List of Doges of Venice

The following is a list of all 120 of the Doges of Venice ordered by the dates of their reigns.

Doge of Venice
Coat of Arms of the Republic of Venice.svg
Coat of arms
Lodovico Manin.jpg
Ludovico Manin
StyleHis Serenity
ResidencePalazzo Ducale
AppointerSerenissima Signoria
Formation697
First holderPaolo L. Anafesto
Final holderLudovico Manin
Abolished12 May 1797

For more than 1,000 years, the chief magistrate and leader of the city of Venice and later of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy. The Venetian combination of elaborate monarchic pomp and a republican (though "aristocratic") constitution with intricate checks and balances makes "La serenissima" (Venice) a textbook example of a crowned republic.

Despite the great power given to them, the Venetian Doges were restricted by law (unlike the Doges of the Republic of Genoa) to spend the rest of their lives inside the Doge's Palace complex and St Mark's Basilica, occasionally leaving for diplomatic reasons.

Byzantine periodEdit

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reigned Note Sources
1   Paolo Lucio Anafesto 697–717 Paolo Lucio Anafesto is traditionally described as the first Doge of Venice, but John Julius Norwich suggests that this may be a mistake for Paul, Exarch of Ravenna, and that the traditional second doge Marcello Tegalliano may have been the similarly named magister militum to Paul. Their existence as doges is uncorroborated by any source before the 11th century, but as Norwich suggests, is probably not entirely legendary. Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is, thus, dated to 697 AD.
2   Marcello Tegalliano
(died 726)
717–726
3   Orso Ipato
(died 737)
726–737 Ipato is described as the first historical Doge of Venice.

Nominated by the popular assembly opposed to the iconoclast policies of the Byzantine Emperor; murdered by rebels during a civil conflict

Magister militum per VenetiaeEdit

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reigned Note Sources
1 Domenico Leoni 738 Leoni was the first Byzantine magister militum per Venetiae.
2 Felice Cornicola 739
3 Teodato Ipato 739
4 Jovian Ceparius 741
5 John Fabriacus 742

Ducal periodEdit

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reigned Note Sources
4   Teodato Ipato 742–755 The first doge since its restoration.

Deposed, blinded, and exiled.

5   Galla Gaulo 755–756 Deposed, blinded, and exiled.
6   Domenico Monegario
(died 764)
756–764 Deposed, blinded, and exiled.
7   Maurizio Galbaio
(died 787)
764–787
8   Giovanni Galbaio
(Unknown)
787–804 Fled to Mantua in 803 with family, where they all probably died
9   Obelerio degli Antenori
(Unknown)
804–811 Exiled, attempted to return to power, killed and head displayed in the market.
10   Agnello Participazio
(died 827)
811–827
11   Giustiniano Participazio
(died 829)
827–829
12   Giovanni I Participazio
(died 837)
829–836 Arrested and tonsured (head shaved like a monk).
13   Pietro Tradonico
(c. 800 – 13 September 864)
836–864 Assassinated, although in this case his successor arrested and executed the assassins
14   Orso I Participazio
(died 881)
864–881
15 Giovanni II Participazio
(died 887)
881–887
16   Pietro I Candiano
(died 912)
887–887 Resigned due to poor health
17   Pietro Tribuno
(died 912)
887–912 Killed in open battle while invading the Narentines.
18   Orso II Participazio
(died 932)
912–932
19   Pietro II Candiano
(c. 872–939)
932–939
20 Pietro Participazio
(died 942)
939–942
21 Pietro III Candiano
(died 959)
942–959
22 Pietro IV Candiano
(928–987)
959–976 People of Venice locked him in the palace with his son while it burnt.
23   Pietro I Orseolo
(928–987)
976–978 Resigned to become a Camaldolese hermit in the Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa in the Pyrenees.
24 Vitale Candiano
(died 979)
978–979 Abdicated, for health reasons
25   Tribuno Memmo
(died 991)
979–991
26   Pietro II Orseolo
(961−1009)
991–1009
27   Otto Orseolo
(c. 992−1032)
1008–1026 Arrested, beard shaved, and banished to Constantinople for nepotism.
28   Pietro Barbolano
(died 1032)
1026–1032 Abdicated under heavy pressure to reinstate Otto Orseolo.
29   Domenico Flabanico
(died 1043)
1032–1043
30   Domenico I Contarini
(died 1071)
1043–1071
31   Domenico Selvo
(died 1087)
1071–1084 Deposed peacefully to a monastery because of naval defeat, died three years later.
32   Vitale Faliero
(died 1095)
1084–1095
33   Vitale I Michiel
(died 1102)
1095–1102
34   Ordelafo Faliero
(died 1117)
1102–1117
35   Domenico Michiel
(died 1130)
1117–1130
36   Pietro Polani
(died 1148)
1130–1148

Republican periodEdit

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Reigned Note Sources
37   Domenico Morosini
(died February 1156)
1148–1156
38   Vitale II Michiel
(died 1172)
1156–1172 Murdered
39   Sebastiano Ziani
(Unknown)
1172–1178
40   Orio Mastropiero
(died 13 June 1192)
1178–1192
41   Enrico Dandolo
(1107 – May/June 1205)
21 June 1192 – June 1205
42   Pietro Ziani
(died 13 March 1230)
1205–1229
43   Jacopo Tiepolo
(died 19 July 1249)
1229–1249
44   Marino Morosini
(1181– January 1, 1253)
1249–1253
45   Reniero Zeno
(died 7 July 1268)
1 January 1253 – 7 July 1268
46   Lorenzo Tiepolo
(died 15 August 1275)
1268–1275
47   Jacopo Contarini
(1194–1280)
1275–1280
48   Giovanni Dandolo
(died 2 November 1289)
31 March 1280 – 2 November 1289
49   Pietro Gradenigo
(c. 1231 – 3 July 1312)
1289–1311
50   Marino Zorzi
(c. 1231 – 3 July 1312)
1311–1312 after his death, in his memory the children of the brothers took the surname Zazzera or Zazzara and also changed the family crest[1][2]
51   Giovanni Soranzo
(1240 – 31 December 1328)
1312–1328
52   Francesco Dandolo
(died 1339)
1329–1339
53   Bartolomeo Gradenigo
(1263 – 28 December 1342)
7 November 1339 – 28 December 1342
54   Andrea Dandolo
(1306 – 7 September 1354)
1343 – 7 September 1354
55   Marino Faliero
(1274 – 17 April 1355)
11 September 1354 – 15 April 1355 Convicted of treason, executed and condemned to damnatio memoriae.
56   Giovanni Gradenigo
(c. 1280 – 8 August 1356)
21 April 1355 – 1361
57   Giovanni Dolfin
(c. 1303 – 12 July 1361)
1355–1356
58   Lorenzo Celsi
(c. 1310 – 18 July 1365)
1361–1365
59   Marco Cornaro
(c. 1286 – 13 January 1368)
1365–1368
60   Andrea Contarini
(c. 1300/1302 – 5 June 1382)
1367–1382
61   Michele Morosini
(1308 – 16 October 1382)
10 June – 16 October 1382
62   Antonio Venier
(c. 1330 – 23 November 1400)
1382–1400
63   Michele Steno
(1331 – 26 December 1413)
1400–1413
64   Tommaso Mocenigo
(1343–1423)
1414–1423
65   Francesco Foscari
(19 June 1373 – 1 November 1457)
15 April 1423 – 22 October 1457 His reign was the longest of all Doges in Venetian history.

Was forced to abdicate by the Council of Ten.

66   Pasquale Malipiero
(1392 – 5 May 1462)
1457–1462
67   Cristoforo Moro
(1390 – 10 November 1471)
1462–1471
68   Nicolò Tron
(c. 1399–1473)
1471–1473
69   Nicolò Marcello
(c. 1399 – 1 December 1474)
13 August 1473 – 1 December 1474
70   Pietro Mocenigo
(1406–1476)
14 December 1474 – 23 February 1476
71   Andrea Vendramin
(1393 – 5 May 1478)
1476–1478
72   Giovanni Mocenigo
(1409 – 4 November 1485)
1478–1485
73   Marco Barbarigo
(c. 1413 – 14 August 1486)
1485–1486
74   Agostino Barbarigo
(3 June 1419 – 20 September 1501)
1486–1501
75   Leonardo Loredan
(16 November 1436 – 22 June 1521)
13 October 1501 – 22 June 1521
76   Antonio Grimani
(28 December 1434 – 7 May 1523)
1521–1523
77   Andrea Gritti
(17 April 1455 – 28 December 1538)
20 May 1523 – 28 December 1538
78   Pietro Lando
(Unknown)
1538–1545
79   Francesco Donato
(Unknown)
1545–1553
80   Marcantonio Trivisan
(1475–1554)
1553–1554
81   Francesco Venier
(Unknown)
1554–1556
82   Lorenzo Priuli
(1489 – 17 August 1559)
1556–1559
83   Girolamo Priuli
(1486 – 4 November 1567)
1559–1567
84   Pietro Loredan
(1481 – 3 May 1570)
29 November 1567 – 3 May 1570
85   Alvise I Mocenigo
(26 October 1507 – 4 June 1577)
1570–1577
86   Sebastiano Venier
(c. 1496 – 3 March 1578)
1577–1578
87   Nicolò da Ponte
(15 January 1491 – 30 July 1585)
1578–1585
88   Pasquale Cicogna
(died 1595)
1585–1595
89   Marino Grimani
(1 July 1532 – 25 December 1605)
26 April 1595 – 25 December 1605
90   Leonardo Donato
(12 February 1536 – 16 July 1612)
10 January 1606 – 16 July 1612
91   Marcantonio Memmo
(11 November 1536 – 31 October 1615)
24 July 1612 – 31 October 1615
92   Giovanni Bembo
(21 August 1543 – 16 March 1618)
5 April 1618 – 8 May 1618
93   Nicolò Donato
(28 January 1539 – 8 May 1618)
2 December 1615 – 8 May 1618
94   Antonio Priuli
(10 May 1548 – 12 August 1623)
17 May 1618 – 12 August 1623
95   Francesco Contarini
(28 November 1556 – 6 December 1624)
8 September 1623 – 6 December 1624
96   Giovanni I Cornaro
(11 November 1551 – 23 December 1629)
24 January 1625 – 23 December 1629
97   Nicolò Contarini
(26 September 1553 – 2 April 1631)
18 January 1630 – 2 April 1631
98   Francesco Erizzo
(18 February 1566 – Venice, 3 January 1646)
10 April 1631 – 3 January 1646
99   Francesco Molin
(21 April 1575 – 27 February 1655)
20 January 1646 – 27 February 1655
100   Carlo Contarini
(5 July 1580 – 1 May 1656)
27 March 1655 – 1 May 1656
101   Francesco Cornaro
(6 March 1585 – 5 June 1656)
17 May 1656 – 5 June 1656
102   Bertuccio Valier
(1 July 1596 – 29 March 1658)
1656–1658
103   Giovanni Pesaro
(1 September 1589 – 30 September 1659)
1658–1659
104   Domenico II Contarini
(28 January 1585 – 26 January 1675)
1659–1675
105   Nicolò Sagredo
(8 December 1606 – 14 August 1676)
1675–1676
106   Alvise Contarini
(24 October 1601 – 15 January 1684)
26 August 1676 – 15 January 1684
107   Marcantonio Giustinian
(2 March 1619 – 23 March 1688)
1684–1688
108   Francesco Morosini
(26 February 1619 – 16 January 1694)
1688–1694
109   Silvestro Valier
(28 March 1630 – 7 July 1700)
1694–1700
110   Alvise II Mocenigo
(3 January 1628 – 6 May 1709)
1700–1709
111   Giovanni II Cornaro
(4 August 1647 – 12 August 1722)
1709–1722
112   Sebastiano Mocenigo
(1662–1732)
24 August 1722 – 21 May 1732
113   Carlo Ruzzini
(11 November 1653 – 5 January 1735)
6 June 1732 – 5 January 1735
114   Alvise Pisani
(1 January 1664 – 17 June 1741)
17 January 1735 – 17 June 1741
115   Pietro Grimani
(5 October 1677 – 7 March 1752)
30 June 1741 – 7 March 1752
116   Francesco Loredan
(9 February 1685 – 19 May 1762)
18 March 1752 – 19 May 1762
117   Marco Foscarini
(4 February 1696 – 31 March 1763)
1762–1763
118   Alvise Giovanni Mocenigo
(1701 – 31 December 1778)
1763 – 31 December 1778
119   Paolo Renier
(21 November 1710 – 13 February 1789)
1779–1789
120   Ludovico Manin
(14 May 1725 – 24 October 1802)
10 March 1789 – 12 May 1797 Forced to abdicate by Napoleon.

LegacyEdit

After the Fall of the Republic of Venice, the position of Doge was abolished. Instead, from 1806 to 1866, a Podestà of Venice was appointed by the rulers of the city: Napoleon and the Habsburgs.

In 1860, the nascent Kingdom of Italy created the office of the Mayor of Venice (Sindaco di Venezia), chosen by the City council.

From 1946 to 1993, the Mayor of Venice was chosen by the City Council. Since 1993, under provisions of new local administration law, the Mayor of Venice has been chosen by popular election, originally every four and, later, every five years.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Francesco Zazzera, Della nobilta dell'Italia parte prima. Del signor D. Francesco Zazzera napoletano. Alla sereniss. e catol. maesta' del re Filippo 3. nostro signore, 1615, p. 16. English translated from original (italian of XVII century): «MARINO a very eloquent man, he was so versed in politics and the reasons of state that his opinion prevailing, in all the Consults and Councils, he rose in such a way that he had to sit in the Dogal Seat, after the death of Pietro Gradenigo, in which place ruled Doge 49th being created according to the truest opinion the year 1311. because others want it to be in 1303. where knowing himself (however given to the later spiritual, and contemplative life) not able, according to his desire to wait; on the contrary, unfortunately they seemed to him too strange and different from each other, detesting his first studies, and regretting having spent so many years madly; Moved by divine inspiration, the tenth month and tenth day of his rule, renouncing that dignity, he retired to his villa, where I refrain from the practices, conversations and of the century; some want him to die in the Religion of the Benedictines, and others in his ancient solitude, where from the beginning leading his life he chose to withdraw completely from the world: and so it was in truth, because advancing continuously in the wilderness, if I did, he almost lost his life A hermitic until 1320 who gave back the spirit to her Creator, she acquired Standofi a soura name of Saint; and offering the opportunity to more affectionate relatives, to originate a new surname. when he had grown up, seeing Zazzera wearing a hat up to his shoulders, as was mentioned by all of Zazzera, so Pietro, his brother, was the reason to take it away for his undertaking on the journey to the Embassy, where he was destined; and to his successors he later formed a new surname: which having done this briefly, the aforementioned Andrea Dandolo in the Chronicle of him mentions with the aforementioned words, adding advantageously, as at his own expense, he built the noble Temple of San Domenico; also endowing him with an income suitable for many fathers: all that was content to have his bones buried in the Church of S. Giovanni and Paolo, where his almost continuous residence was. » «MARINO huomo eloquentissimo, fu di maniera versato ne la Politica, e ne le ragioni di Stato che prevalendo la sua opinione, in tutte le Consulte, e Consegli, in maniera si sollevò, che gli ne toccò à seder nel Segio Dogale, dopo la morte di Pietro Gradenigo, nel qual luogo governò Doge 49° essendo creato secondo la più vera epinione l'an.1311.perche altri vogliono che fusse nel 1303.oue conoscendosi (dato però à la vita dopo spirituale, e contemplativa) non potere, conforme al suo desiderio attendere; anzi pur troppo strana parendogli, e diversa l'una da l'altra operazione, detestando i suoi primi studi, e pentito di haver cosi follemente Spesi tanti anni; mosso da divina ispirazione, il decimo mese, e decimo giorno del suo dominio, à quella dignità renunziando, si ritirò in una sua Villa, ove remoro da le pratiiche, conversazioni e del secolo; alcuni vogliono che morisse ne la Religion di Benedettini, ed altri ne l'antica sua solitudine, ove fin dal principio menar vita si elesse in tutto ritirata dal mondo: e così fu invero, perche avanzandosi continuamente ne la inselvatichir se medefimo, menò quasi vita Eremitica fino al 1320 che rendè lo spirito al suo Creatore, acqui Standofi un soura nome di Santo; e porgendo occasione à parenti più affezzionati, di originarsi nuovo coagnome. posciache cresciuta vedendosegli fina a le spalle una Zazzera, à capelliera, com'era da tutti de la Zazzera menzionato, così à Pietro suo fratello fu cagione di toglierla per sua Impresa nel viaggio de l'Ambasceria, ove fu destinato; ed à soccessori suoi dopò di formarlo nuovo cognome: che fatto ciò brevemente il sudetto Andrea Dandolo ne la sua Cronica accenna con le parole sudette, soggiungendo di vantaggio, come a proprie sue spese, edificasse il nobilissimo Tempio di San Domenico; dotandolo eziandio di rendita conveniente per molti padri: tutto che si contentasse far sepellir le sue ossa, ne la Chiesa di S. Giovanni, e Paolo, ov'era la sua quasi continua abitazione.»
  2. ^ Francesco Zazzera, "Della nobilta dell'Italia parte prima", publisher Gio. Battista Gargano, & Lucretio Nucci, year: 1615

BibliographyEdit

  • Norwich, John Julius. A History of Venice. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. ISBN 0-679-72197-5.