The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
- April 26 – Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis: German Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, grants bishops sovereign rights.
- May – St. Francis of Assisi resigns from the leadership of the Franciscan Order.
- August 8 – Livonian Crusade - Battle of Lihula: Estonians defeat the invading Swedes.
- November 22 – Frederick II is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, by Pope Honorius III.
- The Mongols first invade the Khwarazmian Empire; Bukhara and Samarkand are taken.
- The Dominican Order is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- Conrad of Masovia drives out the heathen Prussians, from the Masovian territory of Chelmno Land.
- Trial by ordeal is abolished in England.
- The German Hohenstaufen dynasty, which had ruled Sicily since 1194, adopts Palermo as its principal seat.
- Dordrecht receives city rights, making it the oldest city in the present-day Holland area.
- Ljubljana receives its town rights.
- The Islamic lands of Central Asia are overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan (ca. 1155–1227), who lays waste to many civilizations, and creates an empire that stretches from China to the Caspian Sea.
- The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established.
- The University of Montpellier is granted its first statutes by Conrad of Urach.
- Saint Benedict of Nursia is canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.
- Gothic architecture becomes increasingly popular in Europe:
- The rebuilding of the city of London begins, after one of major fires.
- January – The Mongol army under Jochi captures the city of Gurganj (modern-day Konye-Urgench in Turkmenistan), and massacres the inhabitants, reported by contemporary scholars as being over a million.
- February – The oasis city of Merv on the Silk Road is sacked by the Mongols under Tolui, at the orders of Genghis Khan. Contemporary scholars report over a million people are systematically killed in a genocide.
- February 4 – The city of Nizhny Novgorod is founded by Grand Prince Yuri II of Vladimir.
- May 13 – Emperor Juntoku is forced to abdicate, and is briefly succeeded by his 2-year-old son Emperor Chūkyō, on the throne of Japan. Ex-Emperor Go-Toba leads the unsuccessful Jōkyū War, against the Kamakura shogunate.
- June 16 – The Jews of Erfurt, Germany are massacred, after a ritual murder libel. A crowd storms the synagogue where the Jews have gathered. The threat is baptism or death. The Jewish quarter, including the synagogue, is razed; many Jews are tortured and killed. Among the martyrs are Shem Tov ha-Levi, and Rabbi and Mrs. Shmuel Kalonymos. This day will be observed as a fast day (al Kiddush Hashem) for many years.
- July 29 – 10-year-old Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan.
- Mid-December – John III Doukas Vatatzes becomes Byzantine Emperor (in the Empire of Nicaea).
- A large and highly efficient Mongol army, dispatched under Subutai by Genghis Khan to Georgia, defeats two Georgian armies around Tbilisi, but lacks the will or equipment to besiege the city.
- Genghis Khan enters the Indus Valley in modern-day Pakistan.
- Majd al-Mulk al-Muzaffar, the grand vizier of Khorasan, is killed in a genocide by the Mongol invaders.
- The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
- Nizari Ismaili emissaries meet Genghis Khan in Balkh.
- Sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil ("Saphadin"), who was a brother of Saladin, offers Jerusalem to the Crusaders for ten years in return for Damietta, which the Crusaders eventually give up, in exchange for a safe retreat from the Nile Delta.
- The Ghurid Dynasty capital of Firozkoh (in modern-day Afghanistan) is destroyed, by Mongol Emperor Ögedei Khan.
- April 17 – Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury in England, opens a council at Osney Abbey, Oxford.
- May 11 – 1222 Cyprus earthquake.
- August – After the death of John I of Sweden on March 10, 6-year-old Erik Eriksson is elected new King of Sweden (sometime between this time and July 1223).
- December 15 – The Golden Bull of 1222 is issued in Hungary, limiting the power of the monarchy over the nobility.
- December 25 – The 1222 Brescia earthquake is so powerful that the inhabitants of Brescia leave their city en masse and camp outside so that falling buildings would not crush them, according to chronicler Salimbene de Adam.
- Livonian Crusade – The Danish fail in their attempt to conquer Saaremaa Island from the Estonians.
- Ottokar I of Bohemia reunites Bohemia and Moravia.
- The Cistercian convent in Alcobaça, Portugal, is completed.
- Approximate date – The Royal Standard of Scotland is adopted.
- Traditional date – The University of Padua is founded in Italy, by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- March 26 – Sancho II becomes King of Portugal.
- May 31 – Battle of the Kalka River: The Mongol armies of Genghis Khan defeat the Russian warriors.
- August 6 – Louis VIII is crowned King of France.
- Battle of Samara Bend: Volga Bulgars defeat the Mongol army.
- The Franciscan Rule is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- The Sicilian fleet fails in its attempt to reconquer Jerba.
- June 8 – Maya Long Count calendar: The eleventh b'ak'tun comes to an end, and the twelfth b'ak'tun begins the next day (June 9).
- The Chichimecas capture Tula.
- February – At Carrión, King Ferdinand III of Castile announces his intention to resume the Reconquista against al-Andalus. This same year, the Almohad caliph, Yusuf II al-Mustansir, dies and is succeeded by Abu Muhammad al-Wahid, but in al-Andalus, two competing pretenders also claim their rights to the throne: Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Mansur al-Adil in Seville, and Abu Muhammad abu Abdallah al-Bayyasi in Córdoba, Andalusia. The chronic political instability on the Muslim side allows the Castilian prince to begin his campaign victoriously in October, with the capture of Quesada, Spain.
- The last Muslim inhabitants are expelled from Sicily and Malta.
- Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword defeat the Estonians, and reconquer the captured strongholds on the Estonian mainland. With the surrender of the Tartu stronghold, only the islands of Saaremaa and Muhu remain under Estonian control.
- Theodore Komnenos Doukas, ruler of the Despotate of Epirus, captures Thessaloniki, beginning the de facto Byzantine Empire of Thessalonica.
- The University of Naples is founded.
- September 14 (approximate date) – St. Francis of Assisi, while praying on the mountain of Verna during a 40-day fast, has a vision, as a result of which he receives the stigmata. Brother Leo, who is with Francis at the time, leaves a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.
- The Kʼicheʼ kingdom of Qʼumarkaj is founded, in modern-day Guatemala.
- The Teutonic Knights are expelled from Transylvania, because they wanted to separate from Hungary.
- The Magna Carta is reaffirmed (for the third time) by Henry III of England, in return for issuing a property tax.
- Iltutmish, the sultan of Delhi, repels a Mongol attack and marches against Ghiyasuddin, who cedes Bihar to him.
- July 27 – Visby Cathedral in Sweden is consecrated.
- December 31 – Lý Chiêu Hoàng, the only empress regnant in the history of Vietnam, marries Trần Thái Tông, making him the first emperor of the Trần Dynasty, at age seven.
- King Louis VIII of France launches a large southward offensive against the Albigensians and the Count of Toulouse. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, uses the opportunity to reassert his authority upon the autonomous municipalities of his estates (October). Most cities have to accept the authority of the Count, but Marseille and Nice rebel. Avignon is besieged.
- November 8 – Louis IX of France starts to rule, on the death of Louis VIII.
- King Sancho II of Portugal launches a large offensive against the Muslims, and takes the city of Elvas.
- Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, calls the Imperial Diet of Cremona.
- Nuneaton is granted a chartered market status, by King Henry III of England.
- Rǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles, is overthrown as ruler of the Kingdom of the Isles, and replaced with his half-brother, Olaf the Black.
- March 9 – Khwarezmian sultan Jalal ad-Din captures Tbilisi, the capital of the Kingdom of Georgia.
- October 30 – Trần Thủ Độ, head of the Trần Dynasty of Vietnam, forces Lý Huệ Tông, last emperor of the Lý Dynasty, to commit suicide.
Arts and cultureEdit
- In Norway, Brother Robert writes Saga Af Tristram ok Ísodd, one of the rare fully surviving versions of the legend of Tristan and Iseult.
- March 26 – Roman-German emperor Frederick II issues the Golden Bull of Rimini, in which he grants Teutonic Knights the right to all of the lands they will get during the mission in Prussia; he also considers himself a senior of the Teutonic Order and Poland, as well as the universal ruler of Christian Europe.
- September 11 – The Catholic Church practice of eucharistic adoration among lay people formally begins in Avignon, Provence.
- The Carmelite Order is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword and their crusader allies cross the sea ice from mainland Estonia, and defeat the last Estonian strongholds in the Battle of Muhu and the siege of the Valjala Stronghold in the Saaremaa islands. This marks the end of the Estonian campaign in the Livonian Crusade. The Sword Brothers conquer Danish Estonia, and Tallinn (Reval) is given town rights under Riga law.
- Henry III of England declares himself of age, and assumes power.
- (approximate date) Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: Grand Prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir leads an attack from the Novgorod Republic on Balto-Finnic peoples in eastern Fennoscandia, called "Yem", whom he devastates.
- January 11 – The city of Požega is first mentioned, in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary.
- March – England makes a truce with France.
- March 19 – Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III, as the 178th pope.
- July 22 – Battle of Bornhöved, Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg and Holstein defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark
- November 24 – Prince Leszek I the White, High Duke of Poland, is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa.
- Dōgen receives Dharma transmission and inka from his master Rujing in China, settling his "life's quest of the great matter", going on to introduce Sōtō Zen Buddhism into his native Japan.
- Sukaphaa, the first Ahom king, establishes his rule in Assam. The Ahom kings reign for close to 600 years.
- April 25 – Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor as regent.
- June 28 – The Sixth Crusade is launched from Brindisi by Emperor Frederick II, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX.
- Baldwin II becomes emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne as regent.
- The Transylvanian town of Reghin is first mentioned, in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary.
- Spain: King James I of Aragon launches a major offensive against the Muslims in Majorca. The same year, in Murcia, confronted by increasing Christian pressure, the cadi (soon to be called emir), Ibn Hud al-Yamadi, denounces the Almohads and acknowledges the Abbasids as legitimate caliphs, in effect declaring independence. Other notable Christian success: Alfonso IX of León conquers Mérida.
- The city of Tournai emits its first recorded life annuity, thus confirming a trend of consolidation of public debts started ten years earlier, in Reims.
- The first evidence is uncovered of the use of the Knights Templar as cashiers by the king of England, to transfer safely important sums to the continent, using letters of exchange. This shows that large transfers could take place across Europe, even before the emergence of important networks of Italian merchant-bankers.
- February 18 – Sixth Crusade: Frederick II signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements, nor support from the papacy.
- March 6 (Shrove Tuesday) – The two-year University of Paris strike begins with a student riot.
- March 18 – Sixth Crusade: Frederick II crowns himself King of Jerusalem.
- April 12 – The Treaty of Paris brings the Albigensian Crusade to an end.
- April 23 – Alfonso IX of León conquers Cáceres.
- September 12 – The Catalan-Aragonese army, under the command of James I of Aragon, disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.
- September 13 – Ögedei is proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols, at the Kurultai Council.
- November 28 or November 29 – Battle of Olustra: Erik Eriksson is defeated, and deposed as king of Sweden by Knut Långe, who proclaims himself the new king.
- The Catholic Church permanently establishes the Inquisition, in the charge of the Dominican Order in Rome.
- Beverston Castle, Gloucestershire, England, is founded.
- Following the deadlock tie in the election of the Venetian Doge, the number of electors is increased from 40 to 41 in order to prevent such future occurrences.
- The University of Toulouse is founded in France.
- The city of Turku, Finland is founded.
- The city of Rapperswil is established by Count Rudolf II of Rapperswil.
- Abu Muhammad al-Wahid, Almohad Caliph of Morocco
- Abu Zakariya, first Sultan of the Hafsid Dynasty of Ifriqiya
- Adolf IV, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein
- Alfonso IX, King of León and Galicia
- Andrew II, King of Hungary and Croatia
- Baldwin II, Latin Emperor of Constantinople
- Konrad I, Duke of Masovia and Kujawy and High Duke of Poland
- Conrad IV, King of Jerusalem
- Chiconquiauhtzin, Tlatoani of Azcapotzalco
- Chūkyō, Emperor of Japan
- Dōgen, founder of the Sōtō school of Zen Buddhism in Japan
- Erik XI, King of Sweden
- Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Toledo
- Saint Francis of Assisi, Roman Catholic saint
- Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
- Genghis Khan, first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
- Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan
- Emperor Go-Toba of Japan
- Pope Gregory IX
- Henry III, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine
- Pope Honorius III
- Iltutmish, first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate
- Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, final Sultan of the Khwarezmian Empire
- James I, King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona
- Jochi, Mongol army commander and eldest son of Genghis Khan
- John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople
- John I, King of Sweden
- John III Doukas Vatatzes, Emperor of Nicaea
- Emperor Juntoku of Japan
- Al-Kamil, Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt
- Knut II, King of Sweden
- Leszek I the White, Duke of Sandomierz and High Duke of Poland
- Louis VIII, King of France
- Louis IX, King of France
- Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Empress of Vietnam
- Lý Huệ Tông, Emperor of Vietnam
- Manqu Qhapaq, first Emperor of the Inca Empire
- Ögedei Khan, second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, third son of Genghis Khan
- Olaf the Black, King of the Isles
- Ottokar I, King of Bohemia
- Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Count of Forcalquier
- Rǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles
- Rujing, Caodong Buddhist monk and Zen master
- Sancho II, King of Portugal
- Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury
- Subutai, Mongol commander and primary military strategist of the Mongol Empire
- Sukaphaa, first King of Ahom
- Theodore Komnenos Doukas, Despot of Epirus and Emperor of Thessalonika
- Tolui, Mongol commander and regent of the Mongol Empire, fourth son of Genghis Khan
- Trần Thái Tông, Emperor of Vietnam
- Trần Thủ Độ, military commander and regent of the Empire of Vietnam
- Valdemar II, King of Denmark
- Yuri II, Grand Prince of Vladimir
- Yaroslav, Prince of Novgorod
- Yusuf II al-Mustansir, Almohad Caliph of Morocco
- April 1 – Emperor Go-Saga of Japan (d. 1272)
- June – Przemysł I of Poland (d. 1257)
- November 11 – Alphonse of Toulouse, son of Louis VIII of France (d. 1271)
- unknown date – Joan, Countess of Toulouse, (d. 1271)
- probable – Thomas Ercildoun, Scottish minstrel (d. 1297)
- May 13 – Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir
- October 9 – Salimbene di Adam, Italian chronicler
- November 23 – King Alfonso X of Castile (d. 1284)
- unknown dates
- February 16 – Nichiren, founder of Nichiren Buddhism (d. 1282)
- August 4 – Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, English soldier (d. 1262)
- Andrei II of Russia, Grand Prince of Vladimir (d. 1264)
- Queen Jeongsun (Wonjong) of Korea (d. 1237)
- Baibars, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria (d. 1277)
- Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer (d. 1265)
- John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel (d. 1267)
- Thomas Aquinas, Italian theologian (d. 1274)
- Saint Isabelle of France, French princess, daughter of Louis VIII of France
- David VI Narin, King of Georgia (d. 1293)
- Michael VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor (d. 1282)
- Sanchia of Provence, queen consort of the Romans (d. 1261)
- Chabi, chief wife of Kublai Khan and granddaughter in law of Genghis Khan (d. 1281) (Approximate date)
- March 21 – King Charles I of Naples (d. 1285)
- June 21 – King Boleslaus V of Poland (d. 1279)
- Bar Hebraeus/Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar, historian and bishop (d. 1286)
- Gertrude of Austria, duchess and throne claimant (d. 1288)
- February – William II, Count of Holland
- September 30 – Pope Nicholas IV (d. 1292)
- approximate date – Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany (d. 1273)
- April 25 – Conrad IV of Germany (d. 1254)
- Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi, Egyptian Islamic legal scholar
- February 17 – Theobald I, Duke of Lorraine
- April 15 – Adolf of Altena, Archbishop of Cologne
- May – Mestwin I of Pomerania
- May 8 – Richeza of Denmark, queen consort of Sweden (b. c. 1180)
- June 1 – Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford (b. 1176)
- November 3 – Urraca of Castile, Queen of Portugal, spouse of King Afonso II of Portugal (b. 1186)
- unknown date – Michael Choniates, Byzantine writer and ecclesiastic
- unknown date – Muhammad II of Khwarazm (b. 1169), central Asian ruler; dies near Abaskun, fleeing the Mongol hordes
- probable – Saxo Grammaticus, Danish historian (b. 1150)
- August 6 – Saint Dominic, Spanish founder of the Dominicans (b. 1170)
- October 4 – William IV, Count of Ponthieu (b. 1179)
- October 21 – Alix, Duchess of Brittany regnant (b. 1201)
- Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk, English courtier (b. c. 1144/1150)
- Hassan III of Alamut, Nizari Isma'ili imam (b. 1187)
- Mutukan, first son of Chagatai Khan
- February 1 – Alexios Megas Komnenos, first Emperor of Trebizond
- March 10 – Johan Sverkersson, king of Sweden since 1216 (b. 1201)
- June 23 – Constance of Aragon, Holy Roman Empress, queen consort of Hungary (b. 1179)
- August 2 – Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse (b. 1156)
- August 12 – Vladislaus III, Duke of Bohemia
- Theodore I Lascaris, founder of the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea
- March 8 – Wincenty Kadłubek, Polish bishop and historian (b. 1161)
- March 25 – King Afonso II of Portugal (b. 1185)
- July 14 – King Philip II of France (b. 1165)
- date unknown
- July 1 – Hōjō Yoshitoki, regent of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan (b. 1163)
- August 15 – Marie of France, Duchess of Brabant (b. 1198)
- date unknown
- February 18 – Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk (b. 1186)
- August 16 – Hōjō Masako, Japanese regent and onna-bugeisha, "female warrior" (b. 1156)
- October 5 – Al-Nasir, Abbasid caliph in Baghdad
- October 28 – Jien, Japanese poet and historian (b. 1155)
- November 7 – Engelbert II of Berg, Archbishop of Cologne
- date unknown
- March 7 – William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English military leader
- September 16 – Pandulf Verraccio, Roman ecclesiastical politician
- October 3 – Francis of Assisi, Italian saint (b. 1181 or 1182)
- November 8 – King Louis VIII of France (b. 1187)
- November 14 – Frederick of Isenberg, German politician (executed) (b. 1193)
- date unknown – Robert de Ros, English baron (b. 1177)
- Blessed Beatrice d'Este, Italian saint
- March 18 – Pope Honorius III (b. 1148)
- July 23 – Qiu Chuji, Chinese founder of Dragon Gate Taoism (b. 1148)
- August 1 – Shimazu Tadahisa, Japanese warlord (b. 1179)
- August 18 – Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire (b. c. 1162)
- November 24 – Prince Leszek I the White, High Duke of Poland (b. c. 1186)
- probable date
- January – Robert of Courtenay, emperor of the Latin Empire
- April 25 – Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem (b. 1212)
- June – Reginald de Braose, English rebel baron
- July 9 – Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury
- September 24 – Stefan the First-Crowned, King of Serbia
- date unknown – Aedh Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht
- January 17 – Albert of Buxhoeveden, German bishop of Riga, crusader
- February 8 – Ali ibn Hanzala, sixth Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq of Tayyibi Isma'ilism
- February 14 – Rǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson, ousted King of the Isles
- March – Blanche of Navarre, Countess of Champagne, regent of Champagne and Navarre
- date unknown – Yaqut al-Hamawi, Arab biographer and geographer (b. 1179)
- Sutton, Ian (1999). Architecture, from Ancient Greece to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20316-3.
- Perkins, George W. (August 1998). "Mourning Attire". The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0804763887.
- George Akropolites. The History. Trans. Ruth Macrides. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 160.
- Jeune, Sir Francis Henry (1867). The Mahometan Power in India: The Arnold Prize Essay for 1867. p. 20.
- Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks (2008). "North-west Frontier Province". Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 189. ISBN 978-1741045420.
- Richard Bodley Scott; Graham Briggs; Rudy Scott Nelson (2009). Blood and Gold: The Americas at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1846036910. Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883). The native races. 1882-86. British Columbia: History Company.
- Daftary, Farhad (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis. Scarecrow Press. p. xxx. ISBN 978-0-8108-6164-0.
- Lavī, Ḥabīb (1999). Comprehensive History of the Jews of Iran: The Outset of the Diaspora. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 9781568590868.
- Haqqi, Anwarul Haque (2010). Chingiz Khan: The Life and Legacy of an Empire Builder. New Delhi: Primus Books. pp. 161–162. ISBN 9788190891899.
- Lee, Jonathan L. (1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan and the Battle for Balkh, 1731-1901. Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts. Leiden, New York, Köln: BRILL. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9789004103993.
- Mendoza Luján, J. Erik; Alvarado Viñas, Adrián; Balderas Correa, Maria Eugenia; Correa, Alejanda Gonzales (2011). REFINERÍA-AZCAPOTZALCO. Un cementerio tecpaneca prehispánico (in Spanish). Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com. p. 38. ISBN 9789709557206.
- "Acolhuatzin". pueblosoriginarios.com. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- Steinberg, S. H. (1986) . Historical Tables: 58 BC–AD 1985 (11th ed.). London and Basingstoke: Springer. p. 57. ISBN 9781349085859.
- Malone, Carolyn Marino (2004). Façade as Spectacle: Ritual and Ideology at Wells Cathedral. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 201. ISBN 9789004138407.
- Wood, Anthony à (1792). The History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford: In Two Books. Volume The First. Oxford, UK: John Gutch. p. 193.
- Sundararajan, Narasimman; Eshagh, Mehdi; Saibi, Hakim; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Al-Garni, Mansour; Giroux, Bernard (2019). "Possible Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1222 Paphos Earthquake (by Ergin Ulutaş)". On Significant Applications of Geophysical Methods: Proceedings of the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation: IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 219. ISBN 9783030016562.
- Papadopoulos, Gerassimos (2016). Tsunamis in the European-Mediterranean Region: From Historical Record to Risk Mitigation. Amsterdam, Oxford, Waltham, MA: Elsevier. p. 114. ISBN 9780127999272.
- Elgán, Elisabeth; Scobbie, Irene (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sweden. Lanham, MA and London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 307. ISBN 9781442250710.
- Peterson, Gary Dean (2016). Vikings and Goths: A History of Ancient and Medieval Sweden. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 240. ISBN 9781476624341.
- Reich, Emil (2004) . Select Documents Illustrating Mediaeval and Modern History. Honolulu, HI: The Minerva Group, Inc. p. 637. ISBN 9781410215369.
- Skinner, Quentin; Gelderen, Martin van (2013). Freedom and the Construction of Europe. Volume I: Religious Freedom and Civil Liberty. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 9781107033061.
- Molnár, Miklós; Miklós, Molnár (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 9780521667364.
- Salimbene de Adam, Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam.
- Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Lanham, MA, Boulder, CO, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. xxvii. ISBN 9780810875135.
- Abulafia, University Lecturer in History David (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume 5, C.1198–c.1300. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. p. 763. ISBN 9780521362894.
- Nagy, Balazs; Vadas, András; Schmieder, Felicitas (2019). The Medieval Networks in East Central Europe: Commerce, Contacts, Communication. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 9781351371162.
- Feyo, Barata (1945). Escultura de Alcobaca Por Barata Feyo (in Portuguese). p. 43.
- Chambers, George (2018) . The Story of Eclipses Simply Told for General Readers, With Especial Reference to the Total Eclipse of the Sun of May 28, 1900. London: George Newnes. p. 177. ISBN 9783734028243.
- Taylor, Alice (2016). The Shape of the State in Medieval Scotland, 1124-1290. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780198749202.
- Rashdall, Hastings (2010) . The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Volume 2, Part 1, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Scotland, Etc. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9781108018111.
- Coulson, Jonathan; Roberts, Paul; Taylor, Isabelle (2011). University Planning and Architecture: The Search for Perfection. New York and London: Routledge. p. 1222. ISBN 9781136933707.
- Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012. Cite journal requires
- Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In Abulafia, David (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–699 . ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
- Robinson, Paschal (1909). "St. Francis of Assisi". The Catholic Encyclopedia. VI. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 135–137. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Dell'Umbria, Alèssi (2006). Histoire universelle de Marseille. De l'an mil à l'an deux mille. Marseille: Agone. p. 19. ISBN 2-7489-0061-8.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- Tristan et Iseult. Paris: Gallimard. 1995. ISBN 2-07-011335-3.
- Helen Sullivan (21 December 2020). "How to watch the Jupiter and Saturn 'great conjunction' on winter solstice". The Guardian.
- Czapliński, Marek; Maroń, Jerzy (1997). Historia w datach. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rytm". p. 89. ISBN 83-86678-26-7.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Attack to Finland in 1226". Laurentian Codex (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
- Tanahashi, Kazuaki, ed. (1997). Moon In a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-186-X.
- Tanahashi, Kazuaki; Loori, Daido (eds.). The True Dharma Eye. Boston: Shambhala.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9-00417565-5.
- Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).
- Catholic Encyclopedia.
- V.A. Kuchkin (1986). О дате рождения Александра Невского [About the Birthdate of Alexander Nevsky]. Вопросы истории [Questions of History] (in Russian) (2): 174–176. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015.
- Rayborn, Tim (9 October 2014). "Popular Religion, Heresy and Mendicancy". Against the Friars: Antifraternalism in Medieval France and England. McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 978-0786468317.
- Francisco Márquez Villanueva; Carlos Alberto Vega (1990). Alfonso X of Castile, the learned king, 1221-1284: an international symposium, Harvard University, 17 November 1984. Dept. of Romance Languages and Literatures of Harvard University. p. 165. ISBN 0940940434.
- M. Walsh, ed. (1991). Butler's Lives of the Saints. New York: HarperCollins. p. 216.
- Chryssides, George D. (2012). Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements (Second ed.). Lanham, MA, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 251. ISBN 9780810861947.
- Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012). Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito. London and New York: Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9781136298905.
- Stourton Mowbray, Charles Botolph Joseph (1899). The History of the Noble House of Stourton, of Stourton, in the County of Wilts. London: Elliot Stock. p. 31. ISBN 9785871291931.
- Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard, Walter Lee; Beall, William Ryland; Beall, Kaleen E. (2008) . Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who Came to America Before 1700: Lineages from Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Other Historical Individuals. Baltimore, MA: Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 63. ISBN 9780806317526.
- "Conrad IV | king of Germany". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- Perkins, Charles Callahan (1864). "The Arca Di S. Domenico.". Tuscan sculptors: their lives, works and times, Volume 1. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green. p. 19.
Saint Dominic 1221 August 6.
- Townsend, George Henry (1867). The Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. London: Frederick Warne & Company. p. 984.
- Wispelwey, Berend (2008). Biographical Index of the Middle Ages. Munich, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. p. 42. ISBN 9783110914160.
- The Comprehensive Dictionary of Biography: Embracing a Series of Original Memoirs of the Most Distinguished Persons of All Countries, Living and Dead. To which is Added, A Classified List of the Most Distinguished Persons of All Times, Arranged Chronologically. London and Glasgow: Richard Griffin and Company. 1860. p. 361.
- Mosheim, Johann Lorenz; Coote, Charles; Gleig, George (1834). An Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern: In which the Rise, Progress, and Variations of Church Power, are Considered in Their Connexion with the State of Learning and Philosophy, and the Political History of Europe During that Period. Volume II. Baltimore, MD: Plaskitt & Company and Armstrong & Plaskitt. p. 438.
- Earenfight, Theresa (2013). Queenship in Medieval Europe. New York and London: Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 185. ISBN 9781137303929.
- Barker, John W. (2016) . Kleinhenz, Christopher (ed.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge Revivals. Volume II: L - Z. New York and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 842. ISBN 9781351664431.
- Bauer, Susan Wise (2013). The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 261. ISBN 9780393240672.
- Rich, Elihu; Hawks, Francis Lister (1865). Appletons' Cyclopædia of Biography: Embracing a Series of Original Memoirs of the Most Distinguished Persons of All Times. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 761.
- Wihoda, Martin (2015). Vladislaus Henry: The Formation of Moravian Identity. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9789004303836.
- Klapste, Jan (2012). The Czech Lands in Medieval Transformation. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 524. ISBN 9789004203471.
- Gibbon, Edward (1797). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Volume the Eleventh. London: A. Strahan and T. Cadell Jun. and W. Davies (successors to Mr. Cadell). p. 253.
- Crabb, George (1825). Universal Historical Dictionary: Or, Explanation of the Names of Persons and Places in the Departments of Biblical, Political, and Ecclesiastical History, Mythology, Heraldry, Biography, Bibliography, Geography, and Numismatics. Illustrated by Portraits and Medallic Cuts. Volume II. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy.
- Poonawala, Ismail K. (2008). "ʿAlī b. Ḥanẓala b. Abī Sālim". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_SIM_0322. ISSN 1873-9830.