue 4, p.881-907.
  • Laira Woodmansee, "Two who dared," Ad Astra. Summer 2005, Vol. 17, Issue 2, p. 48-48.
  • "First woman in space" at History.com
  • Valentina Tereshkova, The First Lady of Space: In Her Own Words, spacebusiness.com, October 2015
  • Sharpe, Mitchell R. (1975). "It is I, Sea gull;": Valentina Tereshkova, first woman in space. Crowell. ISBN 978-0-690-00646-9.

External linksEdit