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Khimki (Russian: Химки, IPA: [ˈxʲimkʲɪ]) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 30 kilometres[8] northwest of central Moscow.

Khimki

Химки
Babakina Street in Khimki (February 2010)
Babakina Street in Khimki (February 2010)
Flag of Khimki
Flag
Coat of arms of Khimki
Coat of arms
Location of Khimki
Khimki is located in Russia
Khimki
Khimki
Location of Khimki
Khimki is located in Moscow Oblast
Khimki
Khimki
Khimki (Moscow Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°54′N 37°27′E / 55.900°N 37.450°E / 55.900; 37.450Coordinates: 55°54′N 37°27′E / 55.900°N 37.450°E / 55.900; 37.450
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMoscow Oblast[1]
Founded1939
Government
 • MayorOleg Shakhov[2]
Area
 • Total109.81 km2 (42.40 sq mi)
Elevation
180 m (590 ft)
Population
 • Total207,425
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
250,688 (+20.9%)
 • Rank90th in 2010
 • Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toKhimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofKhimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugKhimki Urban Okrug[3]
 • Capital ofKhimki Urban Okrug[3]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
141400-141446
Dialing code(s)+7 495, 498
OKTMO ID46783000001
Twin townsGrodnoEdit this on Wikidata
Websiteadmhimki.ru

HistoryEdit

Origins and formationEdit

Khimki was initially a railway station that existed since 1850 on the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway. The Moskva-Volga Canal was constructed between 1932 and 1937 on which Khimki lies on the west bank. Khimki was then officially founded in 1939.[9]

Khimki in the Battle of MoscowEdit

The German attack starting the Battle of Moscow (code-named ‘Operation Typhoon’) began on 2 October 1941. The attack on a broad front brought German forces to occupy the village of Krasnaya Polyana (now in the town of Lobnya) to Moscow's North West. Krasnaya Polyana was taken on 30 November.[10]

Many sources state that at least one German army patrol visited Khimki. Similarly many sources state this as the closest point the Germans reached to Moscow (Khimki at the time was five miles from the edge of Moscow). Among the sources stating the Germans visited Khimki the details of the date and unit involved are inconsistent and disputed. One story of events asserts a skirmish took place in Khimki on 16 October at the Leningradskoe Shosse bridge involving a German motorcycle unit,[11] but this would have been far from the main body of German forces at that time. Another account is a patrol reached Khimki around 30 November or early December before returning to its main unit without combat. The dates mentioned for this second account vary.[12] A myth[citation needed] surrounding this is that the Germans would have been able to see the Kremlin 19 kilometres in the distance from Khimki.

The Soviet Army counter offensive for "removing the immediate threat to Moscow" started on 5 December on the North-Western Front (the area around Khimki North West of Moscow). The South-Western Front and Western Fronts began their offensives on 6 December. The German forces were driven back. Moscow was never under such close land threat again during the war.

A memorial in the form of a giant tank trap is located at the "Kilometer 23" point 55°54′46.103″N 37°24′10.577″E / 55.91280639°N 37.40293806°E / 55.91280639; 37.40293806) of Leningradskoye Highway (the highway to St. Petersburg). The memorial is one mile south east of Planernaya Railway Station. The memorial was unveiled on 6 December 1966 as a 25th anniversary recognition of the launch of the Soviet counter offensive. This location is just short of an intersection with the Moscow-St Petersburg railway (close to where the IKEA shopping centre has since been built). This memorial and shopping centre on the Northern side of Khimki has a direct distance of 22 kilometres from Moscow city centre. At the time of the conflict this location was outside Khimki. This memorial is different to the Khimki War Memorial moved in 2007 to in Novoluzhinskoe cemetery.

Post warEdit

Khimki was home to several Soviet aerospace defense development centers that became the principal employers for the majority of the city population. This included R&D enterprises which designed surface-to-air missiles for S-75, S-125, S-200, S-300 Soviet air defense systems, engines for intercontinental ballistic missiles and satellite launch vehicles, and other types of equipment. For this reason, Khimki was off limits for all foreigners visiting the country, despite its location on a highway between Moscow and its major international airport.

In 2010 the city saw protests over the construction of the new Moscow–Saint Petersburg motorway through the Khimki Forest.[13]

Currently, the city of Khimki is directly adjacent to the territory of the city of Moscow. In recent years the population of the city of Khimki has continued to grow rapidly due to massive residential building construction driven by its proximity to the densely populated Moscow megapolis, which needs new areas for expansion.

PopulationEdit

Population: 207,425 (2010 Census);[4] 141,000 (2002 Census);[14] 132,902 (1989 Census);[15] 106,000 (1977); 23,000 (1939).

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Khimki Urban Okrug.[3]

EconomyEdit

The city enjoys a great deal of commercial activity due to its location between Moscow and one of its main airports, Sheremetyevo.

As of 2015 some aerospace-development centers located in Khimki contribute to a program of the International Space Station. Former Soviet aerospace and defense development centers located in Khimki:

Khimki hosts one of the largest shopping malls in Russia, which features French chain-store Auchan and Swedish furniture-retailer IKEA.

TransportationEdit

Khimki station is on the Moscow-St Petersburg Railway.

Road transport includes bus and trolleybus.

SportEdit

Divided cityEdit

Khimki

  • at 1930 divided by Moscow Canal with right bank and left bank area and assigned "Levobereghnaya" (left bank) platform. The enter to M11 (Toll road) is also at left bank
  • at 1961 part of the city transferred to Moscow include Khimki hospital (known as "Stravinsky clinic" in Master and Margarita)
  • Some Moscow organizations remained in Khimky like Moscow State Art and Cultural University and Arena Khimky (de facto)
  • Skhodnya de jure merged but not adjustment to 2014. De facto Khimki, Skhodnya and the rest areas and enclaves were special fare zone earlier and this doesn't cause fare and legal collisions

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. ^ Досрочные выборы Главы городского округа Химки 14.10.2012(in Russian)
  3. ^ a b c d Law #50/2005-OZ
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ http://www.msko.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/msko/resources/c7954d80450b9e608f41afde4cdebdf4/Оценка+численности+постоянного+населения+Московской+области+по+состоянию+на+1+января++2018+г.doc.
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ http://distancescalculator.net/khimki-moscow-oblast-russia-to-moscow-russia?m=dd&tm=5&el=false&latlngs=(55.8940553,37.443948699999964);(55.755826,37.6173)&c1=true&c2=false&c3=false&c4=false&c5=true&c6=false&c7=true&c8=false&c9=true&c10=false
  9. ^ Город Химки, Московская область(in Russian)
  10. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=olYUrlIfWg0 43 mins 45 secs into this "The World at War2 Episode 5"
  11. ^ Axis History
  12. ^ Axis History
  13. ^ "Russia halts forest highway construction as opposition grows". Chicago Tribune. August 26, 2010. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.

SourcesEdit

  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #72/2015-OZ of May 5, 2015 On Re-Classifying the Town of Ozyory in Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast as the Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction, on Abolishing Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast, and on Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №50/2005-ОЗ от 22 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Химки», в ред. Закона №6/2013-ОЗ от 30 января 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границе городского округа Химки"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №40–41, 5 марта 2005 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #50/2005-OZ of February 22, 2005 On the Status and the Border of Khimki Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #6/2013-OZ of January 30, 2013 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Status and the Border of Khimki Urban Okrug". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).