Emirate of Bukhara

The Emirate of Bukhara (Persian: امارت بخارا, romanizedAmārat-e Bokhārā, Chagatay: بخارا امرلیگی, romanized: Bukhārā Amirligi) was a Muslim polity in Central Asia[8] that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshon river, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarqand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarazm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana. In 1920, it ended with the establishment of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.

Emirate of Bukhara
امارت بخارا (Persian)
Amārat-e Bokhārā (Persian)
بخارا امرلیگی (Chagatay)
Bukhārā Amirligi (Chagatay)
1785–1920
Flag of Bukhara
Flag
The Emirate of Bukhara under Russian rule
The Emirate of Bukhara under Russian rule
Status
CapitalBukhara
Common languages
Religion
Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Zoroastrianism, Judaism
GovernmentAbsolute Monarchy
Emir 
• 1785–1800
Mir Masum Shah Murad
• 1911–1920
Mir Muhammad Alim Khan
History 
• Manghit control
1747
• Established
1785
• Conquered by Russia
1868
• Russian protectorate
1873
• Disestablished
October 1920
Population
• 1875[4]
c. 2,478,000
• 1911[5]
c. 3,000,000–3,500,000
Currencyfulus, tilla, and tenga.[6]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Khanate of Bukhara
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
The flag that was used at the end of the existence of the Emirate of Bukhara[7]

HistoryEdit

 
A map of the Khanate of Bukhara's beyliks.
 
Fires in Bukhara during the Red Army's attack, 1 September 1920

The Emirate of Bukhara was officially created in 1785, upon the assumption of rulership by the Manghit emir, Shah Murad. Shahmurad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukhara.[9]

As one of the few states in Central Asia after the Mongol Empire not ruled by descendants of Genghis Khan (besides the Timurids), it staked its legitimacy on Islamic principles rather than Genghisid blood, as the ruler took the Islamic title of Emir instead of Khan. In the 18th-19th centuries, Khwarazm (Khiva Khanate) was ruled by the Uzbek dynasty of Kungrats.[10]

Over the course of the 18th century, the emirs had slowly gained effective control of the Khanate of Bukhara, from their position as ataliq; and by the 1740s, when the khanate was conquered by Nadir Shah of Persia, it was clear that the emirs held the real power. In 1747, after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi murdered Abulfayz Khan and his son, ending the Janid dynasty [fa]. From then on the emirs allowed puppet khans to rule until, following the death of Abu l-Ghazi Khan, Shah Murad assumed the throne openly.[11]

Fitzroy Maclean recounts in Eastern Approaches how Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly were executed by Nasrullah Khan in the context of The Great Game, and how Joseph Wolff, known as the Eccentric Missionary, escaped their fate when he came looking for them in 1845. He was wearing his full canonical costume, which caused the Emir to burst out laughing, and "Dr Wolff was eventually suffered to leave Bokhara, greatly to the surprise of the populace, who were not accustomed to such clemency."[12]

In 1868, the emirate lost a war with Imperial Russia, which had aspirations of conquest in the region. Russia annexed much of the emirate's territory, including the important city of Samarkand.[13] In 1873, the remainder became a Russian protectorate,[14] and was soon surrounded by the Governorate-General of Turkestan.

Reformists within the Emirate had found the conservative emir, Mohammed Alim Khan, unwilling to loosen his grip on power, and had turned to the Russian Bolshevik revolutionaries for military assistance. The Red Army launched an unsuccessful assault in March 1920, and then a successful one in September of the same year.[15] The Emirate of Bukhara was conquered by the Bolsheviks and replaced with the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic. Today, the territory of the defunct emirate lies mostly in Uzbekistan, with parts in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. In the first half of the 19th century it had some influence in northern Afghanistan, as the emirs of the Chahar Wilayat (Maimana, Sheberghan, Andkhui, Sar-i Pol) nominally accepted Bukharan suzerainty.[16]

CultureEdit

In the era of the Manghyt emirs in Bukhara, a large construction of madrasahs, mosques and palaces was carried out. Located along important trading routes, Bukhara enjoyed a rich cultural mixture, including Persian, Uzbek, and Jewish influences.

A local school of historians developed in the Bukhara emirate. The most famous historians were Mirza Shams Bukhari, Muhammad Yakub ibn Daniyalbiy, Muhammad Mir Olim Bukhari, Ahmad Donish, Mirza Abdalazim Sami, Mirza Salimbek.[17]

The city of Bukhara has a rich history of Persian architecture and literature, traditions that were continued into the Emirate Period. Prominent artists of the period include the poet Kiromi Bukhoroi, the calligrapher Mirza Abd al-Aziz Bukhari and the scholar Rahmat-Allah Bukhari. Throughout this period, the madrasahs of the region were renowned.

Administrative and territorial structureEdit

Administratively, the Emirate was divided into several beyliks or bekliks:

  1. Baljuvon, (now Khatlon Region, Tajikistan).
  2. Hisar, (now Tajikistan)
  3. Burdalik, (now Lebap Region, Turkmenistan)
  4. Guzar, (now Qashqadaryo Region, Uzbekistan)
  5. Charjuy, (now Lebap Region, Turkmenistan)
  6. Darvaz, (c 1878, now Darvaz district, Tajikistan)
  7. Dehnav, (now Surxondaryo Region, Uzbekistan)
  8. Kabakli, (now Lebap Region, Turkmenistan)
  9. Karakul, (now Bukhara Region, Uzbekistan)
  10. Karategin, (now Rasht district, Tajikistan)
  11. Karshi, (now Qashqadaryo Region, Uzbekistan)
  12. Kattakurgan, (now Samarkand region, Uzbekistan)
  13. Kulyab, (now Khatlon Region, Tajikistan)
  14. Karshi, (now Qashqadaryo Region, Uzbekistan)
  15. Kerki, (now Lebap Region, Turkmenistan)
  16. Nurata, (now Navoiy Region, Uzbekistan)
  17. Panjikent, (now Sughd province, Tajikistan)
  18. Rushan, (now Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous region, Tajikistan)
  19. Samarkand, (now Samarqand Region, Uzbekistan — part of Russia since 1868
  20. Shahrisabz, (c 1870, now Kashkadarya Region, Uzbekistan)
  21. Urgut, (now Samarqand Region, Uzbekistan)
  22. Falgar, (now Sughd province, Tajikistan)

Amirs/Emirs of Bukhara (1785–1920)Edit

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Ataliq
اتالیق
Khudayar Bey
خدایار بیگ
?
Ataliq
اتالیق
Muhammad Hakim
محمد حکیم
?–1747
Ataliq
اتالیق
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
1747–1753
Amir
امیر
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
1753–1756
Khan
خان
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
1756–1758
Ataliq
اتالیق
Daniyal Biy
دانیال بیگ
1758–1785
Amir Masum
امیر معصوم
Shahmurad
شاہ مراد بن دانیال بیگ
1785–1800
Amir
امیر
Haydar bin Shahmurad
حیدر تورہ بن شاہ مراد
1800–1826
Amir
امیر
Mir Hussein bin Haydar
حسین بن حیدر تورہ
1826–1827
Amir
امیر
Umar bin Haydar
عمر بن حیدر تورہ
1827
Amir
امیر
Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora
نصراللہ بن حیدر تورہ
1827–1860
Amir
امیر
Muzaffar bin Nasrullah
مظفر الدین بن نصراللہ
1860–1886
Amir
امیر
Abdul-Ahad bin Muzaffar al-Din
عبد الأحد بن مظفر الدین
1886–1911
Amir
امیر
Muhammad Alim Khan bin Abdul-Ahad
محمد عالم خان بن عبد الأحد
1911–1920
Overthrow of Emirate of Bukhara by Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.
  • Pink Rows denote progenitor chiefs serving as Tutors (Ataliqs) & Viziers to the Khans of Bukhara.
  • Green Rows denote chiefs who took over reign of government from the Janids and placed puppet Khans.
  • A photo of Mohammed Alim Khan, final emir 1911-1920, is shown at Emir.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Roy (2000), The new Central Asia: the creation of nations, p.70
  2. ^ "About the national delimitation in Central Asia"
  3. ^ Grenoble, Lenore (2003). Language Policy of the Soviet Union. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 1-4020-1298-5.
  4. ^ |Meyendorf E.K. Travel from Orenburg to Bukhara. Foreword N. A. Halfin. Moscow, The main edition of the eastern literature of the publishing house "Science", 1975. (in Russian:Мейендорф Е. К. Путешествие из Оренбурга в Бухару. Предисл. Н. А. Халфина. М., Главная редакция восточной литературы издательства "Наука", 1975.)
  5. ^ Olufsen, Ole (1911). The emir of Bokhara and his country; journeys and studies in Bokhara. Gyldendal: Nordisk forlag. p. 282.
  6. ^ ANS Magazine. "The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara" by Peter Donovan. Retrieved: 16 July 2017.
  7. ^ "VEXILLOGRAPHIA - Флаги Узбекистана".
  8. ^ Golden, Peter B. (2011). , Central Asia in World History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 115.
  9. ^ Soucek, Svat. A History of Inner Asia (2000), p. 180.
  10. ^ Bregel, Y. The new Uzbek states: Bukhara, Khiva and Khoqand: C. 1750–1886. In N. Di Cosmo, A. Frank, & P. Golden (Eds.), The Cambridge History of Inner Asia: The Chinggisid Age (pp. 392-411). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2009
  11. ^ Soucek (2000), pp. 179–180
  12. ^ Eastern Approaches ch 6 "Bokhara the Noble"
  13. ^ Soucek (2000), p. 198
  14. ^ Russo-Bukharan War 1868, Armed Conflict Events Database, OnWar.com
  15. ^ Soucek (2000), pp. 221–222
  16. ^ Lee, Jonathan L. (1 January 1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan and the Battle for Balkh, 1731-1901. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-10399-3.
  17. ^ Anke fon Kyugel'gen, Legitimizatsiya sredneaziatskoy dinastii mangitov v proizvedeniyakh ikh istorikov (XVIII-XIX vv.). Almaty: Dayk press, 2004

BibliographyEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • Malikov A., The Russian conquest of the Bukharan Emirate: military and diplomatic aspects in Central Asian Survey, Volume 33, issue 2, 2014, p. 180-198

External linksEdit