The 1220s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1220, and ended on December 31, 1229.
- May 26 – German Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, grants bishops sovereign rights.
- May – St. Francis of Assisi resigns from the leadership of the Franciscan Order.
- August 8 – Livonian Crusade: Estonians defeat the invading Swedes, in the Battle of Lihula.
- November 22 – Frederick II is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, by Pope Honorius III.
- The Mongols first invade the Khwarazmian Empire; Bukhara and Samarkand are taken.
- The Dominican Order is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- Conrad of Masovia drives out the heathen Prussians, from the Masovian territory of Chelmno Land.
- Trial by ordeal is abolished in England.
- The German Hohenstaufen dynasty, which had ruled Sicily since 1194, adopts Palermo as its principal seat.
- Dordrecht receives city rights, making it the oldest city in the present-day Holland area.
- Ljubljana receives its town rights.
- The Islamic lands of Central Asia are overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan (ca. 1155–1227), who lays waste to many civilizations, and creates an empire that stretches from China to the Caspian Sea.
- The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established.
- Saint Benedict of Nursia is canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.
- Gothic architecture becomes increasingly popular in Europe.
- The rebuilding of the Cathedral of Chartres, which had been destroyed by a fire in 1194, is completed.
- The rebuilding of Amiens Cathedral begins.
- The rebuilding of York Minster begins.
- The building of the Salisbury Cathedral begins.
- The rebuilding of the city of London begins.
- January – The Mongol army under Jochi captures the city of Gurganj (modern-day Konye-Urgench in Turkmenistan), and massacres the inhabitants, reported by contemporary scholars as being over a million.
- February – The oasis city of Merv on the Silk Road is sacked by the Mongols under Tolui, at the orders of Genghis Khan. Contemporary scholars report over a million people are systematically killed in a genocide.
- May 13 – Emperor Juntoku is forced to abdicate, and is briefly succeeded by his 2-year-old son Emperor Chūkyō, on the throne of Japan. Ex-Emperor Go-Toba leads the unsuccessful Jōkyū War, against the Kamakura shogunate.
- June 16 – The Jews of Erfurt, Germany are massacred. This day will be observed as a fast day (al Kiddush Hashem) for many years.
(The Jews were accused of a ritual murder. A crowd stormed the synagogue where the Jews had gathered. The threat was baptism or death. The Jewish quarter including the synagogue was razed, many Jews were tortured and killed. Among the martyrs were Shem Tov ha-Levi, and Rabbi and Mrs. Shmuel Kalonymos.)
- July 29 – 10-year-old Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan.
- Mid-December – John III Doukas Vatatzes becomes Byzantine Emperor (in the Empire of Nicaea).
- A large and highly efficient Mongol army, dispatched under Subutai by Genghis Khan to Georgia, defeats two Georgian armies around Tbilisi, but lacks the will or equipment to besiege the city.
- Genghis Khan enters the Indus Valley in modern-day Pakistan.
- Majd al-Mulk al-Muzaffar, the grand vizier of Greater Khorasan, is killed in a genocide by the Mongol invaders.
- The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
- Sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil ("Saphadin"), who was a brother of Saladin, offers Jerusalem to the Crusaders for ten years in return for Damietta, which the Crusaders eventually give up, in exchange for a safe retreat from the Nile Delta.
- The city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia is founded.
- The Ghurid dynasty capital of Firozkoh (in modern-day Afghanistan) is destroyed by the Mongol Emperor Ögedei Khan.
- April 17 – Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury in England, opens a council at Osney Abbey, Oxford.
- May 11 – 1222 Cyprus earthquake.
- August – After the death of John I of Sweden on March 10, 6-year-old Erik Eriksson is elected new King of Sweden (sometime between this time and July 1223).
- Livonian Crusade: The Danish fail in their attempt to conquer Saaremaa Island from the Estonians.
- Ottokar I of Bohemia reunites Bohemia and Moravia.
- The Golden Bull of 1222 is issued in Hungary, limiting the power of the monarchy over the nobility.
- The Cistercian convent in Alcobaça, Portugal, is completed.
- Approximate date – The Royal Standard of Scotland is adopted.
- Traditional date: The University of Padua is founded in Italy, by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- March 26 – Sancho II becomes King of Portugal
- May 31 – Battle of the Kalka River: The Mongol armies of Genghis Khan defeat the Russian warriors.
- August 6 – Louis VIII is crowned King of France.
- Battle of Samara Bend: Volga Bulgars defeat the Mongol army.
- The Franciscan Rule is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- The Sicilian fleet fails in its attempt to reconquer Jerba.
- June 8 – Maya Long Count calendar: The eleventh b'ak'tun comes to an end, and the twelfth b'ak'tun begins the next day (June 9).
- The Chichimecas capture Tula.
- February – At Carrión the king of Castile, Ferdinand III, announces his intention to resume the Reconquista against al-Andalus. This same year, the Almohad caliph, Yusuf II al-Mustansir, dies and is succeeded by Abu Muhammad al-Wahid, but in al-Andalus, two competing pretenders also claim their rights to the throne: Abu Muhammad Ibn al-Mansur al-Adil in Seville, and Abu Muhammad abu Abdallah al-Bayyasi in Córdoba, Andalusia. The chronic political instability on the Muslim side allows the Castilian prince to begin his campaign victoriously in October, with the capture of Quesada, Spain.
- The last Muslim inhabitants are expelled from Sicily and Malta.
- Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword defeat the Estonians, and reconquer the captured strongholds on the Estonian mainland. With the surrender of the Tartu stronghold, only the islands of Saaremaa and Muhu remain under Estonian control.
- Theodore Komnenos Doukas, ruler of the Despotate of Epirus, captures Thessaloniki, beginning the de facto Byzantine Empire of Thessalonica.
- The University of Naples is founded.
- September 14 (approximate date) – St. Francis of Assisi, while praying on the mountain of Verna during a 40-day fast, has a vision, as a result of which he receives the stigmata. Brother Leo, who is with Francis at the time, leaves a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.
- The Teutonic Knights are expelled from Transylvania, because they wanted to separate from Hungary.
- The Magna Carta is reaffirmed (for the third time) by Henry III of England, in return for issuing a property tax.
- Iltutmish, the sultan of Delhi, repels a Mongol attack and marches against Ghiyasuddin, who cedes Bihar to him.
- July 27 – Visby Cathedral in Sweden is consecrated.
- December 31 – Lý Chiêu Hoàng, the only empress regnant in the history of Vietnam, marries Trần Thái Tông, making him the first emperor of the Trần Dynasty, at age seven.
- King Louis VIII of France launches a large southward offensive against the Albigensians and the Count of Toulouse. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, uses the opportunity to reassert his authority upon the autonomous municipalities of his estates (October). Most cities have to accept the authority of the Count, but Marseille and Nice rebel.
- November 8 – Louis IX of France starts to rule, on the death of Louis VIII.
- King Sancho II of Portugal launches a large offensive against the Muslims, and takes the city of Elvas.
- Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, calls the Imperial Diet of Cremona.
- Nuneaton is granted a chartered market status, by King Henry III of England.
- Rǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles, is overthrown as ruler of the Kingdom of the Isles, and replaced with his half-brother, Olaf the Black.
- March 9 – Khwarezmian sultan Jalal ad-Din captures Tbilisi, the capital of the Kingdom of Georgia, killing many of its Christian inhabitants.
- October 30 – Trần Thủ Độ, head of the Trần Dynasty of Vietnam, forces Lý Huệ Tông, last emperor of the Lý Dynasty, to commit suicide.
Arts and cultureEdit
- In Norway, Brother Robert writes Saga Af Tristram ok Ísodd, one of the rare fully surviving versions of the legend of Tristan and Iseult.
- September 11 – The Catholic Church practice of eucharistic adoration among lay people formally begins in Avignon, Provence.
- The Carmelite Order is approved by Pope Honorius III.
- Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword and their crusader allies cross the sea ice from mainland Estonia, and defeat the last Estonian strongholds in the Battle of Muhu and the siege of the Valjala Stronghold in the Saaremaa islands. This marks the end of the Estonian campaign in the Livonian Crusade. The Sword Brothers conquer Danish Estonia, and Tallinn (Reval) is given town rights under Riga law.
- Henry III of England declares himself of age, and assumes power.
- (approximate date) Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: Grand Prince Yaroslav II of Vladimir leads an attack from the Novgorod Republic on Finnic peoples in eastern Fennoscandia, called "Yem", whom he devastates.
- January 11 – The city of Požega is first mentioned, in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary.
- March – England makes a truce with France.
- March 19 – Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III, as the 178th pope.
- July 22 – Battle of Bornhöved, Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg and Holstein defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark
- November 24 – Prince Leszek I the White, High Duke of Poland, is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa.
- Dōgen receives Dharma transmission and inka from his master Rujing in China, settling his "life's quest of the great matter", going on to introduce Sōtō Zen Buddhism into his native Japan.
- Sukaphaa, the first Ahom king, establishes his rule in Assam. The Ahom kings reign for close to 600 years.
- April 25 – Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor as regent.
- June 28 – The Sixth Crusade is launched from Brindisi by Emperor Frederick II, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX.
- Baldwin II becomes emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne as regent.
- The Transylvanian town of Reghin is first mentioned, in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary.
- Spain: King James I of Aragon launches a major offensive against the Muslims in Majorca. The same year, in Murcia, confronted by increasing Christian pressure, the cadi (soon to be called emir), Ibn Hud al-Yamadi, denounces the Almohads and acknowledges the Abbasids as legitimate caliphs, in effect declaring independence. Other notable Christian success: Alfonso IX of León conquers Mérida.
- The city of Tournai emits its first recorded life annuity, thus confirming a trend of consolidation of public debts started ten years earlier, in Reims.
- The first evidence is uncovered of the use of the Knights Templar as cashiers by the king of England, to transfer safely important sums to the continent, using letters of exchange. This shows that large transfers could take place across Europe, even before the emergence of important networks of Italian merchant-bankers.
- February 18 – Sixth Crusade: Frederick II signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements, nor support from the papacy.
- March 6 (Shrove Tuesday) – The two-year University of Paris strike begins with a student riot.
- March 18 – Sixth Crusade: Frederick II crowns himself King of Jerusalem.
- April 12 – The Treaty of Paris brings the Albigensian Crusade to an end.
- April 23 – Alfonso IX of León conquers Cáceres.
- September 12 – The Catalan-Aragonese army, under the command of James I of Aragon, disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.
- September 13 – Ögedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols from kurultai council.
- November 28 or November 29 – Battle of Olustra: Erik Eriksson is defeated, and deposed as king of Sweden by Knut Långe, who proclaims himself the new king.
- The Catholic Church permanently establishes the Inquisition, in the charge of the Dominican Order in Rome.
- Beverston Castle, Gloucestershire, England, is founded.
- Following the deadlock tie in the election of the Venetian Doge, the number of electors is increased from 40 to 41 in order to prevent such future occurrences.
- The University of Toulouse is founded in France.
- The city of Turku, Finland is founded.
- The city of Rapperswil is established by Count Rudolf II of Rapperswil.
- Sutton, Ian (1999). Architecture, from Ancient Greece to the Present. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20316-3.
- Perkins, George W. "Mourning Attire". The Clear Mirror: A Chronicle of the Japanese Court During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333). Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0804763887.
- George Akropolites. The History. Trans. Ruth Macrides. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 160.
- Jeune, Sir Francis Henry (1867). The Mahometan Power in India: The Arnold Prize Essay for 1867. p. 20.
- Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks (2008). "North-west Frontier Province". Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 189. ISBN 1741045428.
- Richard Bodley Scott; Graham Briggs; Rudy Scott Nelson (2009). Blood and Gold: The Americas at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 1846036917. Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883). The native races. 1882-86. British Columbia: History Company.
- Lavī, Ḥabīb (1999). Comprehensive History of the Jews of Iran: The Outset of the Diaspora. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 9781568590868.
- Haqqi, Anwarul Haque (2010). Chingiz Khan: The Life and Legacy of an Empire Builder. New Delhi: Primus Books. pp. 161–162. ISBN 9788190891899.
- Lee, Jonathan L. (1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan and the Battle for Balkh, 1731-1901. Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts. Leiden, New York, Köln: BRILL. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9789004103993.
- Mendoza Luján, J. Erik; Alvarado Viñas, Adrián; Balderas Correa, Maria Eugenia; Correa, Alejanda Gonzales (2011). REFINERÍA-AZCAPOTZALCO. Un cementerio tecpaneca prehispánico (in Spanish). Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com. p. 38. ISBN 9789709557206.
- "Acolhuatzin". pueblosoriginarios.com. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- Steinberg, S. H. (1986) . Historical Tables: 58 BC–AD 1985 (11th ed.). London and Basingstoke: Springer. p. 57. ISBN 9781349085859.
- Malone, Carolyn Marino (2004). Façade as Spectacle: Ritual and Ideology at Wells Cathedral. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 201. ISBN 9789004138407.
- Wood, Anthony à (1792). The History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford: In Two Books. Volume The First. Oxford, UK: John Gutch. p. 193.
- Sundararajan, Narasimman; Eshagh, Mehdi; Saibi, Hakim; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Al-Garni, Mansour; Giroux, Bernard (2019). "Possible Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from 1222 Paphos Earthquake (by Ergin Ulutaş)". On Significant Applications of Geophysical Methods: Proceedings of the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018. Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation: IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. p. 219. ISBN 9783030016562.
- Papadopoulos, Gerassimos (2016). Tsunamis in the European-Mediterranean Region: From Historical Record to Risk Mitigation. Amsterdam, Oxford, Waltham, MA: Elsevier. p. 114. ISBN 9780127999272.
- Elgán, Elisabeth; Scobbie, Irene (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sweden. Lanham, MA and London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 307. ISBN 9781442250710.
- Peterson, Gary Dean (2016). Vikings and Goths: A History of Ancient and Medieval Sweden. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 240. ISBN 9781476624341.
- Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Lanham, MA, Boulder, CO, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. xxvii. ISBN 9780810875135.
- Abulafia, University Lecturer in History David (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume 5, C.1198-c.1300. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. p. 763. ISBN 9780521362894.
- Nagy, Balazs; Vadas, András; Schmieder, Felicitas (2019). The Medieval Networks in East Central Europe: Commerce, Contacts, Communication. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 9781351371162.
- Reich, Emil (2004) . Select Documents Illustrating Mediaeval and Modern History. Honolulu, HI: The Minerva Group, Inc. p. 637. ISBN 9781410215369.
- Skinner, Quentin; Gelderen, Martin van (2013). Freedom and the Construction of Europe. Volume I: Religious Freedom and Civil Liberty. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 9781107033061.
- Molnár, Miklós; Miklós, Molnár (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 9780521667364.
- Feyo, Barata (1945). Escultura de Alcobaca Por Barata Feyo (in Portuguese). p. 43.
- Chambers, George (2018) . The Story of Eclipses Simply Told for General Readers, With Especial Reference to the Total Eclipse of the Sun of May 28, 1900. London: George Newnes. p. 177.
- Taylor, Alice (2016). The Shape of the State in Medieval Scotland, 1124-1290. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780198749202.
- Rashdall, Hastings (2010) . The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages:. Volume 2, Part 1, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Scotland, Etc. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9781108018111.
- Coulson, Jonathan; Roberts, Paul; Taylor, Isabelle (2011). University Planning and Architecture: The Search for Perfection. New York and London: Routledge. p. 1222. ISBN 9781136933707.
- Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In Abulafia, David (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–699 . ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
- Robinson, Paschal (1909). "St. Francis of Assisi". The Catholic Encyclopedia. VI. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 135–137. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Dell'Umbria, Alèssi (2006). Histoire universelle de Marseille. De l'an mil à l'an deux mille. Marseille: Agone. p. 19. ISBN 2-7489-0061-8.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- Tristan et Iseult. Paris: Gallimard. 1995. ISBN 2-07-011335-3.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- "Attack to Finland in 1226". Laurentian Codex (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.
- Tanahashi, Kazuaki, ed. (1997). Moon In a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-186-X.
- Tanahashi, Kazuaki; Loori, Daido (eds.). The True Dharma Eye. Boston: Shambhala.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9-00417565-5.
- Ferris, Eleanor (1902). "The Financial Relations of the Knights Templars to the English Crown". American Historical Review. 8 (1).
- Catholic Encyclopedia.