Order of the Red Banner of Labour
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour (Russian: Орден Трудового Красного Знамени, romanized: Orden Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni) was an order of the Soviet Union established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities. It is the labour counterpart of the military Order of the Red Banner. A few institutions and factories, being the pride of Soviet Union, also received the order. Order of the Red Banner of Labour was the third highest civil award in the Soviet Union after Order of Lenin and Order of the October Revolution.
|Order of the Red Banner of Labour|
|Awarded for||Accomplishments in labour, the civil service, literature, the arts and sciences|
|Presented by||the Soviet Union|
|Eligibility||Soviet and foreign citizens. Institutions including factories|
|Status||No longer awarded|
|Established||December 28, 1920|
|First awarded||June 28, 1921|
|Last awarded||December 21, 1991|
|Related||Order of the Red Banner|
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour began solely as an award of the Russian SFSR on December 28, 1920. The all-Union equivalent was established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on September 7, 1928 and approved by another decree on September 15, 1928. The Order's statute and regulations were modified by multiple successive decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, on May 7, 1936, on June 19, 1943, on March 28, 1980, and on July 18, 1980.
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour can be awarded to citizens of the USSR, to businesses, associations, institutions, organizations, and allied autonomous republics, territories, autonomous regions, districts, cities and other localities; it may also be awarded to persons who are not citizens of the USSR, as well as to enterprises, institutions and organizations located in foreign countries:
- for great achievements in the development of industry, agriculture, farming, construction, transport and other sectors of the economy, to improve the efficiency of social production;
- for the highest growth rates in labour productivity, improved product quality, development and introduction of more advanced manufacturing processes;
- for consistently high results in the implementation and overfulfillment of planned assignments and socialist obligations undertaken;
- for major advances in increasing the productivity of agricultural crops and the productivity of livestock breeding, increasing manufacturing output and sales of state agricultural products;
- for contributions in the development of science and technology, the introduction of the latest achievements in the national economy, for inventions and innovations which are of great technical – economic significance;
- for contributions in strengthening national defense;
- for very fruitful activities in Soviet culture, literature and the arts;
- for contributions in education and communist political education to the younger generations, in highly specialised training, health, trade, catering, housing, utilities, housing, public services;
- for special achievements in the development of physical culture and Sports;
- for important achievements in the field of state and public activities, the strengthening of socialist legality and the rule of law;
- for great achievements in economic, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation between the USSR and other states.
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour could be awarded multiple times to the same recipient for successive deeds and long time merit.
The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other awards of the USSR, was located immediately after the Order of the Red Banner. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence.
The design of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour evolved over the years. Its original design, called "type 1" was amended in 1936, this new variant will be identified as "type 2".
The "type 1" Order consisted of a 38 mm wide by 43 mm high silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, at center, a disc bordered along its entire outer diameter by panicles of wheat. Protruding from under the lower half of the central disc, a red enamelled triangle pointing downwards. On the central disc in the background, a hydro electric dam, at center, a gilded hammer and sickle, at the top, a waving red banner bearing the inscription "Proletarians of the World, unite!" (Russian: "Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!"). At the very bottom of the cogwheel, the relief inscription "USSR" (Russian: "СССР") on a stylised horizontal shield bisected by a smaller cogwheel meshing into the larger one. On the otherwise plain reverse, a recess at center bearing a threaded post, two rivets used to secure the hammer and sickle and the award serial number engraved on the lower portion opposite the "USSR" inscription. The Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and nut arrangement. The earlier nuts were 28 mm in diameter, later ones measured 32 mm.
The "type 2" Order also consisted of a silver badge in the shape of a cogwheel, it measured 38 mm wide by 44 mm high. On the lower circumference of the cogwheel, the relief inscription "Proletarians of the World, unite!" (Russian: "Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!"), below the cogwheel, a red enamelled relief five pointed star superimposed on a shield from which four short panicles of wheat protrude left and right. At the center, a disc surrounded by a gilded wreath of oak leaves bearing the relief image of a hydro electric dam, below the dam, blue enamelled water, at the center of the disc, the gilded hammer and sickle, from the inner left side of the disc, a gilded mast bearing a waving red enamelled banner protruding from the central disc, covering the upper portion of the cogwheel and protruding past its outer upper edge on which "USSR" (Russian: "СССР") is inscribed in gilded letters. Along the outer circumference of the central disc's wreath, white enamelled slots spaced equally on the cogwheel. On the otherwise plain reverse, a concave recess at center bearing a threaded post, eight rivets (only three rivets on the post 1943 variant) used to secure the various parts to the badge and the award serial number engraved on the lower portion below the recess. The Order was secured to clothing with a threaded screw and a 33 mm in diameter nut until 1943 when it was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a pentagonal mount covered by an overlapping 24 mm wide light blue silk moiré ribbon with 4 mm wide dark blue edge stripes.
|Type 1 obverse||Type 2 obverse|
Recipients (partial list)Edit
The first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the RSFSR was Nikita Menchukov for saving an important bridge from being destroyed by flowing ice.
Order of the Red Banner of Labour of the USSR number 1 was presented to the Putilov (later Kirov) Works in Leningrad. The first individual awardees were V. Fedetov, A. Shelagin and M. Kyatkovsky for the rescue of a polar expedition.
Mikhail Gorbachev received the Order of the Red Banner of Labour for harvesting a record crop on his family's collective farm in 1949 at age 17, an honor which was very rare for someone so young. He is one of the Order's youngest recipients.
- Belyaev, Nikolay Maksimovich, founder and head of the optical industry
- Protazanov, Alexander Konstantinovich, first secretary of the East Kazakhstan Party organisation
- Smelyakov, Nicholaï Nicholaevich, Minister of General Machine Building of the USSR, director of the factory "Red Sormovo"
- Green, Arnold Carlovich, Soviet diplomat, Party and State figure
- Leontovich, Mikhail Alexandrovich, physicist and academician
- Alekseenko, Gennady Vasil'evich, a specialist in the field of energy
- Belov, Aleksandr Fedorovich, academician (metallurgy)
- Vlasov, Pavel Semenovich, Hero of Socialist Labour, director of the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant
- Grafov, Leonid Efimovich, Deputy Minister of the Coal Industry
- GrishinIvan Timofeevich, Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade
- Gundobin, Nikolai Alekseevich, Hero of Socialist Labour, 1st Deputy Minister of Transport of the USSR
- Dokukin, Aleksandr Viktorovich, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences
- Il'ichev, Leonid Fedorovich, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee
- Karlov, Vladimir Alekseevich, Hero of Socialist Labour, department head of the CPSU Central Committee
- Kurchatov, Boris Vasil'evich, doctor of chemical sciences
- Maletin, Pavel Andreevich, Deputy Minister of Finance of the USSR (1939–1945, 1960–1969)
- Petukhov, Konstantin Dmitrievich, Hero of Socialist Labour, General Director of PEMSO "Dynamo"
- Rasizade, Shamil Alievich, deputy prime-minister of Azerbaijan SSR (1970–1984)
- Romanov, Alexei Vladimirovich, editor of the newspaper "Soviet Culture"
- Sosnov, Ivan Dmitrievich, Minister of Transport Construction of the USSR
- Tamara Khanum, People's Artist of USSR (1956), Uzbek dancer
- Chibisov, Konstantin, Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences (1946)
- Gamzatov, Rasul Gamzatovich, poet
- Revutskyi, Levko Mykolajovych, composer, teacher, and activist
- Orujev, Sabit Atayevich, Deputy Prime-minister of Azerbaijan SSR (1957–1959)
- Balanchivadze, Andreï Melitonovich, composer
- Voss, Augusts Eduardovich, politician and party functionary
- Dudinskaya, Natalia Mikhailovna, prima ballerina
- Kapp, Eugen Arturovich, composer and music educator
- Patriarch Alexy I, patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church
- Ulánova, Galina Sergeyevna, prima ballerina
- Chernenko, Konstantin Ustinovich, fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
- Andropov, Yuri Vladimirovich, fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
- Frumkin, Alexander Naumovich, electrochemist, Hero of Socialist Labour
- Yakovlev, Alexander Nikolaevich, politician and historian
- Chukhrai, Grigori Naumovich, film director and screenwriter
- Begaliev, Sopubek Begalievich, politician
- Kapelyushnikov, Matvei Alkunovich, mechanical engineer, Hero of Socialist Labour
- Flyorov, Georgy Nikolayevich, nuclear physicist
- Piotrovsky, Boris Borisovich, academician, historian-orientalist and archaeologist
- Khalatnikov, Isaak Markovich, physicist
- Taitz, Max Arkadyevich, scientist in aerodynamics, theory of jet engines and flight testing of aircraft, one of the founders of the Gromov Flight Research Institute, recipient of the Stalin Prize (1949 and 1953), Honoured Scientist of the RSFSR
- Tupolev, Andrei Nikolayevich, aircraft designer
- Feoktistov, Konstantin Petrovich, cosmonaut and eminent space engineer
- Khachaturian, Aram Ilyich, composer
- Ginzburg, Vitaly Lazarevich, theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate
- Kollontai, Alexandra Mikhailovna, first female government minister in Europe, one of the first female diplomats in modern times
- Khrennikov, Tikhon Nikolayevich, composer and pianist
- Klaudia Sergejewna Kildisheva, aviation engineer and Hero of Socialist Labor
- Zel'dovich, Yakov Borisovich, physicist
- Ryzhkov, Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov, politician
- Rodnina, Irina Konstantinovna, Olympic gold medalist figure skater
- Züleyxa Seyidməmmədova, fighter pilot
- Ilyushin, Vladimir Sergeyevich, test pilot
- Vorontsov, Yuli Mikhailovich diplomat and ambassador
- Arkady Ilyich Ostashev laureate of the Lenin and state prizes of the, senior test pilot of missiles and space-rocket complexes of OKB-1, the disciple and companion of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.
- Dimitri Venediktov Deputy Health Minister of the USSR
- Shamama Hasanova, Azerbaijani cotton producer and politician.
- Kim Pen Hwa, collective farm manager
- Yefim Davidovich Shlyak, engineer
- Leila Abashidze, actor and writer
- Araxie Babayan, chemist
- Mariya Borodayevskaya, geologist
- Alexandrov, Pavel Sergeyevich, mathematician
- Chernomyrdin, Viktor Stepanovich, Prime Minister of Russia (1992–1998)
- Clementine Churchill
- Glafira Dorosh, chef, the only recipient of a Soviet order for a recipe
- Dyomin, Lev Stepanovich, cosmonaut
- Ivan Gevorkian, prominent Soviet Armenian surgeon and scientist.
- Anatoly Karpov, World Chess Champion
- Faina Kotkova, weaver
- Valentina Khetagurova (1914–1992), founder of the Khetagourova movement
- Marcus Klingberg, Israeli scientist and Soviet spy
- Boris Kozo-Polyansky, botanist and evolutionary biologist.
- Jack Littlepage, US mining expert and Soviet Deputy Commissar
- Vladimir Lobashev, physicist
- Mil, Mikhail Leontyevich, aerospace engineer
- Sergei Orlov (sculptor), sculptor and painter
- Nicolay Paskevich, painter
- Ivan Poddubny, professional wrestler
- Vladimir Rvachev, mathematician
- Primakov, Yevgeny Maksimovich, Speaker of the Soviet of the Union of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
- Rogozov, Leonid, physician who took part in the sixth Soviet Antarctic Expedition in 1960–1961
- Arnold Rüütel, ex-president of Estonia
- Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich, physicist and chemist
- Lev Mashkilleyson, dermatologist
- Yuri Levitan, Soviet radio announcer
- Lyudmila Shevtsova – athlete, Olympic champion and 800 m world record holder
- Mikhail Shuisky, opera singer
- Shukshin, Vasily Makarovich, actor, writer, screenwriter and film director
- Tsukerman, Vladimir Moiseevich, orientologist-practitioner, diplomat in Central Asia and Iran, Head of the Middle Eastern and First Eastern Departments
- Yakovlev, Alexander Sergeyevich, aeronautical engineer
- Yanshin, Alexander, geologist
- Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich, poet, novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, actor, editor, and film director
- Melita Stedman Norwood Spy USSR - Work 1930-1972.
- Hugh Lincoln Cooper American Engineer
Institutions, organisations, localitiesEdit
- Vilnius University
- City of Kovrov
- Saint Petersburg State University
- City of Mykolaiv
- City of Podolsk
- Bolshevichka clothes factory
- Zvyazda state newspaper
- East Siberian Railway
- National Library of Russia
- Kuban State University of Technology
- Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies
- 8th Soviet Rifle Division
- Crimean Medical Institute
- Kamensk-Uralsky Metallurgical Works, in 1978
- Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya
- Trolza trolleybus factory
- Ural State Medical University
- Yerevan State University
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 7, 1928" (in Russian). Russian WikiSource. September 7, 1928. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of September 15, 1928" (in Russian). Russian WikiSource. September 15, 1928. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of May 7, 1936" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. May 7, 1936. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 19, 1943" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. June 19, 1943. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of March 28, 1980" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. March 28, 1980. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 18, 1980 № 2523-X" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. July 18, 1980. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 7, 2010 No 1099" (in Russian). Russian Gazette. September 7, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- "List of recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour compiled from ru.Wikipedia". Russian Wikipedia. Missing or empty
- "List of recipients of the Order of the Red Banner of Labour compiled from en.Wikipedia". English Wikipedia. Missing or empty
- Clements, Barbara Evans (1979). Bolshevik Feminist: The Life of Aleksandra Kollontai. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 270. ISBN 0-253-31209-4.
- Winston S. Churchill. The Second World War. VI. p. 421. ISBN 0-14-008616-1.
- Epstein 1976, p. 724.
- Epstein, Fritz T. (1976). "[Review:] Great Soviet Encyclopedia: A Translation of the Third Edition, vol. 1. Group Editorial Director of the Editorial and Translation Staff, Jean Paradise. New York and London: Macmillan and Collier Macmillan, 1973. xxxvii, 678 pp. $50.00". Slavic Review. 35 (4): 724–727. doi:10.2307/2495661. ISSN 0037-6779.