The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
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Events

1220

By placeEdit

Fifth CrusadeEdit
  • July – The Crusaders, led by the Knights Hospitaller, raid Burlus, located in the Nile Delta in Egypt. The town is pillaged, but the knights are ambushed on their return, and several Hospitallers, including Grand Master Guérin de Montaigu, are captured. Meanwhile, Sultan Al-Kamil sends an Egyptian squadron down the Rosetta branch of the Nile. It sails to Cyprus, where it finds a Crusader fleet lying off Limassol. During the attack, they sink and capture all the ships, taking many thousands of prisoners.[1]
  • Summer – The Crusader army is trapped by a Nile flood at Damietta. Cardinal Pelagius sends a Venetian squadron to intercept the Egyptian fleet, and attacks the harbours of Rosetta and Alexandria, but to no effect. Lack of money prevents Pelagius from building a sufficient number of ships, and the papal treasury can not spare him anymore. In September more of the Crusaders return home.[2]
Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Spring – The Mongol army (some 100,000 men) led by Genghis Khan crosses the Kyzylkum Desert – a freezing sand-and-tussock wilderness of some 450 kilometers – towards Bukhara. Meanwhile, Muhammad II, ruler of the Khwarazmian Empire, prepares a strong defense around his capital Samarkand. In February, Genghis approaches Bukhara, which is defended by a garrison of some 20,000 men, and begins the Siege of Bukhara. The city leaders open the gates to the Mongols, but Turkish forces who defend the city's citadel hold out for another twelve days.[3] In a speech at the city's Friday Mosque, Genghis declares "I am the punishment of God."[4]
  • March – Mongol forces led by Genghis Khan besiege Samarkand, the city is defended by some 40,000 men, including a brigade of 20 war elephants. On the third day, the garrison launches a counter-attack, the defenders sent out their elephants, which panic, turn and trample their own men before escaping onto the open plain. Muhammad II attempts to relieve Samarkand twice but is driven back. After a week, the remainder of the garrison surrenders. The city's inhabitants, numbering some 100,000 are enslaved or slaughtered.[5]
  • Summer – Muhammad II flees westwards across northern Iran, hoping to find safety in the rugged and isolated region of Mazandaran on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. He is pursued by 20,000 Mongol forces led by Subutai and Jebe (the Arrow). Abandoned by the remnants of his panic-stricken troops, Muhammad seeks shelter on a small island near Astara. There he dies of pleurisy some weeks later. He is succeeded by his son Jalal al-Din Mangburni, who is forced to flee to India after the Mongol invasion (see 1219).[6]
  • Autumn – Genghis Khan moves against the wealthy city of Urgench. He is joined by his eldest son Jochi, now conqueror of half a dozen lesser towns who attacks it from the north. Despite a stout defense, the city is taken after a 5-months siege. The Mongols have to fight for Urgench street by street, razing many houses. Jochi is given the right to loot the city for himself, but prefers to negotiate with the locals to avoid property damage. This is refused by Genghis, who removes Jochi from command and appoints Ögedei instead.[7]
  • November – Genghis Khan dispatches his youngest son Tolui, at the head of an army (around 50,000 men), into the Khwarazmian province of Khorasan. His forces also include 300 catapults, 700 mangonels to discharge pots filled with naphtha, 4,000 storming-ladders, and 2,500 sacks of earth for filling up moats. Among the first cities to fall is Termez (captured after a two-day siege) and later Balkh.[8]
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – King Henry III makes large alterations to the Tower of London including new curtain walls, an improved water-filled ditch, and a water gate, so that he can enter the castle directly from the Thames.
  • May 17 – The 12-year-old Henry III is crowned at Westminster Abbey. He is reminded of his duties as king to maintain peace, defend the rights of the English crown, and the barons swear an oath of fealty.
  • Llywelyn the Great, Welsh prince of Gwynedd, begins raiding Pembrokeshire to retake land that he accuses William Marshal (the Younger) of stealing. This also includes Wiston Castle.
EuropeEdit
LevantEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
EducationEdit

1221

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • November – Emperor Theodore I (Laskaris) dies after a 16-year reign and is succeeded by his son-in-law John III (Doukas). John fends off Theodore's brothers, who believe that they have the better claim for the throne of the Empire of Nicaea. In December, he becomes the sole ruler, and during his reign, the Empire becomes the most powerful of the Byzantine successor states and the frontrunner in the race to recover Constantinople from the Latin Empire.[12] John also cultivates a close relationship with Emperor Frederick II and negotiates with Pope Honorius III about the possibility of reuniting the Church.
Fifth CrusadeEdit
  • June – Sultan Al-Kamil again offers peace terms to Cardinal Pelagius with the cession of Jerusalem and all Palestine apart from Oultrejordain, together with a 30 years' truce and money compensation for the dismantling of Jerusalem. Meanwhile, a German contingent under Louis I of Bavaria arrives at Damietta, with orders from Frederick II not to launch an attack on Cairo until the emperor's arrival. Louis and Pelagius decide to advance into Egypt towards Mansoura, where Al-Kamil has built a fortress to protect Cairo. The Crusaders assemble their armies and tents are set up just up the Nile, on June 29.[13]
  • July 4 – Pelagius orders a three-days fast in preparation for the advance. King John I of Jerusalem arrives at Damietta, to rejoin the Crusade at the command of Honorius III. The Crusader force moves towards Sheremsah, halfway between Faraskur and Mansoura on the east bank of the Nile, occupying the city on July 12. Sources tell of 630 ships of various sizes, 5,000 knights, 4,000 archers, and 40,000 men. A horde of pilgrims march with the army. They are ordered to keep close to the river, to supply the Crusaders with water. Pelagius plans a new offensive and leaves a large garrison at Damietta.[14]
  • July 24 – Pelagius moves the Crusader forces near Ashmun al-Rumman, on the opposite bank from Mansoura. Queen-Regent Alice of Cyprus and leaders of the military orders warn Pelagius of a large Muslim army being formed in Syria. Meanwhile, the Egyptian army under Al-Kamil crosses the Nile near Lake Manzaleh and establishes themselves between the Crusader camp and Damietta. In the Ushmum canal at Sheremsah, Al-Kamil's ships sail down the Nile and block the Crusaders' line of communications to Damietta. In August, Pelagius orders a retreat, but the route is cut off by Egyptians.[15]
  • Battle of Mansoura: The Crusader army led by Pelagius and John I of Jerusalem is defeated by the Egyptian forces, at Mansoura. John and the military orders fight a last stand on the river banks of the Nile. He beats off a Nubian assault (supported by elite Turkish cavalry) and drives them back, but only after thousands of soldiers have perished. The remaining Crusaders are surrounded by Al-Kamil's forces and begin a desperate retreat to Damietta. The city is well-garrisoned and supplied with arms, a naval squadron under Henry (or Enrico Pescatore) defends the harbour against the Egyptians.[16]
  • August 26 – The Crusaders retreat under cover of darkness. Many of the soldiers can not bear to abandon their stores of wine, and drink them all rather than leave them. The Teutonic Knights set fire to the stores that they can not carry, thus informing the Egyptians that they are abandoning their positions. In the meantime, Al-Kamil orders to open the sluices along the right bank of the Nile, flooding the area. Pelagius on his ship is carried by the floodwaters past the blockading Egyptian fleet. Other ships, carrying the medical supplies of the army and much of its food, escape. But many are captured.[17]
  • August 28 – Pelagius sues for peace and sends an envoy to Al-Kamil. The terms of surrender are accepted, which includes the retreat from Damietta – leaving Egypt with the remnants of the Crusader army and an 8-year truce. After the prisoners are exchanged on both sides, Al-Kamil enters Damietta on September 8. The Fifth Crusade ends with nothing gained for the West, with much lost, men, resources and reputations. The Crusaders blame Frederick II for not being there. Pelagius is accused of ineffectual leadership and a misguided view, which has led to reject the sultan's peace offerings.[18]
Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Spring – Genghis Khan orders an armed reconnaissance expedition into the Caucasus (consisted of Georgia and Armenia) under the command of Subutai and Jebe (the Arrow). The Mongols defeat two Georgian armies around Tbilisi, but lack the will or equipment to siege the capital city. During the fighting, King George IV himself is severely wounded and his elite knights are massacred. The Mongols then return to Azerbaijan and Persia, and burn and pillage a few more cities. In October, the Mongol army raids Georgia for the second time, and Subutai and Jebe allow their forces to pass through the Caucasus Mountains.[19]
  • Battle of Parwan: Sultan Jalal al-Din Mangburni recruits an army of Turkic and Afghan warriors numbering some 60,000 men. As soon as news of this reaches Genghis Khan he sends a Mongol army of 30,000 men, led by his stepbrother Shikhikhutug. Meanwhile, Jalal al-Din moves to Parwan (modern Afghanistan), where the two armies meet in a narrow valley. Jalal al-Din takes the initiative, ordering his right-wing of Turks to dismount and engage in a skirmish. On the third day, the Mongols are finally defeated by the Khwarezmian forces and are forced to retreat. Shikhikhutug is driven off in defeat, losing over half his army.[20]
  • February – The cities of Merv, Herat and Nishapur who have peacefully surrendered rise up in arms. Genghis Khan sends his son Tolui to spend an extra month to subdue the revolts. Contemporary scholars report over a million people are systematically killed in a genocide. Meanwhile, left with some 20,000 men Jalal al-Din Mangburni heads for the Indus River to find refuge in India. During autumn, Genghis makes his way to Parwan and catches up to Jalal al-Din at the Indus River. In a desperate battle on November 24 the Khwarezmain forces are destroyed, while Jalal al-Din flees across the river and escapes into India.[21]
EuropeEdit
  • June 16 – In Germany, the Jewish population is massacred at Erfurt, after a ritual murder libel. A crowd storms the synagogue where the Jews have gathered. The threat is baptism or death. The Jewish quarter, including the synagogue, is razed: many Jews are tortured and killed.
  • Siege of Tallinn: A Estonian Crusader army tries to conquer the Danish stronghold of Tallinn with the help of Revalians, Harrians and Vironians. They besiege the stronghold for 14 days but finally retreat their forces.
EnglandEdit
AsiaEdit
MesoamericaEdit

1222

By placeEdit

AsiaEdit
MesoamericaEdit
EuropeEdit

1223

By placeEdit

Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Spring – The Polovtsian army assembles on the Terek River lowlands and are joined by Alan, Circassian, and Don Kipchak/Cuman forces. The Mongol army crosses the Caucasus Mountains, but is trapped into the narrow mountain passes. The Mongol generals Subutai and Jebe (the Arrow) sent an embassy to the Polovtsians and convince them to break their alliance with the Caucasian peoples. The Mongol cavalry invades the Caucasus region and devastates the local villages, seizing slaves, cattle and horses.[60]
  • The Mongol army invades Polovtsian territory and defeats the Polovtsians in a great battle near the Don River. Several Polovtsian leaders are killed – while the remainder flees westwards, across the Dnieper River, to seek support by various Russian princes. Steppe lands east of the Dnieper fall under Mongol control, Subutai and Jebe raise the wealthy city of Astrakhan on the Volga River. Subutai now parts his forces, he moves south to the Crimea (or Tauric Peninsula), while Jebe travels towards the Dnieper.[61]
  • Mongol forces capture the nominally Genoese trading outpost of Sudak, probably with the tacit approval of neighbouring rival Venetian outposts in the Crimea. Subutai promises to destroy any non-Venetian colonies in the area. In return, the Venetians provide Subutai with information about the kingdoms in Eastern Europe. Meanwhile, Köten Khan, Cuman/Kipchak chieftain of the Polovtsians, convinces Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia to form an alliance, and informs him of his plight against the Mongols.[62]
  • February – A council of Russian princes summons at Kiev; several princes are convinced by Köten Khan to assemble an allied army to drive the Mongols back. During the first half of March, Russian princes return to their principalities and begin to raise forces for the forthcoming campaign. The alliance has a combined force of some 60,000 men, mainly cavalry. Subutai unites his army with Jebe, and sends ambassadors to the Kievan Rus' princes, to tell them to stay out of the conflict as it didn't involve them.[63]
  • April – The Russian princes lead their separate armies from different parts of Russia, to assemble 60 kilometres downriver from Kiev. There are three main groups of princes taking part in the campaign; the Kievan army is represented by Grand Prince Mstislav Romanovich (the Old). The second group are the Chernigov and Smolensk armies under Prince Mstislav II. The third group is the Galician-Volhynian army under Mstislav Mstislavich with his son-in-law Daniel of Galicia, leaving from northern Ukraine.[64]
  • The Mongol leaders Subutai and Jebe receive news that Jochi, who camps north of the Caspian Sea, will not be able to provide the expected reinforcements due to Jochi's reported illness or suspected refusal to obey his father Genghis Khan's orders. Subutai sends an embassy to the Russian princes, to offer peace and perhaps attempt to break the Russian alliance with the Polovtsians. But the Mogol ambassadors are executed – a task eagerly carried out by Köten Khan's followers, by the end of April.[65]
  • Late April – The Russian and Polovtsian armies march down the west bank of the Dnieper River. Within a few days of the march beginning, a second group of Mongol ambassadors appear in the Russian camp and again offer peace. When their offers are rebuffed, the ambassadors are allowed to leave unharmed. Meanwhile, Russian forces from Galicia arrive by boat or cart-loads of equipment and food, along the Black Sea coast and up the Dnieper River. Screened by Mongol forces on the east bank.[66]
  • May 15 – The Russian army gathers on the island of Khortytsia, later to become a famous Cossack base, at the mouth of the Dnieper River, next to modern-day Zaporizhzhia (Ukraine). The main Polovtsian forces led by Köten Khan, join the Russians here, which consist entirely of mounted archers. Compare to this, some 20,000–25,000 Mongols assemble and build a defensive encampment on the high ground, probably on the northern slopes of the Mohila Bel'mak hills, located near the Konka River.[67]
  • May 16 – Mstislav Mstislavich leads a small detachment of his own men, and some Polovtsians to the far bank of the Dnieper River – where they attack a part of the Mongol advance guard. The Mongols promptly fleeing into the steppes. Mstislavich pursues them and captures their commander named Gemyabek or Hamabek who seeks refuge behind a wooden fence surrounding a Polovtsian burial site. The captive's fate is sealed when the Polovtsians ask Mstislavich to hand him over – to execute.[68]
  • May 17 – Daniel of Galicia leads a reconnaissance in force east of the Dnieper River, using a bridge of boats. He defeats a Mongol detachment, who abandons their herds and local prisoners. Following these successful sorties, the entire Russian and Polovtsian armies start a 9-days march towards the main Mongol army. Numerous carts move across the steppes, loaded with mail, heavy armour, as well as shields, protected by Russian cavalry. The Mongol forces retreat towards the Kalka River.[69]
  • Late May – The Mongol army under Subutai and Jebe establishes a defensive position on the Kalka River. Increasing disagreements amongst the Russian princes, about the wisdom of continuing to pursue the Mongols deeper into the steppes. By the end of May, the allied forces reach the banks of the Kalka River. The Polovtsian vanguard is way ahead of the rest of the Russian army, which gives them a triumphant feeling. Meanwhile, Subutai and Jebe set up a trap against the Russian forces.[70]
  • May 31Battle of the Kalka River: The Russian cavalry attacks successful the Mongol vanguard, and crosses the Kalka River. The Polovtsian and Volhynian cavalry led by Daniel of Galicia forms the Russian vanguard. Meanwhile, the army of Kiev waits on the western side of the Kalka River. The Russians fail to co-ordinate their attacks, they advance in separate formations and become divided by the Kalka River. In the afternoon, the Russian army collapses under continuous Mongol attacks.[71]
  • June – Mstislav Mstislavich escapes with the remnants of his Galician army back to the Dnieper River. Mstislav Romanovich (the Old) surrenders and is executed. According to sources, he and other Russian nobles are slowly suffocated to death during a Mongol 'drunken feast', they are tied up and laid flat on the ground beneath what is described as a wooden 'bridge' (or platform), on which Subutai, Jebe and their officers feast. This in revenge for killing the Mongol ambassadors.[72]
  • Battle of Samara Bend: A Volga-Bulgarian army under Ghabdula Chelbir defeats the Mongols, probably led by Subutai, Jebe and Jochi. The Bulgars retreat during the battle but the Mongols pursue them. Then the main Bulgar forces ambush the Mongols. Subutai and Jebe retreat their forces near the city of Sarai (future capital of the Golden Horde), not far from where the Volga River empties into the Caspian Sea.[73]
  • Autumn – Mongol forces under Jochi, Subutai and Jebe attack and defeat the Qangl Turks (eastern Kipchaks or Wild Polovtsians), killing their ruler. During the winter, they continue eastwards across the Great Steppe. Jebe (possibly poisoned) suddenly dies of a fever near the Imil River.[74]
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit
  • Spring – The Mongol army led by Muqali (or Mukhali) strikes into Shaanxi Province, attacking Chang'an while Genghis khan is invading the Khwarazmian Empire. The garrison (some 200,000 men) in Chang'an is too strong and Muqali is forced to pillage Feng County. During the campaign, Muqali becomes seriously ill and dies, while his forces are consolidating their position on both sides of the Yellow River.[75]

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
  • November 29 – Pope Honorius III approves the Franciscan Rule (also called "Regula Bullata"). The rule set regulations for discipline, preaching, and entering the order for Franciscan friars.

1224

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
  • February – King Ferdinand III (the Saint) announces his intention to resume the Reconquista against the realm of the Almohad Caliphate.[77] Caliph Yusuf II al-Mustansir dies and is succeeded by Abu Muhammad al-Wahid, but in Al-Andalus, two competing pretenders also claim their rights to the throne: Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Mansur al-Adil in Seville and Abu Muhammad abu Abdallah al-Bayyasi in Córdoba. The chronic political instability on the Almohad site allows Ferdinand to begin his campaign victoriously in October, with the capture of Quesada in Spain.
  • May 5 – King Louis VIII (the Lion) declares war on King Henry III of England. He allies himself with Hugh X of Lusignan and invades first Poitou and then Northern Gascony. The English forces in Poitou are under-strength and lack support from the Poitevin nobles; as a result, the province quickly falls into French hands by the end of June.[78]
  • September – Abdallah al-Adil (the Just), governor in Al-Andalus, challenges the Almohad throne and captures Seville. He marches to Marrakesh to confront Abu Muhammad al-Wahid. Abdallah seizes the royal palace and deposes Muhammad al-Wahid, who is murdered by strangulation.
  • Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword defeat the Estonians and reconquer the captured strongholds on the Estonian mainland. With the surrender of the Tartu stronghold, only the islands of Saaremaa and Muhu remain under Estonian control.
EnglandEdit
  • Spring – Falkes de Bréauté, English high sheriff and a rival of Henry III, refuses to relinquish his castles and starts a rebellion. Cardinal Stephen Langton and forces under Hubert de Burgh deal with Falkes and the castles are handed over. Falkes is found guilty of 16 counts of Wrongful Disseisin, he and his brother William are excommunicated by Langton.
  • June–August –The garrison at Bedford Castle, belonging to Falkes de Bréauté, refuses to surrender to Henry III. The castle falls when the keep is undermined, the garrison, who has surrendered the castle, are all hanged by order of the king. Falkes is allowed to leave the country but loses all his possessions. Bedford Castle is badly damaged as a result.
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

EducationEdit
  • June 5 – The University of Naples is founded by Emperor Frederick II. Frederick's main purpose is to create an institution of higher learning that will put an end to the predominance of the universities of northern Italy, most notably these of Bologna and Padua, which are considered either too independent or under the strong influence of Pope Honorius III.
ReligionEdit
  • September 14Francis of Assisi, while praying on the mountain of La Verna during a 40-day fast, has a vision, as a result of which he receives the stigmata. Brother Leo, who is with Francis at the time, leaves a clear and simple account of this event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.[80]

1225

By placeEdit

Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Autumn – Subutai is assigned a new campaign by Genghis Khan against the Tanguts. He crosses with a Mongol army the Gobi Desert, and advances south into the Western Xia (or Xi Xia). Meanwhile, Genghis, in his mid-sixties, becomes wounded during hunting. His injury – a dislocated shoulder, perhaps, or a bruised rib – forces him to take some rest.[81]
  • Iltutmish, Ghurid ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, repels a Mongol attack and invades Bengal. His rival, Ghiyasuddin, leads an army to halt Iltutmish's advance, but decides to avoid a conflict by paying him tribute and accepting his suzerainty.[82]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • February 11 – The Charter of the Forest is restored to his traditional rights by King Henry III. 'Free men' are allowed to find pasture for their pigs, collect firewood, graze animals, or cut turf for fuel. At this time, however, only about 10 percent of the population is 'free', the rest are locked into service to a local landowner, some of them little more than slaves.[85]
  • The Magna Carta is reaffirmed (for the third time) by Henry III, in return for issuing a property tax. It becomes the definitive version of the text.[86]
Middle EastEdit
LevantEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

1226

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
Mongol EmpireEdit
  • Summer – Genghis Khan starts a campaign against the Tanguts, punishing the vassal kingdom of Western Xia (or Xi Xia) for not contributing to the Mongol invasions. He assembles a large force (some 100,000 men), and lays siege to Liangzhou, second-largest city in Western Xia, which surrenders without resistance. In the autumn, Genghis crosses the Helan Mountains, and in November he lays siege to Lingwu. Meanwhile, Emperor Xian Zong dies and is succeeded by his nephew Mo (or Li Xian).[92]
Middle EastEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Art and CultureEdit
AstronomyEdit
ReligionEdit

1227

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
Mongol EmpireEdit
LevantEdit
EnglandEdit
AsiaEdit
  • Siege of Yinchuan: Mongols forces eliminate the Western Xia (or Xi Xia) and execute Emperor Mo (or Li Xian). Genghis Khan dies during the siege under debated circumstances, but this is kept secret from the army until the siege's end. Yinchuan is pillaged and its entire population is slaughtered or sold in slavery. Genghis orders the imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut royal lineage.[103]
  • August 18 – Genghis Khan dies during the fall of Yinchuan after a 21-year reign. His exact cause of death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the Western Xia, illness, falling from his horse, or wounds sustained during hunting. Genghis is succeeded by his third son, Ögedei Khan, who becomes the "Great Khan" of the Mongol Empire.[104]

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
ReligionEdit

1228

By placeEdit

Sixth CrusadeEdit
  • Summer – Emperor Frederick II sails from Brindisi with a expeditionary force, and arrives in Acre in the Middle East on September 7. He disembarks a well-trained and equipped Crusader army (some 10,000 men and 2,000 knights). After his arrival in Palestine, Frederick is again excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX, for setting out for the Crusade before he has obtained absolution from his previous ex-communication (see 1227). Many of the local nobility, the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller deny him their support for the Crusade. Frederick can only rely on his own army and the Teutonic Knights, whose Grand Master, Hermann von Salza, is his friend.[108]
  • Autumn – Frederick II receives an embassy of Sultan Al-Kamil, including Fakhr al-Din ibn as-Shaikh, at the Hospitaller camp at Recordane, near Acre. Meanwhile, Al-Kamil is engaged in suppressing a rebellion in Syria and has concentrated his forces on a siege at Damascus. Frederick is pressed for time, because his army is not large enough for a major campaign. Al-Kamil, who has full control of Jerusalem, starts diplomatic negotiations.[109]
  • November – Frederick II puts pressure on the negotiations by a military display. He assembles his Crusader army and marches down the coast to Jaffa – which he proceeds to refortify. At the same moment, Ayyubid forces under An-Nasir Dawud, who are not participating in the revolt at Damascus, move to Nablus, to intercept Al-Kamil's supply lines. Al-Kamil breaks off the negotiations, saying that the Crusaders have pillaged several Muslim villages, and only resume them again when Frederick pays out compensation to the victims.[110]
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit
MarketsEdit
  • The city of Tournai emits its first recorded life annuity, thus confirming a trend of consolidation of public debts started ten years earlier, in Reims.[113]
  • The first evidence is uncovered of the use of the Knights Templar as cashiers by King Henry III of England, to transfer safely important sums to the continent, using letters of exchange. This shows that large transfers could take place across Europe, even before the emergence of important networks of Italian merchant-bankers.[114]
ReligionEdit

1229

By placeEdit

Sixth CrusadeEdit
  • February 18Treaty of Jaffa: Emperor Frederick II signs a 10-year truce together with Sultan Al-Kamil and his representatives; he manages to regain many parts of the Holy Land through political negotiation, rather than by resorting to military force or directly confronting the Muslim army. Frederick's achievements, including the control of Jerusalem (without the Temple Mount) and Bethlehem, with a corridor running through Lydda to the sea of Jaffa, as well as Nazareth and western Galilee, including Montfort Castle and Toron, and the remaining Muslim districts around Sidon. All Muslims are to be allowed the right of entry in Jerusalem and freedom of worship.[115]
  • March 17 – Frederick II enters Jerusalem, escorted by German and Italian troops. Of the Military Orders only the Teutonic Knights are represented and some clergy. He receives the formal surrender of the city by Al-Kamil's governor (or Qadi), who hands him the keys of Jerusalem. The procession then passes through streets to the old building of the Hospital (or the Muristan), where Frederick takes op his residence in the Christian Quarter.[116]
  • March 18 – Frederick II crowns himself as King of Jerusalem in an impromptu ceremony in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. After the ceremony, he proceeds to the palace of the Hospitallers – where he holds a council to discuss the defense of Jerusalem. Frederick orders the Tower of David and the Gate of St. Stephen are to be repaired at once and he hands over the royal residence attached to the Tower of David to the Teutonic Order.[117]
  • May 1 – Frederick II departs from Acre, while he and his suite pass down the "Street of the Butchers" to the harbour, the people crowd out of the doors, and pelts him with entrails and dung. Meanwhile, Odo of Montbéliard (or Eudes), commander of the Crusader army, and John of Ibelin, lord of Beirut, are left behind to quell the unrest in Palestine.[118]
  • May – Frederick II arrives at Cyprus, where he attends the wedding proxy of the 12-year-old King Henry I (the Fat) to Alice of Montferrat – whose father is one of his staunch supporters in Italy. On June 10, Frederick lands at Brindisi, where the papal army under his father-in-law John of Brienne has invaded the Italian territories in Campania.[119]
  • Autumn – Frederick II recovers the lost Italian territories and tries to condemn the leading rebel barons, but avoids crossing the frontiers of the Papal States. Meanwhile, a first serious raid on Jerusalem is made by a mass of unorganized Beduins and plunderers of pilgrims. An advance guard encouraged the Christians to expel the Muslims.[120]
EuropeEdit
EnglandEdit
  • October 13 – King Henry III calls for an army to be assembled at Portsmouth to be transported to Normandy to regain lost territories from the French. A large army of knights turns up ready to go but not enough ships have been provided. Henry blames Hubert de Burgh for the fiasco and in his rage will have killed him if Ranulf of Chester has not intervened. This marks the beginning of the rift between Henry and Hubert de Burgh. Meanwhile, the expedition is postponed until the mid of 1230.
LevantEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

1220

1221

1222

1223

1224

1225

1226

1227

1228

1229

DeathsEdit

1220

1221

1222

1223

1224

1225

1226

1227

1228

1229

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 139. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  2. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  3. ^ John Man (2011). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection, pp. 193–194. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.
  4. ^ According to: Juvaini, Ata-Malik (c. 1260). Tarikh-i Jahangushay تاریخ جهانگشای [History of the World Conqueror] (in Persian). Vol. 1. Translated by Boyle, John Andrew. p. 105.
  5. ^ John Man (2011). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection, p. 202. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.
  6. ^ David Nicolle and Viacheslav Shpakovsky (2001). Osprey: Kalka River 1223: Genghis Khan's Mongols invade Russia, p. 14. ISBN 1-84176-233-4.
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