Khanate of Kalat
The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: خانات ءِ قلات) was a Baloch Khanate, that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 until 27 March 1948, when the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.
Khanate of Kalat
خانات ءِ قلات
|1512–14 October 1955|
Map of Pakistan with Kalat highlighted
|14 October 1955|
|91,909 km2 (35,486 sq mi)|
|Today part of||Balochistan, Pakistan|
The Khanate of Kalat occupied the central part of the territory of modern-day Balochistan province in Pakistan. To the north was Baluchistan (Chief Commissioner's Province).
The principal mountains are the Central Baloch, Kirthar, Pab, Siahan, Central Makran and Makran Coast Ranges, which descend in elevation from about 10,000 to 1,200 feet (370 m). The drainage of the country is almost all carried off to the south by the Nari, Mula, Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht rivers. The only large river draining northwards is the Rakhshan. The coast line includes Gawadar, Pasni, Sonmiani and Geewani, modern-day Pakistani Balochistan.
- Jhalawan, an ethnic Brahui subdivision, headed by the chief nawab of the Zarakzai tribe, called chief of Jhalawan
- Kacchi, an ethnic Sindhi subdivision, in which various tribes had their own tribal lands under the Khan of Kalat
- Sarawan, an ethnic Baloch subdivision, headed by chief nawab of Raisani tribe, called chief of Sarawan
Princely states under British RajEdit
- Makran, a Baloch state led by the Chief Nawab of Gichki Tribe, called Nawab of Makran
- Las Bela, ruled by a hereditary Jam Sahib. The Samma Dynasty took the title of Jam, the local equivalent of "King" or "Sultan". Samma Dynasty belongs to Sindhi chapter historically they speak Sindhi language
- Kharan, a Baloch state led by the Chief Nawab of Nausherwani tribe, called Nawab of Kharan
- Enclave of Gwadar, a Makrani coastal state consisting of Baloch people headed by an appointed Arab governor under the direct rule of Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
In the wake of Arab conquest toward the beginning of 8th century A.D. Kurdghalnamak - a recent discovered book written by Akhund Muhammad Saleh in the12th century A.D in Kalat -mentions that Baloch tribes came and settled in this area in the 853 B.C. In the 12th and 13th centuries Tarikh-i-Masumi records the presence of Balochis during the reign of Muhammad Tughlaq(1326- 27). According to Ta'rikh-i Yahyae al-muluk, at the end of the 16th century the Kelat region (former Turan) was under the control of the Safavids, but at the beginning of the 17th century the Baluchi tribe of Lashari stood up against the Sistan Khan and the Kermanian Beglar-Begi, and took control of Turan and Makran, until the Kelat Khanate appeared. The Khanate of Kalat was founded in 1666 by Mir Ahmad Khan. The Khanate reached at its peak during the period of Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Brahvi, in 1758, who unified Kalat region under his flag. The territories controlled by the state fluctuated over the centuries but eventually were established by treaties with the British Agent Robert Sandeman in the late 19th century. Parts of the state to the north and northeast were leased or ceded to form the province of British Baluchistan which later gained the status of a Chief Commissioners province.
From 12 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. The Baluchistan States Union was formed on 3 October 1952 with three neighbouring states. The Khanate of Kalat ceased to exist on 14 October 1955 when the province of West Pakistan was formed.
The khanate of Kelat had a flag green over red. In the center occupying the red part and a little part of the green, a large white crescent pointed upwards and a white star (the star exactly in the center of the two stripes). Within the star and crescent an Islamic inscription. On the star is the Takbir ("God is the greatest") and on the crescent moon is the Shahada ("There is no god but God and Muhammad is His messenger"). All of this is placed on the horizontal bicolor of green over red. These are colors to which Muslim Baluch assign great significance.
Rulers of KalatEdit
The rulers of Kalat held the title of Wali originally but in 1739 also took the title (Begler Begi) Khan usually shortened to Khan. The last Khan of Kalat (Balochi: خان قلات) had the privilege of being the President of the Council of Rulers for the Baluchistan States Union. They also had the title of beylerbey.
|Tenure||Khan of Kalat |
|1512–1530||Mir Bijar Khan Mirwani Brahvi|
|1530–1535||Mir Zagar Khan Mirwani Brrahvi|
|1535–1547||Mir Ibrahim Khan Qambrani ( Changed his Royal family name from Mirwani to Qambrani )|
|1547–1549||Mir Gwahram Khan Qambrani|
|1549–1569||Mir Hassan Khan Qambrani|
|1569–1581||Mir Sanjar Khan Qambrani|
|1581–1590||Mir Malook Khan Qambrani|
|1590–1601||Mir Qambar Sani Khan Qambrani|
|1601–1610||Mir Ahmad Khan Qambrani I|
|1610–1618||Mir Suri Khan Qambrani|
|1618–1629||Mir Qaisar Khan Qambrani|
|1629–1637||Mir Ahmad Sani Khan Qambrani II|
|1637–1647||Mir Altaz Khan Qambrani I|
|1647–1656||Mir Kachi Khan Qambrani|
|1656–1666||Mir Altaz Sani Khan Qambrani II|
|1666–1695||Mir Ahmad I Khan Qambrani III ( Changed his Royal family name from Qambrani to Ahmadzai )|
|1695–1697||Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai I|
|1697–1714||Mir Samandar Khan Ahmadzai ( Amir al-Umara Amir of Amirs)|
|1714–1716||Mir Ahmad II Khan Ahmadzai|
|1716–1731||Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmadzai ( Eagle of the Mountain and The Greatest )|
|1731–1749||Mir Muhabbat Khan Ahmadzai ( Beglar Begi )|
|1749–1794||Mir Muhammad Nasir Khan I Ahmadzai ( Noori, Ghazi, Wali and The Great )|
|1794–1817||Mir Mahmud Khan I Ahmadzai|
|1817–13 November 1839||Mir Mehrab Khan Ahmadzai II|
|1839–1841||Mir Shah Nawaz Khan Ahmadzai|
|1841–1857||Mir Nasir Khan II Ahmadzai|
|1857–March 1863||Mir Khudadad Khan Ahmadzai (1st time); during his rule, there were seven major and many minor rebellions.|
|March 1863–May 1864||Mir Sherdil Khan Ahmadzai (usurped throne)|
|May 1864–15 August 1893||Mir Khudadad Khan (2nd time)|
|10 November 1893 – 3 November 1931||Mir Mahmud Khan II Ahmadzai|
|3 November 1931 – 10 September 1933||Mir Mohammad Azam Jan Khan Ahmadzai|
|10 September 1933 – 14 October 1955||Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai (1st time);|
declared independent on 5 August 1947; agreed to accede to Pakistan on 30 March 1948
|14 October 1955||State of Kalat merged into One Unit of West Pakistan|
|20 June 1958 – 1979||Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Ahmadzai|
|1979–1998||Mir Dawood Jan Ahmadzai|
|1998–2006||Mir Agha Sulaiman Jan Ahmadzai|
|2006–present||Prince Mir Mohammad Khan Ahmadzai|
- Treaty of Kalat between Balochistan and Afghanistan in 1758
- "Baluchistan" Imperial Gazetteer of India Vol. 6, p. 277, from the Digital South Asia Library, accessed 15 January 2009
- Axmann, Martin (2 August 2012). Back to the Future: The Khanate of Kalat and the Genesis of Brahvi Nationalism, 1915-1955. The study portrays the decline and disintegration of the Baluch khanate of Kalat during the last decades of British rule and investigates the genesis of Baluch nationalism during the first half of the XX century.: OUP Pakistan. ISBN 978-0-19-906592-9.
- "Treaty of Kalat between Balochistan and Afghanistan in 1758" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Balochistan Archives - Records of the Agent to the Governor General in Balochistan". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- IDSA News Review on South Asia/Indian Ocean. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 1987.
- Middle East: Journal of Area Study Centre. Area Study Centre for Middle East & Arab Countries, University of Baluchistan. 1995.
- "Восточная Литература - библиотека текстов Средневековья". www.vostlit.info. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Naseer Dashti (8 October 2012). The Baloch and Balochistan: A Historical Account from the Beginning to the Fall of the Baloch State. Trafford Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4669-5897-5. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif (2012), The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements, Routledge, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-415-68614-3
- Axmann, Martin (2019). "Kalāt, khānate of". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
- Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif (2012), The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-68614-3
- Swidler, N. (1972) "The Development of the Kalat Khanate" Journal of Asian and African Studies 7: pp. 115–21
- Swidler, N. (1992). Kalat: The Political Economy of a Tribal Chiefdom. American Ethnologist, 19(3), 553-570
- Kalat District - Planning and Development Department of Balochistan Government
- Genealogy of the Khans of Kalat